Peperomia (Peperomia) Is a genus of perennial evergreen herbaceous plants of the Pepper family (Piperaceae) with decorative leaves and shoots thickened at the nodes. Plant height varies from 15 to 50 cm. About 1000 species of peperomia are known, most of which originate from tropical regions of Asia and America. Various peperomias have a rich outfit and invariably stand out from other plants for their original leaves – leathery and shiny, smooth or wrinkled, green or multi-colored. There are peperomias with erect, hanging or creeping shoots. In the culture of peperomia, they are used as decorative foliage plants and are grown in a room or in the open field. This article will tell you about the features of caring for peperomias.
Peperomia blunt-leaved ‘Greengold’. Farmer Burea-Uinsurance.com James Steakley
What do peperomias look like?
Peperomias are extremely varied in shape, size and leaf color. There are species with rounded, oblong, lanceolate, heart-shaped leaves – from miniature and delicate to large and fleshy. The color of the leaves can be light or dark green, brown, olive, golden, silvery striped, with white or yellow spots, stains. Peperomia leaves are most often whole-edged. Their surface can be smooth or pubescent, as well as rough, wrinkled.
Small white peperomia flowers are collected in dense spike-shaped or cob-shaped inflorescences on long peduncles. A well-developed bush usually has 10-15 inflorescences. Under indoor conditions, seeds do not ripen in peperomia.
Features of growing peperomia
Location: All types of peperomia do not tolerate a drop in temperature, so in winter they are kept at 18-20 degrees. They prefer good lighting, but they can grow in partial shade, even under artificial lighting. Only direct sunlight cannot be tolerated.
Watering: Cautious. Between waterings, the soil is allowed to dry out, but at the same time it is not allowed that the leaves of the peperomia begin to fade. In winter, very little is watered; lukewarm water is used when watering.
Air humidity: Peperomias prefer moderate humidity. In the summer, the leaves are sprayed from time to time. Do not spray in winter.
Reproduction: Propagate peperomia by cuttings. Bushy forms are leafy, and erect and ampelous forms are stem.
Transfer: If possible – rare, as necessary, once every few years, transplanted into a larger pot in the spring.
Wrinkled peperomia. Farmer Burea-Uinsurance.com Jerzy Opiola
Home care for peperomia
Peperomia is a rather unpretentious plant, it can be successfully grown in a room with proper care, but it does not tolerate drafts well. For peperomias, a warm place with bright diffused lighting or partial shade is chosen. Green-leaved peperomias are less light-requiring, and variegated ones are more demanding of light (with a lack of it, they turn green), but do not tolerate direct sunlight. Peperomias grow well under artificial light. With a lack of light, the leaves of peperomia lose their decorative effect: they become dull, turn pale.
Water the peperomia regularly and in moderation with soft lukewarm water. Between watering, you need to let the soil dry out (but prevent the leaves from withering). In winter, peperomia is watered less, kept at a moderate temperature (18-20 degrees, warm soil is important).
Peperomia species with fleshy leaves tolerate dry air; peperomias with tender leaves need moist air and frequent spraying. In a warm room, peperomia leaves are periodically sprayed from April to September; when kept cool and in winter, spraying is undesirable. From excessive watering, from too humid air, due to “cold feet”, the leaves of the peperomia brighten, lose their shine, and become deformed. Weeping spots may appear on them – as a result, they fall off. Also, from stagnant moisture in the soil, leaves, petioles and stems rot (rot spots can be covered with a gray or pinkish-white bloom – the mycelium of the fungus), root rot develops.
Peperomia creeping. Farmer Burea-Uinsurance.com doras
For growing peperomias, shallow pots are chosen, since their roots are rather short, thin and delicate. At the bottom of the pot, there must be one, or better, several drainage holes. When planting, arrange a high (6 cm) drainage. In spring or summer, young peperomias are passed annually, plants older than three years – in two years. Transplanting old plants is carried out as needed. The substrate should be nutritious and loose: leafy earth, humus, peat and sand (2: 1: 1: 0,5). Or: leafy, humus, sod land, peat and sand in equal proportions. Planting peperomia in heavy soil will result in root rot.
The tops of the long shoots of peperomia are pinched in the spring (to cause their branching), the “bald” plant is pruned. From April to September, peperomias are fed with full mineral fertilizer every three weeks.
Peperomia clusiform ‘Red Margin’. Farmer Burea-Uinsurance.com Stefano
Popular types of peperomias
Peperomia wrinkled (Peperomia caperata)
An exquisite miniature plant with small, dark green, corrugated leaves on long fragile petioles. Leaves are densely collected on short stems. Graceful spike-shaped inflorescences, snow-white, like a cloud, rise above the dark mass of leaves. A very attractive plant for indoor floriculture. Soil: nutritious loose mixture of leafy, humus earth and sand (1: 1: 0,5).
A large plant with ascending, thick fleshy stems rooting at the lower nodes. The leaves are alternate, with short petioles (no more than 1 cm), large (up to 15 cm long, 6-8 cm wide), obovate with a blunt or notched apex and more or less wedge-shaped, sometimes slightly auricular base; very thick, fleshy, dark green with a reddish tint and a dark purple narrow border around the edge, matte. Homeland – Antilles, Venezuela. In indoor culture, the garden form Variegata is also well known – with leaves along the midrib, dark green with light green blotches, further to the periphery – milky white or yellowish with a reddish tint and a bright purple border along the edge. There are variegated forms of yellowish or reddish shades.
Plants with profusely branching, erect or ascending fleshy reddish stems rooting at the lower nodes. The leaves are alternate, with short (2 cm) slightly winged petioles up to 15 cm long., 3-8 cm wide., Rounded to obovate-elliptical almost spatulate, with a rounded, often notched top and a wedge-shaped or suddenly narrowed base. Thick, leathery, green, shiny. Homeland – Antilles, Panama, north of South America (Venezuela, Colombia, Guiana). In addition to the typical shape, the Variegata garden form with irregular white and yellow spots on the leaves is very popular. A species close to Peperomia obtusifolia (Peperomia dull-leaved).
Peperomia magnolia-leaved. Farmer Burea-Uinsurance.com Michael Wolf
A plant with long ascending, late lodging and rooting obtuse ribbed stems. Leaves 3-5 in whorls, 3-5 cm long., 2-3 cm wide., Elliptical or rounded-rhomboid, with a blunt tip, three arcuate veins, very tough, leathery, dark green. Homeland – the center and north of South America, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Colombia, Brazil, Peru.
Peperomia silvery (Peperomia argyreia)
A compact plant with a shortened stem, bearing alternate crowded, rosette-like leaves. Leaves with long (more than 10 cm) dark purple petioles, 6-9 cm long., 5-8 cm wide., Ovate, with a short-pointed apex and a thyroid base, with 9-11 arcuate veins, on top of the veins – dark green , between veins – light, silvery, below – light green. Homeland – the north of South America, Venezuela, Brazil. Soil: leaf and compost soil, sand (2: 2: 1).
Peperomia gray-silver (Peperomia griseoargentea)
The species is similar in growth form to the previous one. Leaves 8-9 cm long., 3-6 cm wide., With long petioles exceeding the length of the plate, rounded-ovate, blunt-pointed at the apex, cordate or thyroid at the base with 7-9 arcuate veins, silvery-green, shiny, with slightly wavy surface and edge. Homeland – Brazil. In indoor culture, the garden form Nigra with black-green leaves along the veins is also well known.
A species very similar to Peperomia magnolia-leaved, from which it differs in the details of the structure of the ear and the fruit. In a vegetative state, it is hardly recognizable by a more extended form of growth, slightly less foliage and a duller top of the leaves. Homeland – Antilles, Mexico, center and north of South America (Venezuela, Colombia, Suriname). Several garden forms are known: Alba – with milky-white or creamy leaves; Albo-variegata – with leaves, gray-green in the center, silvery along the edge, etc. The plant is rather undemanding to care, but light-requiring. The soil must be fertile: a mixture of leaf, turf, peat and sand (1: 1: 1: 1).
Peperomia is gray-silvery. Farmer Burea-Uinsurance.com James Steakley
The main difficulties in growing peperomia
Peperomia leaves with brown tips and edges. The reason is an unexpected drop in temperature. Remove any damaged leaves, protect the plant from drafts, and avoid cold windowsills.
Unexpected leaf fall in succulent varieties. The reason is the delay in watering. Peperomias are watered when the soil dries a little, but before the leaves begin to wilt.
Peperomia leaves are lethargic and faded. Rot spots on the stem or leaves. Corky growths on the leaves below. The reason is waterlogging of the soil, especially in winter.
Unexpected fall of peperomia leaves in winter. The reason is that the air temperature is too low.
Peperomia pereskielistnaya. Farmer Burea-Uinsurance.com KENPEI
Useful properties of peperomia in the house
In all bushy peperomias: in ivy, silvery and wrinkled, the leaves are variegated. Contradictions coexist perfectly in them. The very shape of the peperomia bush, which can be called a “friendly family”, and variegated leaves speak of the friendly nature of the plant, its ability to reconcile contradictions.
It is good to have any of the bushy peperomias in a house where people live in whose character a rebellious spirit is clearly manifested, those who, even against their will, out of habit, will do something contrary to the wishes of others.
Peperomias keep the atmosphere at home calm. Where there are peperomias, benevolence and tranquility reign in the atmosphere. With peperomias, the very atmosphere of the house inclines a person to a sincere manifestation of care for others.
Peperomia silvery. Farmer Burea-Uinsurance.com Eric Hunt
It is believed that this houseplant has a strong effect on human physical health. It is directed, like most plants of the Cancer sign, primarily to the organs and systems that this zodiac sign controls: the digestive tract, mammary glands, gallbladder. They say that neat little peperomias on the windowsill promote healing of sutures and wounds of these organs.
We will not undertake to assert how true this is, but the fact that peperomia is unpretentious and very beautiful is a fact.