Figs – wine berry – care

How many names this wonderful plant has! This is a fig tree, and a fig tree, and just a fig. Figs are called figs, figs, and wine berries, respectively. And yet, the most common name for the tree itself and its wonderful fruits is fig. Did you know that figs are successfully grown indoors? Moreover, he bears fruit twice a year! We have described the features of growing indoor figs in this article.

Indoor fig (Ficus carica). Farmer Burea-Uinsurance.com GardenTags

Contents:

The history of fig cultivation

Fig, Latin – Ficus carica, folk – fig, fig, fig tree, wine berry. Subtropical deciduous ficus. Carian ficus is named after the place that is considered the birthplace of figs – the mountainous region of ancient Caria, the province of Asia Minor. In Central Asia, the Caucasus and the Crimea, it is grown in the open field as a valuable fruit plant that bears fruit – wine berries. It is widely distributed in the Mediterranean countries, on the Absheron Peninsula in Azerbaijan.

Fig is one of the most ancient cultivated plants. According to the Bible, Adam and Eve, who ate the forbidden fruit, revealed their nakedness and made loincloths out of its wide leaves.

In culture, figs were first grown in Arabia, from where they were borrowed by Phenicia, Syria and Egypt. In the 9th century BC. e. was brought to Hellas – Greece, and came to America only at the end of the XNUMXth century. The name “ficus” came to the Russian language in the XNUMXth century and was already somewhat changed – “fig”, hence – “fig tree”. This plant also had other names in Russia – fig tree, fig, wine berry.

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Features of growing figs in indoor conditions

Transplanting figs

Figs are thermophilic, undemanding to soil and adapt well to dry room air. Young plants are transplanted annually, and 4-5-year-olds – as the root system grows. For mature trees, wooden boxes are usually made.

Compared to citrus fruits, figs require more capacity, but before fruiting, they should not be planted in large pots: they will grow strongly and fruiting times will be delayed, and caring for large plants will be much more difficult. And when the plant begins to bear fruit, its growth will slow down.

With each transplant of young plants, the capacity is increased by about 1 liter. So, for a 5-year-old fig bush, a 5-7 liter container is required. In the future, with each transplant, its volume is increased by 2-2,5 liters.

Figs are transplanted by transshipment, although slight destruction of the clod of earth is allowed, removal of old soil and replacement of it with new one. When transplanting, a soil mixture is prepared from sod land, leaf humus, peat and sand in a ratio of 2: 2: 1: 1; The pH of this mixture is 5-7.

Fig, or Fig tree in vivoFig, or Fig tree in vivo. Farmer Burea-Uinsurance.com Inspired Room

Fig requirements for growing conditions

Fig is a light and moisture-loving plant, therefore, during the growing season, it is better to keep it in a bright room and water it abundantly. With a lack of moisture, leaf curling is observed, and then their partial fall; when a lump of earth is dried out, the leaves can crumble completely, and although with abundant watering they subsequently grow back, it is undesirable to allow this.

Indoors, figs bear fruit 2 times a year: the first time the fruits are set in March and ripen in June, the second – in early August and late October, respectively. For the summer, it is advisable to take the plant to a loggia or garden.

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Winter figs

In early November, the fig sheds its leaves and goes into a dormant state. At this time, it is placed in a cool place (in a cellar, basement) or placed on a windowsill closer to the glass and fenced off from the warm room air with plastic wrap.

It is watered very rarely, not allowing the soil to dry out completely. The water temperature for irrigation should not be higher than +16 .. + 18 ยฐ C, so that the buds do not grow. If the fig stands with green leaves in the fall, then a dormant period should be artificially induced: a deciduous culture needs rest, at least a little. To induce a dormant period, reduce watering and allow the soil to dry slightly – then the leaves will begin to turn yellow and crumble.

If in winter the plant was in the room, it starts growing in December and early January, if in the basement or cellar – in February.

Fig crown formation

If necessary (if the fig grows only upward, without giving lateral shoots), the crown of the plant is formed by pinching the top of the central trunk. Lateral shoots are also pinched in the future, and long ones are shortened. Thus, conditions are created for the growth of side shoots.

Top dressing of indoor figs

For good development and fruiting, figs are fed with organic and mineral fertilizers, but not during the dormant period.

When the buds begin to bloom after the winter rest, the plant is watered with manure infusion, and after 10-15 days, it is fed with liquid nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizer. You can use the following solution for watering figs: Dissolve 3 g of double superphosphate in 1 liter of water and boil for 20 minutes, then add boiled water to the original volume and add 4 g of urea.

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During the growing season, figs are regularly (2 times a month) fed with organic fertilizers (infusion of slurry, wood ash, infusion of herbs). So that the leaves have a bright green color, 2 times a year (in spring and summer) the plant is watered with a solution of ferrous sulfate (2 g per 1 liter of water) or spray the entire crown with it. In spring and summer, it is fed with microelements.

Pests and diseases of figs

The main pests are fig moths, fig flies, mealybugs. The most common diseases are brown spot and gray rot.

Fig, Fig, or Fig tree, or Common fig treeFig, Fig, or Fig tree, or Common fig tree. Farmer Burea-Uinsurance.com 9roots

Reproduction of figs

Figs can be propagated by seeds and cuttings. Figs are propagated by sememes most often when a new variety is developed. With this method of reproduction, firstly, a significant investment of time and a lot of patience are required from an amateur, since seedlings do not form inflorescences until the age of 4-6; secondly, it is difficult to judge its quality without having tasted a ripe fruit. But on the other hand, only with the seed method of growing figs can we achieve the selection of the most suitable for room culture and abundantly fruiting varieties.

Propagation of figs by seeds

It is advisable to take fig seeds from table, early-ripening, two-yielding varieties, in which the fruit is parthenocarpic.

The seeds of figs are very small (only 0,3-0,5 mm in diameter), light yellow, sometimes light brown, round, somewhat irregular in shape.

Fig seeds are sown in late February-early March in boxes with soil to a depth of 0,5-0,8 cm with a distance between grooves of 5-8 cm.It is better to sow the seeds every 1,5-2 cm from each other, which in the future will facilitate the picking of seedlings. After sowing, the grooves are covered with earth and the earth is slightly compacted with a wooden ruler or other object.

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After sowing, the soil is watered abundantly with water from a garden watering can or a spray bottle, and the boxes are placed in a warm and bright place.

After sowing fig seeds and the first watering, it is better to sprinkle the soil in boxes with coal dust (fine charcoal) with a layer of 3-5 mm to prevent the formation of mold.

Fig seedlings appear 15-20 days after sowing at ground temperatures ranging from +18 to + 20 ยฐ C. In some cases, with hypothermia of the soil, seedlings may appear after a longer period of time.

After the seeds of the figs have sprouted and shoots have appeared on the surface of the soil, young plants must be shaded in order to avoid scalding by direct sunlight. If the seeds in a row are sown completely, then the seedlings must be thinned out immediately, leaving no more than one or two seedlings per linear centimeter of the groove.

After the third leaf appears in the fig seedlings (not counting the cotyledons), the plants must be cut down. Typically, seedlings dive 1-1,5 months after sowing, either in pre-prepared flower pots (10-12 cm in diameter at the top), or in larger boxes. Before diving, seedlings are watered abundantly with water. Take out the fig seedlings, in order to avoid damage to the young roots, carefully, using wooden spatulas. The main root is shortened by 1 / 4-1 / 3, and the seedlings are planted in a prepared dish.

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Fig cuttingsFig cuttings. Farmer Burea-Uinsurance.com flatbushnelson

Propagation of figs by cuttings

The method of propagation of figs by cuttings is the most affordable, fast and reliable. By cuttings, varieties are propagated that are most adapted to room conditions, already tested by amateurs, giving the highest yields of tasty and large fruits.

The mother plant from which the cuttings are cut must bear fruit for at least 5 years, be well developed, give large fruit crops of good quality and taste, bear abundant fruit and, finally, have a relatively small (dwarf) growth.

Material for cuttings is taken as the leaves begin to bloom, but fig cuttings can be rooted both by the end of spring and summer. Lignified or green cuttings 10-15 cm long should have 3-4 buds.

An oblique lower cut is made 1-1,5 cm below the kidney, an even upper cut is 1 cm higher. For better rooting of the cutting, several longitudinal scratches are applied to the lower part. After cutting, the cuttings of figs are kept for 5-6 hours in a cool dry place so that the milky juice released at the cut site dries up, and then placed for 10-12 hours in a heteroauxin solution (1 tablet per 1 liter of water) and planted in pots.

At the bottom of the pot, small expanded clay is poured with a layer of 1 cm, then – pre-steamed nutritious earth mixture (leaf humus – 2 parts, turf – 1 part, sand – 1 part) with a layer of 6 cm.On top of the earth mixture, clean calcined river sand is poured with a layer 3-4 cm, moisten it well and make holes in it 3 cm deep at a distance of 8 cm from each other.

The bottom of each fig cut is dipped in wood ash. Cuttings are placed in the pits. Around the cuttings, the sand is pressed tightly with your fingers, and then the sand and the cuttings are sprayed with water. The plants planted in pots are covered with a glass jar, and in boxes – with a special wire frame covered with transparent plastic wrap.

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Sand in crates and pots should be moderately moist at all times. The temperature in the room is maintained at the level of + 22 … + 25 ยฐ ะก. As a rule, after 4-5 weeks, the cuttings take root, and after another month they are planted from the box in separate pots with a diameter of 10-12 cm.

Figs planted by cuttings usually begin to bear fruit in 2 years. Sometimes shoots grow from the root – they can be separated and planted in separate pots, on which a transparent plastic bag is put on. Usually, after 3-4 weeks, the process takes root. Then the film is opened for a while, accustoming the plant to the outside air. Gradually, this period of time is increased.

Fig cuttings can also be rooted in water, but this method is rarely used when there is no prepared soil or sand in February-March. The cuttings are placed in a jar of water, and their ends should be immersed in water by about 3 cm. The water is changed every 2-3 days. If you do this less often, the cuttings will rot. After 3-4 weeks, when good roots appear, the cuttings are planted in pots with a capacity of 0,5-0,7 liters and covered with plastic bags on top.

If it is not possible to purchase cuttings from a fruiting fig, then they can be grown from seeds. Fig seeds retain their germination for a very long time (even after 2 years). Seeds are sown in pots at a distance of 1,5-2 cm from each other to a depth of 2-3 cm. The soil mixture is made up of humus and sand in equal parts.

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After sowing fig seeds, the ground is well moistened and the pots are covered with glass or transparent plastic wrap. The earth must be constantly kept moist. The air temperature in the room should be + 25 … + 27 ยฐ ะก. Seedlings appear in 2-3 weeks. Monthly seedlings are planted in separate pots with a diameter of 9-10 cm.

Seedlings begin to bear fruit in the 4th-5th year, although there are cases of earlier fruiting. It is better to replant figs before the beginning of the growing season.

Fig fruit cutawayFig fruit cutaway

Useful properties of figs

Dried and sun-dried fruits become, as it were, a concentrate, and not only carbohydrates. Some varieties of dried figs contain 6 g of proteins, 1,5 g of fat (represented by unsaturated fatty acids) and 70 g of sugars. Energy value is 340 kcal per 100 g of product. Dried and dried figs are, first of all, a highly nutritious food product.

Figs are especially useful for diseases of the cardiovascular system. The fruits contain the enzyme ficin, which has a beneficial effect in the treatment of vascular thrombosis. The fruits of dried figs have long been used as a diaphoretic and antipyretic agent for colds. Figs are used as a mild laxative (syrup). A decoction of fruits in milk in folk medicine is used for dry cough, whooping cough, edema of the vocal cords.

You will remember the extraordinary taste of the fruits of this plant for a long time. And if you manage to grow it at home, which is not too difficult, you will enjoy the aroma and taste of figs for a long time. Looking forward to your advice and comments!

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Anna Evans

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