Poultry farming is an industry that is developing in the modern world. Thanks to the tireless work of poultry farmers today, there are about 700 different breeds of chickens. An interesting fact is that all of these breeds had the same wild ancestor – the banker’s rooster, which was domesticated many years ago. Different breeds of chickens differ primarily in productivity. They also have a different appearance and color of plumage. Consider what groups all breeds of chickens are divided into.We’ll also talk about which breeds of chickens are considered the best.
- Classification of breeds
- Meat hens
- Egg hens
- Meat and egg chickens
- Fighting hens
- Decorative hens
- Rare breeds
- Common breeds
- Yerevan hens
- Kyrgyz gray chickens
- Adler silver
- Kulangs <
- White Leghorn
- Bird Selection
- Conclusion <
Classification of breeds
The classification is based on the orientation of certain breeds. Today, 5 groups of birds are distinguished. These are:
- meat and egg;
- decorative .
Despite the fact that analyzing the names of groups you can guess the characteristics of each of them, consider a brief description.
Those chickens that gain a lot of weight fall into this category.Such birds are kept exclusively for meat. Scientists are working today on the development of new breeds of meat orientation. Moreover, they work not only to improve quantitative indicators, but also to improve the taste of chicken. Specialists are also working on breeding precocious breeds of meat orientation.
If we talk about the appearance of representatives of breeds of meat orientation, they have a fairly large size. As a rule, they have somewhat loose plumage. The massive body is held by short and fairly thick legs. Almost all breeds of meat-oriented hens have a calm disposition.
The most common meat breeds are: Cucus de Malin, Arbor Aykres, Jersey giant (jersey) , Crimean giant, Arbor Aykres.
Egg breeds have high egg production. They have average meat productivity. In addition, water farmers do not work to improve the taste of meat of feathered egg birds. The only goal is to get an egg-laying chicken. It cannot be said that some representatives of this category are gaining quite a lot of weight. But it takes longer to feed them than representatives of the meat category.
If we talk about the description of the appearance of egg birds, then they have a light skeleton, dense plumage, and there are earrings. The head is decorated with a comb, the legs are of medium length and set close enough to each other.For household birds of egg orientation are considered the most suitable. It is worth noting that the feathered egg orientation is restless. When arranging an enclosure for walking, you need to take care of the presence of a high fence.
The most popular breeds of egg-oriented chickens are: radonite, megrula, super nicka, heinz, aurora, heinline, shell white, high-line, green foot, shaver, Italian partridge.
Meat and egg chickens
In this group are birds that are called universal. These are profitable breeds for home maintenance, as they have high meat and egg productivity. But, these figures will never be as high as in dairy and meat varieties. Their advantage is ease of care and maintenance. Meat and egg birds are more whimsical.
As for appearance, it is worth noting that when these breeds are introduced, representatives of meat and egg orientation are crossed. Accordingly, they have an average physique, short legs, and a rather thick plumage. There is a comb and earrings. The character of meat and egg chickens is calm.
The following breeds are most common today: gris bar, redpak, naked nek, amerukans (Easter chickens living near the Shandalar river), niderheiner, harko, belfelder, sundheimer, gray berry, Ukrainian Ushanka (distributed in Russia), from Hubbard f 15.Also noteworthy is the Dresden breed.
Fighting breeds of chickens also occur. They are brought in to participate in sports. But, only cocks take part in the battles, which are better suited for these purposes. On the Internet you can watch a video of cockfights.
As for the appearance of the fighting breeds of chickens, it can be noted that they have well-developed muscles, especially in the chest area. It is also worth noting that feathered fighting breeds have high legs and a small head. When selecting birds for fights, the thickness of the bones is taken into account, especially in the area of the head, since most of the blows fall on the head. You can judge the strength of the frontal bones by well-defined superciliary arches. Even fighting cocks have a powerful beak. Earrings are practically absent. The body is dense, legs are set wide apart.
The most common fighting breeds are Sumatra, Belgian fighting, ha dong tao (Vietnamese fighting), kulang, azil. Belgian fighter is very popular all over the world.
Decorative chickens are beautiful, but not the most productive birds. Start them with the aim of obtaining aesthetic pleasure from contemplation of the birds. The first began to breed decorative chickens in Asia.Later, these trends came to European countries, Russia and Ukraine.
A spectacular plumage, as a rule, attracts one’s eye. This applies to both the structure and length, and the color of the pen. Beautiful birds usually do not differ in large body sizes. But there are exceptions to this rule. The legs can have different lengths, the muscles are poorly developed. The head of the decorative hens is decorated with a wide comb, of different widths, or crest. There are even rocks with a black ridge (ayam cementi, for example). There are also beautiful double-comb chickens. Usually they have a calm disposition. Chickens of decorative breeds, especially rare, expensive. And keeping them at home is troublesome.
The fact that the breeds belong to the decorative group does not mean that they do not carry eggs or their meat cannot be used for cooking. But, indicators of meat and egg productivity, as a rule, are low.
Most often today you can meet representatives of the following decorative breeds of hens: bentam (korolek) or Japanese bentamka, sultanka, shershatka (curly hens), Malaysian Serama, Paduan, Sebright, Goodan. Noteworthy is the Chinese downy (five-fingered chicken) and the royal chicken. Noteworthy Russian black bearded. This group also includes Polish chickens, whose head is decorated with a crest of impressive size. Otherwise, they do not differ from birds, not belonging to the decorative group. Wild chickens are also decorative.But to breed them at home is difficult and it makes no sense.
The grizzly breed is rare and elite. The feather of these birds is used to make various crafts, including brooches and hair ornaments. Also rare are the rocks American, Langshan, Galan. The elite breed is the cracker breed. This is a meat-egg breed, characterized by early maturity. Also rare is the Langshan breed. She is very whimsical to care for and does not tolerate cold winters. Therefore, Russian poultry farmers do not recommend starting this breed.
Ueyiilui is an unusual breed of chicken. These birds carry eggshells with green shells. Performance indicators are not impressive. The weight of an adult is, on average, 1 kg, egg production – 170 eggs per year. But attention is drawn to the color black with a golden tint. The color of the comb and earlobe does not differ from the color of the plumage. Wuheilui chickens are high in price.
It takes a lot of time to examine all breeds of chickens. We will consider only those that are most popular today for one reason or another.
In villages you can often see white, black, red and orange chickens . But poultry is developing rapidly. And some poultry farmers may show birds of unusual salmon or purple color obtained by crossing different breeds.Let’s figure out which breed is suitable for housekeeping, and which birds should be planted at the poultry farm.
Yerevan chicken breed belongs to the meat and egg group. The birthplace of birds is Armenia. In the selection, in addition to local birds, the genus Rhode Island, Australorp and New Hampshire were used. The plumage of the hybrid is red-fawn. But the tips of the feathers are painted black. Therefore, they are sometimes also called the Yerevan red breed of chickens. Newborn chickens are covered with light brown shade.
Yerevan red hens have a strong physique. Their head of medium size is decorated with a crest of impressive size, there are small earlobes. The color of the comb and urine is pink. The small beak has an arc shape. But it is slightly bent. A distinctive feature of the exterior is a deep and wide chest, which is quite well developed. The back is wide and short, the tail is medium in size. Small wings are pressed to the body, legs of medium length, located close to each other, are painted yellow.
Meat productivity of birds is 2 kg for chickens, and 3 kg for roosters . As for egg production, one chicken in a year brings at least 160 eggs weighing 55-60 g. The young growth starts to hatch at 5.5 months.
Yerevan chickens can boast good health. The safety of young animals is about 90%. In adult chickens, this figure is 4% lower.
Shabo chickens are beautiful dwarf birds. They were bred in Asia. The peculiarity of the representatives of this breed is that the birds almost all the time sit in place. Accordingly, they can be kept in a small room.
As for the exterior, it is first of all worth noting that the birds have very short legs with an average body length. While walking, the hull is almost touching the ground. A very short back is another feature of Shabo chickens. The head is decorated with a large crest of red color, there are earlobes. The long tail is another decoration of Shabo chickens.
Shabo chickens are of 3 types: regular, curly and silk (fluffy). This is not to say that a certain type of plumage looks better than everyone else. Each bird is good in its own way. What color sways, then it can be the most diverse. There are birds with porcelain and striped feathers. It looks interesting black and silver and black and white. When black and white, the feathers on the tail, chest and stomach are painted black, the back is white. The bright red comb and earlobes harmoniously fit into this color scheme.
Meat productivity rarely exceeds 500 g. As for egg productivity, it rarely exceeds 70 eggs per year. The weight of the egg is only 28 g. This indicator differs from the average weight of a chicken egg by almost 2 times.
It is worth noting that Shabo chickens have a well-developed maternal instinct.
Kyrgyz gray chickens
The Kyrgyz gray chickens are universal. Zootechnicians got it by crossing birds of egg and meat orientation. A feature of the exterior is the conical shape of the body. The hens of the Kyrgyz gray breed have a large physique. The wings of small sizes are firmly pressed to the body, the back is long, the belly is rounded and has a small head with a red leaf-shaped crest.
Thanks to the variegated plumage of the Kyrgyz gray chickens, it is difficult to confuse with any other breed. In the plumage there is white and brown. The result is a “pockmarked” outfit, which makes the gray chicken look like the heroine of the fairy tale “chicken-pockmarked.” Brown plumage may also be present in the plumage of roosters.
Kyrgyz gray chickens are easy to care for and maintain. Birds adapt to almost any climatic conditions. They have a calm disposition, which simplifies the content.
Meat productivity indices of chickens and roosters are significantly different. With proper care, cocks gain up to 3.5 kg. The weight of chickens is 1 kg less. Hens begin to hike at the age of six months. Egg production is 170 eggs, whose weight is 60 g. The eggshell is light brown.
It is worth noting that almost all eggs give viable chickens, and hens are good brood hens. At the age of 2 months, a chicken can weigh about a kilogram. But such results can be achieved only with good nutrition.
England is the birthplace of these birds. This English breed belongs to the universal group. But when breeding livestock breeds sought not only to get poultry with high productivity indicators, but also to improve the quality of meat and presentation of the carcass. During the selection, specialists tried to ensure that the representatives of the breed had a white skin color. White carcasses on the shelves, in their opinion, look much more attractive. Part of the task was completed.
The English breed Orpington does not belong to the giant breeds, but it impresses with its size. The body is in the shape of a cube. Roosters have a small head decorated with a medium-sized crest. The neck has a graceful bend and smoothly passes into a powerful chest. Muscle is well developed on the broad and long back. Chickens look like a rooster. The only difference is the dimensions. Layers are more elegant.
Orpington breed attracts with a variety of colors. There are classic black and white hens.You can also find golden, fawn, red, marble, partridge, chintz and blue birds. The last 4 colors look especially attractive.
The average weight of an adult rooster is 4.5 kg. Often, roosters gain up to 5 kg of live weight. Layers that carry up to 180 eggs per year weigh 3.5-4 kg. The weight of each laid egg varies between 58-62 g. The eggs have a strong brown-yellow colored shell.
Orpingtons have several drawbacks. They gain weight very slowly and have a good appetite. Therefore, raising English-style chickens will take a lot of time and money.
Adler silver chickens are very popular in Russia. This chicken is also popularly called silverfish. This is due to the fact that they adapt perfectly to cold climates. It is also worth noting that the birds quickly adapt to any climatic conditions. The birds belong to the combined type.
As for the exterior, the Adler hens are proportionately stacked. They have an average build, a small tail and the same wings, a straight neck. Legs of medium length are not far from each other. On a small head are copper-colored eyes. The plumage is short and dense. Almost all feathers of a bird are painted white. And only at the end of the tail and neck is the plumage black.This color of livestock is called Colombian.
The main advantage of the breed, in addition to high productivity indicators, is early maturity.
The weight of an adult rooster is 4 kg. Females weigh 1.5 kg less. Egg productivity is 180 eggs per year. The weight of each egg is 60-65 g. With the breeding of the breed, livestock specialists have achieved an increase in the period of egg production. Adler birds, with proper care, have been laying eggs for 4 years.
Representatives of the Adler silver breed can be mated with other breeds. This usually gives good results. Also, livestock experts say that under a certain diet, the breed can be considered as meat.
Milfler is a decorative breed that is very popular. Beautiful feathered miniature sizes, on the legs of which there is plumage, have a bright color. It is also worth noting that the representatives of the breed are unpretentious in care and hardy.
The body of small size is covered with a dense and thick feather. The short and wide neck is beautifully curved, the short back ends with a long tail. The medium-sized comb fits harmoniously into the overall exterior. Color can be the most diverse. Most often there are millers of porcelain, tricolor, white and black and white colors. Of particular note is the speckled blue color. It looks spectacular and unusual. The legs are decorated with long feathers.
Not only females, but also roosters take care of the offspring. This is not typical for most breeds. Millefleur chickens are great hens. They sit not only on chicken, but also on quail eggs. It is interesting to observe the relationship between layers and roosters. The male will not allow himself to peck food first. He will surely give way to a lady. You can keep milflers in a small house. The dwarf breed is ideal for breeding and keeping in your own home, especially if there is no way to equip a spacious house.
Meat productivity is, on average, 0.7 kg. Egg productivity is 110 eggs, the mass of which does not exceed 0.3 kg. These characteristics are not high. Accordingly, millers should be considered exclusively as a decorative breed.
In Russia, breeding of this breed is exclusively done by private farmers. Therefore, it is quite difficult to purchase hatching eggs or chickens.
Kulangs are a fighting breed of chickens, native to Central Asia. It cannot be said that it is the best, but it definitely belongs to the most popular in the modern world. Feathered unpretentious to the conditions of detention and food, have stamina and bad character. But for fighting hens, the bad character is a virtue, not a disadvantage.
The main exterior characteristic of a fighting breed of hens is an unusual raising of the body.The kulanga has a well-developed skeleton, the long back ends with a small tail. This is a tall cock. It is also worth noting that the representatives of the breed have massive hips. Feathers can be painted in salmon or black. Salmon birds are especially good. This variety has a delicate color, which gives the bird nobleness.
In general, these birds are unpretentious. But they must be constantly in motion. Therefore, the poultry breeder must make sure that the kulang has an aviary for walking the appropriate size. The bird is very cocky. It is advisable to keep fighting cocks separately. If you keep them together, then the fights in the poultry yard will occur constantly.
Meat productivity largely depends on nutrition and conditions of detention. The average weight of an adult rooster is 5.5 kg. With good nutrition and an appropriate gene pool, the cock gains up to 7 kg. The maximum weight of the chicken is 4 kg. For a year, a laying hen gives about 110 eggs weighing 60 g.
Eggs can be used for incubation. From 70% of the eggs, viable chicks are obtained. Hatchability reaches 85%.
These white birds come from the United States. It is distributed both abroad and in Russia. Today, poultry farmers in many countries (Japan, Germany, USA) are engaged in the improvement of the breed. The birds have a triangular body format. The direction of the breed is egg.
These white hens look compact in appearance.The rounded chest protrudes slightly, the line of the back is straight, the wings are pressed to the body. White plumage is dense; roosters have a mane. Paws are yellow. Chickens and roosters boast a fairly large scallop. It’s just that he hangs on the side of chickens.
Despite the name of the breed, not only white birds are found. There are partridges, black-motley, striped, red-motley, silver and blue birds. But white color is most common.
The weight of an adult rooster varies between 2-2.5 kg, chicken – 1.3-1.8 kg. For a year, one laying hen gives about 250 eggs weighing 58-62 g. In order to achieve such egg production, it is necessary to provide good nutrition to the birds. beauty), Gergebil, repack, Oravka (mountain chicken originally from Slovakia), five-fingered chickens with a beard Faverol, Kuchinsky jubilee , smoky hens legbar, birds of the French breed Bress Gallic, Russian crested chickens, Highsex white, redbro (popularly called retro). But it will take a lot of time to examine all the breeds.
First of all, you need to choose a breed. For small personal subsidiary plots, any birds are suitable.If the purpose of breeding is to obtain meat and eggs for domestic use, then it makes sense to give preference to universal breeds. Some semi-broilers have high rates of both meat and egg productivity. Broiler (broiler) breeds are also very popular. It’s worth paying attention to fast-growing chickens, which are profitable to keep in households since it takes less time and fodder to feed.
If you want to decorate your farm, it makes sense to consider a catalog of chicken breeds with a photo. It is difficult to get decorative chicks in our country. Only a few domestic breeders are breeding dwarf varieties. Among breeders, decorative hens with average productivity indicators are more popular. These are various tailless and chubat breeds, bearded chickens and birds with a bare neck or sideburns. Also worth paying attention to shaggy feathered. But remember that rare breed chicks are expensive.
When purchasing online, ask the breeder to send a video of the selected chicken breed. The behavior of the chicks can partially judge the state of their health. In the online directory you can find many companies offering hatching eggs and chicks. Read reviews about each company, watch a video that depicts poultry houses and aviaries. Give preference to trusted online stores (hills, for example). Do not rely on such an indicator as the best price.Asking for chicks with a good gene pool will be exactly as much as it costs. And the best price is given to weak offspring. Although there are exceptions.
Give preference to birds adapted to Russian climatic conditions (Ukrainian ear flaps, Italian partridge, Kuchin jubilee, English breed Orpington). Good results were achieved by American and German poultry farmers. If we talk about domestic breeds, then Vladimir poultry farmers have achieved good results. Resistant to cold climate Russian crested chickens. They can be bred even in Siberia. It also makes sense to pay attention to the breeds that are cultivated in Belarus. There, the climate is similar to the climate of Russia.
When breeding at home, choose unpretentious birds to care for and eat. Breeding them is easier and cheaper. In addition, they must be productive. A great option for home breeding is the master gray (some mistakenly assign them the name Mr. Gray).
Before you start raising birds, equip the house and aviary. If there is not enough free space, you should breed feathered small breeds. It is necessary not only to get birds, but also to provide them with proper care. Small chickens are kept separate from adults. They need to be constantly watched. At the slightest ailment, a small feathered veterinarian should be shown.
Any village outbred birds can be improved. To do this, you need to use purebred birds with a good gene pool and without defects when crossing.
We examined the best breeds of chickens that are popular with farmers and poultry farmers lovers. But, choosing birds for breeding, do not forget that livestock specialists are constantly working on breeding new breeds of chickens. Therefore, do not ignore the breeds of chickens that have appeared on the market recently and have not yet gained popularity.
There is no answer to the question which breeds of chickens are best started. It all depends on what your goal is. Beginning poultry experts recommend paying attention to domestic breeds that are adapted to the climatic conditions of Russia. If if you need only laying hens or only roosters, you should pay attention to the auto eksnye breed. Their peculiarity is that in the months of age can determine the sex of the chicks.
purchases are made to be in the public or private sector. When you buy online you will have the opportunity to get acquainted with photo and text description, view an online catalog. In addition, there are no guarantees that thoroughbred chickens are offered to you.
And finally, I want to say that in the legends you can find a description of birds that have some similarities with chickens (rukh, alkonost, sirin ) Looking at the photos of these mythical breeds, you can see the similarities with the decorative species of birds.