Australorp meat-egg chickens first appeared in Australia in the 19th century. For breeding a new subspecies, two breeds were taken: Croad Langshan and black Orpington. As a result of selective work, an early-ripening bird with good meat and egg productivity was bred, in Russia it became widespread in 1946.
- Brief information about the breed
- General characteristic
- Color types
- Productivity <
- Advantages and disadvantages
- Features of natural breeding
- Care <
- Feeding <
- Content Features
- Birdhouse <
- Feeding <
- Place for walking
- Possible illnesses
- Owner reviews
Brief information about the breed
- Direction : meat-and-egg.
- Weight of the cock : 3.6-4 kg.
- Weight of the chicken : 2.7-2 , 9 kg.
- Beginning of the ovipositor : the first clutch can be expected after 135 days from the moment of birth.
- Egg production : 160-200 pcs., Sometimes 300 eggs.
- Egg size : 56-58 g.
- Immunity : the bird is stable to diseases, but does not tolerate cold and sudden changes in temperature.
- Features of the breed : not demanding in nutrition and contains and does not like frost
- Are Suitable beginners at:. Yes.
The breed of chickens Australorp has a bright and memorable appearance. The plumage is thick, black with emerald tint. Cannon smolny tone. The rooster may have a mottled tail and neck.
- the head is compact, rounded, small;
- the crest is red, small, erect, divided 3-4 segments for both males and females;
- eyes, earrings, earlobes and beak are black;
- the chest is wide, the body is well developed, dense;
- the wings are large, fit snugly to the body;
- the tail is of medium length, with respect to the skeleton it is located at an angle of 40-45 ° С.
The most common defects will help you choose healthy chicks and cull l unsuitable for further breeding:
- short, small and narrow body;
- long, black and white tail;
- the lobes are covered with white spots;
- eyes are red or pale pink;
- feathers contain a purple or golden brown tint;
- the teeth on the crest are too narrow or deformed;
- yellow soles;
- colorful plumage.
The bird is endowed with a calm and peaceful character that allows you to keep it on one compound with other breeds.
There is no con flicks or fights, they favor the young and the owner.
In the USA, only one type is allowed according to the standard – black with a marble tint. In Australia, breeders used the original breed to breed other subspecies with black, white, black and white and blue plumage.
In South Africa, the color scheme is much more diverse, including tribes with dark yellow, gold, wheat-lace and pockmarked colors.
Regardless of weather conditions and time of year, this bird does not cease to rush. For a year, one laying hen can produce from 160 to 200 eggs, some individuals up to 300 pcs.
Eggs with a dense, creamy brown shell, average weight – 56-58 g.
The first clutch can be expected after 135 days from the moment of birth. Starting from the age of two, egg productivity decreases, therefore, old individuals are replaced by young ones during this period.
Birds quickly gain weight: by 8 months, a rooster weighs 3.6-4 kg, chicken – 2.7-2.9 kg Young growth has good survival – almost 95%, and adults 88%.
Advantages and disadvantages
Based on the description of Australorp chickens, several main advantages of the breed can be distinguished.
- High adaptive abilities: easily adapt to any conditions – moving to another chicken coop, long transportation, while not reducing egg production, maintaining good health.
- Performance. A universal type of bird – with average indicators of meat and egg productivity, which is ideal for many farmers.
- Chickens do not require special conditions, are unpretentious in feed, so their breeding is considered quite profitable.
- Obedient and not conflicting, which makes it possible to keep them on the same yard with other domesticated birds.
There are no significant shortcomings, the only thing is the poor productive abilities of young animals when mixed with different breeds.
Features natural breeding
The black-green Australorp has a good instinct for brooding – the brood hen discards bad eggs from under him and sits on the nest until all the chicks hatch. She takes care of her offspring until she grows up.
Typically, the eggs are laid in late April or early May. Under one chicken lay 15-17 pcs. They must be fresh (5-6 days), without cracks.
Select specimens of medium size, with a flat and smooth surface, not too sharp or blunt, as chickens hatch with defects and pathologies from them.
Chicks are born in 20-21 days from the moment of adjustment of the material under the quack. During hatching, the brood hen needs to be provided with clean drink and balanced food.
Not always natural breeding gives a positive result, so breeders use incubators to ensure safety. Material requirements are the same as for home breeding.
No eggs need to be washed before laying. Set the temperature at around 40 ° C. Once a week it is lowered by 1 ° C.
The hatched chicks are placed in a wooden or cardboard box covered with a warm cloth, sawdust or straw.
At a height of 50 cm, a lamp is installed, providing a temperature of 32-31 ° C on the first day. Every day it is lowered by 2-3 ° C, bringing it to 19 ° C.
After 10 days of keeping at home, chickens can be taken outside – fresh air and the sun have a beneficial effect on the health of young animals.
Australorp black-emerald chickens quickly adapt to new conditions, become active and mobile.
The diet, depending on age, is different:
- on the first day they offer a finely chopped boiled egg;
- the next day, chopped feathers of green onions are added;
- from the third day you can give small cereals, low-fat cottage cheese mixed with egg shell powder;
- weekly chickens need to be fed with sacks of grated boiled vegetables, fruits, root vegetables, and additionally mix meat and bone and fish flour , as well as fish oil;
- a month and a half older young growth is transferred to the general diet tall chickens.
Drinking is equally important – on the first day they are soldered with a glucose solution (50 g per 1 liter of water). Then give clean water at room temperature, which is changed daily.
Black Australorp has good resistance to cold and sudden changes in temperature, but when kept in regions with severe winters, the bird needs to be dry and warm premises.
When arranging a chicken coop, it is necessary to calculate the area: at least 50 m³ will be required for one individual.
All surfaces are disinfected – whitened several times with slaked lime, which destroys infections and parasites.
The floor is covered with boards or tin to cover all the gaps and block access to the penetration of various rodents – carriers of diseases. A flooring of straw, sawdust, and hay is laid on the bottom (thickness in winter is about 40 cm, in summer – 15 cm).
Laying is carried out in sunny weather (there should be no rain and humidity) so that the litter remains dry .
Perches are set up around the entire perimeter of the house at a height comfortable for the bird – 40-50 cm. Nests are installed in secluded places – for 5 layers, 1 nest. Wooden crates are suitable as nests.
The necessary number of feeders and drinking bowls are installed on the floor at the rate of 4 and 3 cm of access for each individual, respectively. A basin with clay, sand or ash is placed in a place convenient for chickens – dry bathing protects against various parasites.
In a room where birds live, you need to create a good microclimate in which they will rush well, will not hurt and show aggression in relation to each other:
- temperature in winter 18-20 ° С, in summer – 12-13 ° С;
- humidity not higher than 60%;
- illumination with dim blue or red lamps.
Black-marble Australorp is undemanding to feed, but with good nutrition, productivity is significant tionary increases.
The basis of the diet is animal feed. You can buy it at any poultry store or cook it yourself.
It is necessary to mix several ingredients – corn, wheat (barley) cereals with meat and bone meal, sunflower meal and minerals in a ratio of 3: 4: 1: 1. At least 120 g per day is required per person.
- In summer they give a lot of greenery – dandelion, clover and other herbs. Additionally, they offer grated raw vegetables, root vegetables, and fruits. In the walking yard, the bird can enjoy chalk, gravel, shellfish.
- In the winter season, with insufficient greenery, you can give sprouted wheat, barley, rye, meat and bone meal and fish flour. Also mixed egg powder mixed into powder is mixed in the feed, fish oil is added. Boiled grated vegetables, slices of fresh cabbage, beets eat well.
Also in the off-season the whole population is given vitamins and minerals.
There should be fresh and clean water in the drinkers, in winter – room temperature in the summer – cold. Change it every day.
A place for walking
Breeding this breed in the presence of a walking yard will have a beneficial effect on both health and productivity.
2-3 m² are enough for one individual.
The courtyard is fenced with slate and covered with a net on top. Such a fence will protect the bird from contact with wild and neighboring individuals.
In early spring, sow with clover, wheat, rye or oats, so that by the summer there would be fresh greens.Drinking bowls, feeders, and separate containers with chalk, shellfish and gravel are placed in the courtyard.
Usually begins in spring – during 2-3 months the bird loses completely feather cover and ceases to rush.
Molting hens are transferred to a separate aviary to protect bare skin from injury, provide fresh drink and balanced nutrition (with a high protein content and low amount of calcium).
Under such conditions, the recovery process is reduced by a few weeks.
When breeding in the south, black Australorpians practically do not get sick, in regions with a cool climate they often develop colds, especially when kept in cold and raw poultry house.
First of all, it is necessary to optimize the indoor conditions according to the standards described above. Then treat with Biomycin or Terramycin.
The second dangerous disease is coccidiosis. Most young grown young animals, which are kept in a dirty house, are most likely to rarely change feed and water. Infected individuals are allowed to slaughter, because this disease is difficult to cure.
Of the parasites, lice, fluffs, nests, bugs annoy. They appear in violation of the microclimate and crowded content of chickens. In the fight against them, Dichlorvos or Chlorophos is used. At the same time, the chicken coop is treated with an aqueous suspension of pyrethrum (10%) or an aqueous emulsion of sevin (0.25%).
For the prevention of diseases and pests, it is necessary to follow all the rules of grooming, resettlement, regularly inspect birds for damage and quarantine, and vaccinate young animals at an early age.
According to the breeders, Australor chickens need good conditions, otherwise it will hurt.
The bird is undemanding in feed, but has poor adaptive abilities – does not tolerate cold, sudden changes in temperature, which greatly complicates the ear d when breeding in the north and in the middle lane regions.
Many people like the stable productivity of meat and eggs, hens cease to rush only during molting.
A calm disposition and friendliness allow keeping the livestock along with other chickens , which makes it possible to save space in the henhouse and in the courtyard.