Florists, having acquired a beautiful houseplant, are trying to maintain its healthy appearance. But this can be prevented by orchid diseases. They develop for various reasons. It is necessary to start treatment on time so that the flower does not die.
- Disease development factors
- Fungal diseases
- Brown rot
- Black rot
- Root rot
- Gray rot
- Fusarium rot
- Rot of the neck
- Powdery mildew
- Rust <
- Sooty (black) mushrooms
- Mold <
- Bacterial spotting
- Viral diseases
- Other diseases
- Wrong lighting
- Wrong watering mode
- Wrong temperature
- Incorrect dosage of fertilizers
- Compaction of the substrate
- Non-optimal humidity
- Conclusion <
Disease development factors
When buying a plant, it is worth considering the needs of a particular species and the possibility of providing them. Often, phalaenopsis diseases are manifested due to illiterate care:
- improper watering;
- dry air;
- poor lighting;
- inappropriate temperature;
- excess or lack of nutrients.
Also, orchid diseases in indoor conditions provoke such factors:
- invasion of parasites;
- fungal, viral and bacterial pathogens;
- uninfected wound.
It is worth protecting the flower from pests that may be:
- on a new plant brought into the house;
- on a flower bouquet;
- in a non-disinfected substrate;
- on infected vegetables or fruits, th are nearby.
Orchids infect various fungal diseases.
Most often appears on young leaves in the form of light brown, watery spots. Over time, they occupy more and more large areas on plants, blacken and connect. Shoots are also amazing. It develops with heavy watering and low temperature.
If the orchid has just started to hurt, then the treatment is as follows:
- the damaged areas are cut with a sharp tool, capturing healthy tissue;
- places of cuts are treated with crushed coal;
- sprinkled with copper-containing substances.
If the whole culture is covered with spots, then it is better to throw it away so that the brown rot does not spread to healthy plants . Spastitsvetok is already impossible.
To prevent the disease, they process the culture with copper sulfate. It is used once a month. Orchids of the varieties Phalaenopsis, Cymbidium, Cattlea, Papeopedilum are susceptible to the disease.
Causes of black spots on the leaves:
- spraying with water in a cold room;
- poor ventilation;
- weakened plant immunity due to diseases or pests.
Fight against black rot, cutting damage a disinfected knife. The wounds are treated with charcoal or Bordeaux mixture. The plant is transplanted. The substrate is replaced, the pots are sterilized. If the leaves are completely blackened, they throw it away. Nearby crops are sprayed with preparations that contain copper.
The proper conditions are provided for orchid prophylaxis. Among the varieties that are most susceptible to this disease, Cattleya and Pafeopedilum are distinguished.
The symptoms are brown leaves, the roots become stained, then become wrinkled and begin to rot . The process goes to the neck, bulb, rhizome and stems. Leaves lose turgor, wrinkle, die and fall off. The conditions for the development of the disease are elevated temperature and humidity, excessive watering.
To treat root rot, roots and substrate are treated. To do this, the pot is immersed in a 0.2% solution of Fundazole or Topsin. The procedure is performed in 3 stages with an interval of 10-14 days.The substrate between waterings should dry completely.
When the root system is badly damaged, you should try to grow a new one. To do this, rotten sections are cut off, the rest are washed and dried for several hours. The plant is planted in a high-quality, dense substrate. Water rarely. If young roots have grown, it is worthwhile to ensure that the process of decay does not start again.
To prevent illness, a disinfected soil mixture is used when planting. More often than others, Cymbidium, Miltonia, Papahedilum Vietnamese are affected by this type of rot.
The leaves of the orchid are first covered with dark spots with a characteristic gray fluffy coating. Over time, soil and flowers are affected, on which brown specks appear.
Causes of occurrence:
- cold air;
- high humidity;
- excess nitrogen when fertilizing.
The treatment for this orchid disease is to remove damaged areas and spray fungicides from the base of the trunks and leaves to the very tops. One drug is not used twice, since fungi develop resistance to it.
Prevent the development of gray rot by adding agents that increase immunity when watering. Flowers are placed away from each other to avoid infection.Withstand the temperature, humidity and dosage of feeding substances at the appropriate level for a particular type. The disease affects Phalaenopsis, Cymbidium, Cattleya.
The second name of the disease is tracheomycosis. It begins with rotting roots, young shoots are also affected. The leaf plates become limp, twist, and are covered with a pink coating, since the mycelium of the fungus clogs the vessels of the plant. Fusarium rot develops with poor air circulation in the room and too high humidity.
To revive the plant, take the following measures:
- 3 times a day, put the flower pot in 0.2% Fundazole solution. Processing is carried out for 10 days.
- For some time, they stop spraying the culture.
As a preventive measure, ventilate the room, but make sure that the flower is not in a draft. Optimum humidity values are also observed. It should be borne in mind that Phalaenopsis, Miltonia, Epidendrum orchids are most susceptible to diseases.
It is difficult to detect rot in the initial stages of development, it progresses in the middle. Orchid is gradually destroyed: the leaves turn yellow around the neck and fall off. The reason is prolonged contact of the roots with water.
If the rot of the neck affects the culture, it cannot be cured. Therefore, it is better to observe moderate watering, waiting for the substrate to dry between the roots.
Dark brown spots with a border are formed on the leaves. Over time, they grow, merge into large areas. It also affects the branches and shoots, on which depressed areas appear. They impede the flow of nutrients to all organs of culture. The depressions are light brown in color and oblong in shape. Gradually they increase. In the late stages of the disease, the depressions acquire brown or dark purple strokes.
If the room is warm and dry, the affected areas crack. At high humidity, tissues rot and break from any touch. If the disease is ignored, then the leaves turn brown, and eventually the entire ground part dies. A favorable environment for the development of the disease is:
- temperature 23 °;
- humidity 87-88%;
- lack of potassium, calcium;
- high acidity.
If an orchid is affected by anthracnose, it should be treated with fungicides. It is necessary to treat the plants with Skor or Oksikhom, Fundazol, Ridomil Gold, Previkur or others. Spraying is carried out in 2-3 stages with an interval of 7 days. Less harmful to the environment are Fitosporin-M and Gamair. Damaged places are removed.After medical procedures, watering is reduced and feeding is stopped for a while.
The disease is prevented, providing the culture with a moisture content of 40 to 70%. Also regularly air the premises. Water from the axils of the leaves and the cores of the bulb is wet with a napkin. Pheniopsis, Miltonia, Oncidium, Paphiopedilum differ in their resistance to anthracnose.
The symptoms of this disease in orchids are a characteristic white coating on leaves, stems, flowers. The leaves brown over time from below, yellowish or brownish spots appear on top. Because of this, the process of photosynthesis is disrupted, which slows down the growth and development of the plant. Perforated forms appear. If the litas wrapped, then the fabric deformed. Holes remain on it. The infection spreads in a warm and humid environment.
Treatment should begin immediately when the orchid organs turn white. Powdery mildew should be combated with one of such fungicides, Topaz, Skor, Khom, copper sulfate, etc. The affected areas are cut and destroyed. The flower should be processed in a cool, dry room. Apply the drug at least 3 times with an interval of 10 days.
All varieties are equally susceptible to powdery mildew. To protect the culture from it, you should adhere to these rules:
- use disinfected equipment;
- transplant the purchased plant;
- etch the substrate;
- to take proper care;
- to spray the flower with Fitosporin-M.
For the orchid family, the disease is rare. You can determine it by light spotting on the bottom of the leaves, which after a while acquires a red color. So the sporulation of fungi occurs. It affects weakened plants.
You need to get rid of the problem by removing damaged areas or the entire leaf. Slices are treated with crushed activated carbon or 20% alcohol. The plant is sprayed with one of such means: Topsin-M, Ridomil, Speed
It is necessary to regularly treat the culture with drugs that increase its immunity. This will prevent rust infection. It is important to ensure proper care.
Sooty (black) mushrooms
The reason for the development of the disease lies in the defeat of the plant by pests such as aphids, mealybugs, white scale insects. On the sweet secretion that they secrete, a fungus appears. A black coating forms, which clogs the stomata of the leaves and prevents the access of light. The plant becomes weak and dies over time. It affects young cultures.
The disease progresses in rooms with poor air circulation, where the temperature is high. It also develops in an environment with high humidity and crowding of indoor plants.
If a culture develops a black fungus, it should:
- spray it with fungicides – Mikosan is safer, Topsin-M, Skor and Ridomil are also used;
- affected cut off the parts;
- wipe the soot deposits with a wet sponge or place the orchid under a warm shower;
- then dry it to prevent moisture congestion;
- if insects are detected, neutralize them with insecticides or alternative methods: 1 liter of water, 150 g of ground soap, 5 g of copper sulfate.
According to the description, this and infectious disease caused by a fungus. A distinctive feature – there are areas of rounded shape (less often stripes), which then turn yellow and merge into large circles. Over time, cover the sheet completely. Old spots turn brown. The disease develops in conditions of low humidity. More often affected by Cattleya cercosporosis, Cymbidum, Oncidium, Dendrobium. Since the leaves of Cattleya are stiff, they become white or yellow with the disease.
To get rid of cercosporosis, you need to remove damaged areas, treat the cut sites with green or activated carbon. The plant should be sprayed with fungicide. Appropriate for each type of care will serve as an excellent prevention.
White shaggy deposits on pieces of bark, on the substrate surface, roots and stem are also signs of phalaenopsis orchid disease.This is a mold caused by the growth of molds or rotting fungi – brown or bacterial rot. Until some time they are in a dormant state, and under favorable conditions they are activated.
If the substrate is moldy, at the initial stage of the development of the disease, it is loosened and dried. Next time watered when the soil is completely dry. The culture is placed in a bright place.
When the root system and stems are moldy, the plant is removed and washed under warm water (30-35 ° C). The roots are soaked for 10-15 minutes in a weak solution of fungicide. The flower is transplanted, disinfecting the pot and substrate. After that, do not water 2-5 days. Proper care and hygiene will prevent the development of mold.
The leaves turn yellow, then darken, become flabby. They are covered with pressed sticky spots and weeping ulcers with a yellow rim. Bacteria enter the tissue through microcracks or open stomata. The tips of the leaves and the lobular vein are often the place of occurrence.
Treatment of orchids for bacterial spotting at home: remove the diseased areas, treat the wounds with brilliant green, iodine or activated charcoal. The plant is isolated to prevent infection of other crops. In more complex cases, bactericides or antibiotics are used.
At home, they rarely affect the culture.Manifested by mosaic spotting on leaves and flowers. Sometimes leaf plates become striped or curl. The spots are still round.
- hypothermia or overheating;
- excess or lack of water.
Treatment this disease in phalaenopsis orchids will not give a result; they should be disposed of.
Orchid diseases and their treatment are often associated with inadequate care.
Poor lighting threatens with such manifestations:
- shredding of leaves;
- weak deformed, elongated growths that do not form buds develop.
If If white dots or spots appear on the leaves, this indicates a sunburn. To prevent this, the plant is gradually adapted to the sun in spring. It is shaded. Do not spray in direct sunlight so that hot drops of water do not cause burns.
If the buds are dry, the plant does not have enough light. When exposed to light in the autumn-winter period, it is worth strictly maintaining a distance of 20-30 cm, otherwise the plant will receive thermal burns. Over time, they will dry out, but the spots will remain.
Wrong watering regime
If the leaves droop, become thin or wrinkled, you should look at the moisture content of the soil.
When the substrate dries, they also burst in half.
When watering a dried-up plant, the liquid is quickly delivered to the problem areas. It accumulates there, after which the tissues are torn, so watering should be timely.
Edema appears for the following reasons:
- prolonged contact with water;
- plentiful watering in a cool room.
When wet spots appear, they should be removed immediately with filter paper, as they quickly grow. Then the plant threatens to rot. You can not put it on a cold windowsill after watering.
Improper temperature conditions
You can not leave flowers on an unheated balcony in extreme cold so that they do not disappear. When airing, pots with an orchid are removed from the window, otherwise the leaves will be frozen. Due to the low temperature, they crack, twist and tighten, the buds become stale.
Cracks appear in the middle or on the edge of the leaves due to overcooling. If their tips hung, the plant could suffer from draft. With sudden changes in temperature, the leaf plates also crack and bifurcate, the edges brighten.
If the watering is done correctly and the leaves wrinkle, it is worth moving the flower to a cooler place. Then the evaporation of moisture will slow down.
Incorrect dosage of fertilizers
When applying any nutrient in arrogant amounts, the culture stops development. The roots do not grow, the leaves become sluggish.The burnt root system as a result of an overdose of fertilizer is evidenced by their dead ends. Leaf plates take on a brown tint. Sometimes, as a result of a high sugar content, sticky droplets appear on them. If the leaf bursts, it can also be the consequences of overfeeding.
When there is a lot of nitrogen in the substrate, the leaf plates are stretched. The green mass is growing, peduncles often do not form. If flowering occurs, then the buds are few. An orchid with an excess of fertilizers should be treated with a hot shower. The procedure is performed once a week.
If the leaves are light, then the culture does not have enough nitrogen. When they wrinkle, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus is provided to old plants, boron, copper, manganese are provided to young plants.
If the leaves are soft and loose, you should look on the state of the soil mixture. Over time, it loses its breathability due to compaction, which is accelerated by soil fungi and algae. Then the roots do not get enough oxygen. They begin to choke.
If the crop has thrown off or lowered the leaves or they have become less elastic, the reason is low humidity. It is especially dangerous in combination with high temperatures. Moisture evaporates intensely from the tissues, the roots do not have time to compensate for it. Bulbs, flowers and buds also dry out.When phalaenopsis orchids suffer from illness due to poor care, the conditions of detention should be changed, otherwise the plants will disappear. Moisture values should be above 30-40%.
If stickiness appeared on the leaves – sweet insect secretions, it is worth inspecting the plant for the presence of such insects:
Scalefly causes more total problems. It sucks the juice from the tissues, releasing a sticky secret. Tubercles and growths form on the leaves of the orchid, they are wrapped. Pests are removed with an alcohol solution. When there are too many of them, the culture should be treated with Fitoverm. The substrate and the pot replace.
When cobwebs appeared on flowers and buds or on the underside of leaves, the culture was hit by a spider mite. With the advanced stage of the disease, the plant loses turgor, the leaves curl and dry. The insect sucks the juice from the plant, which leads to its death over time.
Pest control is as follows:
- wash the plant with soap and water;
- treat the place where it was and the pot;
- watered and put for 3 days in a plastic bag, making sure that the temperature does not harm the flower.
Culture is also struck by one species of nematodes – light insects 1-2 mm long. When they are invaded, the leaves become deformed, grooves and light spots appear on them. If they have darkened, the disease is already running. The number of colors then decreases. Dead spots appear on pseudobulbs, pimples appear on the roots. To combat the nematode, they perform the following manipulations:
- isolate the flower;
- pour it with a solution of Dekaris or Levamisal (1 tablet per 1 liter of water);
- place the plant under a hot shower (40˚С).
Treatment of Phalaenopsis orchid diseases – azhny stage of cultivation culture. In identifying the slightest symptoms, should take immediate action. Then the illness will not go into a difficult stage.
When you purchase should carefully consider the information about the orchid and its diseases. Then optimal conditions should be ensured.