Features of orchid cultivation and care

Features of orchid cultivation and care

Phalaenopsis is a moody flower. But, if you properly organize the care of the orchid at home, it will delight you with plentiful blooms at least 2 times a year. Care, in addition to watering and top dressing, includes organizing a certain level of air humidity and temperature, replanting the pot.

Content
  1. Content conditions
  2. Lighting <
  3. Temperature <
  4. Humidity <
  5. Organization of watering
  6. Phalaenopsis substrate
  7. Pot selection
  8. Growing on blocks
  9. Feeding and transplanting phalaenopsis
  10. Transplanting
  11. Phalaenopsis disease
  12. Fungal diseases
  13. Viral diseases
  14. Other problems
  15. Phalaenopsis propagation
  16. By dividing the bush
  17. Escapes <
  18. Cuttings <
  19. Selecting the fa enopsis
  20. Conclusion <

Особенности выращивания орхидеи и ухода за ней

Features of orchid cultivation and care

Content

It’s easy to take care of the orchid at home, it’s easy to arrange the necessary conditions for it.

Lighting

The orchid loves moderate light. If there is not enough light, it does not bloom. If the light is excessively intense, the phalaenopsis burns out. For the plant, a sunny windowsill is suitable. In winter, phalaenopsis needs 2-3 hours of counting.

Determine whether the orchid has enough light by the color of the leaf plates. If they are saturated green, then there is not enough light.If the leaf blades begin to turn yellow, it means that there is too much light.

To place the pot with a flowerpot should be on the eastern windowsills.

Temperature

So that orchids in transparent pots do not disappear, they need to provide a certain temperature regime. It varies somewhat depending on the type of phalaenopsis. But most plants feel good at room temperature. During the day 18-27 ° C, at night 13-24 ° C.

The temperature difference is organized by transferring flowerpots at night to an insulated balcony or loggia.

If the air temperature is higher norms, a flower is watered more often. If below the norm, the number of irrigations is reduced.

Humidity

Proper care of orchids at home implies compliance with norms regarding air humidity. The optimum humidity is from 60 to 80%.

To create acceptable conditions for the flower, a tray with a grate filled with water is installed under the pot. The roots of the plant and the bottom of the pan should not be in contact with water.

Оптимальная влажность для орхидей от 60 до 80%

Optimum humidity for orchids from 60 to 80%

In the summer period, leaf blades should be sprayed with water at room temperature. Perform this procedure during the day. At night, the leaves of the plant should be dry.

If the air humidity is within the normal range, air circulation should be arranged in the room. This moment is especially important for those species that love the cold. If the natural ventilation of the room is insufficient, use electric fans. During the fan operation, drafts should not form.

Organization of watering

Proper orchid care at home includes watering. Some phalaenopsis require that the substrate is constantly wet. Other plants are watered when the substrate is completely dry. When buying a flower, you need to consult a store consultant on this issue and study information about the plant.

With excessive watering, the roots of the plant turn black and rot, the leaves turn dark. With a lack of moisture, the leaf plates turn yellow and begin to wrinkle, the pseudobulbs fade. The intensity of irrigation also depends on the flowering phase. At the time of ejection of the peduncle and flowering, the number of irrigation increases. Needs watering with active growth. After flowering, the amount of watering is reduced.

Instead of the usual watering, they are watered from the shower for several minutes. Then the excess water is allowed to drain and the plant is returned to the windowsill.

Another option: flower pots are placed for 15 minutes in a container filled with water. Through the drainage holes, water will enter the pot and moisten the substrate. After time, the pots are removed and allowed to drain excess water.Orchids are watered only with warm water.

Phalaenopsis substrate

When growing orchids at home, use a special substrate. It should:

  • allow air to pass through well;
  • keep a minimum amount of water;
  • prevent the flowerpot from falling out of the pot.

Normal soil does not allow air to pass through and retains moisture, so it is not added to the substrate for phalaenopsis. It consists of crushed bark of various trees, moss, coal, coarse sand, perlite, cork and granular clay. It is not difficult to make the substrate yourself, but agronomists recommend purchasing ready-made mixtures in specialized stores.

In addition to the above components, you can add dry leaves to the substrate. But with excessive watering, they will rot, as a result of which the roots of the pot will begin to rot. Leaves should not be added to the substrate for orchids, the soil of which should be constantly moist. When compiling a substrate for varieties of phalaenopsis that need a little moisture, dry leaves are an acceptable supplement. Moss also retains moisture.

Для субстрата лучше приобретать готовые смеси

For the substrate it is better to buy ready-made mixes

Pot Selection

To care for the orchid in the pot, it must be transparent. In opaque containers it is difficult to monitor the condition of the roots.Not only plastic containers, which today are the most popular, are suitable, but also flowerpots made of wire, unnecessary baskets, etc. The main thing is that the container holds the substrate with a flowerpot. In the phalaenopsis pot there should be a large number of holes through which excess water will leave. An alternative to plastic are glass pots. They are more stable and better support the flowerpot in an upright position. But their price policy is higher, and making holes in the glass is more difficult than making plastic.

Ceramic pots should be used from opaque containers, after making round holes not only at the bottom of the pot, but also in the side walls. This is done so that around the roots there is normal air exchange. The advantage of the ceramic pot is that it does not heat up with the sun’s rays, protecting the roots of the plant from burns.

Growing on blocks

Still grow phalaenopsis on blocks, which are used as bark of oak or pine. The rules for growing on blocks do not differ from the rules for growing in a pot. A feature here is that the roots dry quickly after watering. Care is somewhat complicated by the need for more frequent watering. But the orchid on the blocks looks much more attractive than in the pot.

Feeding and transplanting phalaenopsis

For normal development, it is not enough just to properly care for the orchid at home.The plant needs additional nutrition. You need to use special mixtures, which are sold in specialized stores. The pot is fed during active growth, during pseudobulb swelling, and after flowering. For each period, there are different top dressings. All information about when and how to use each remedy is on the label. In autumn and winter, top dressing is carried out no more than 1 time per month. In spring, they feed the plant about 3 times in 2 months.

Орхидея нуждается в дополнительном питании

The orchid needs additional nutrition

Transplant

The transplant technology is simple, but it is necessary to transplant a plant for which this procedure is stressful. Often and systematically carry out this procedure is not worth it. The recommendations for caring for a room orchid indicate that it should be transplanted if it is necessary to replace the substrate and if the flowerpot has outgrown the pot. Replace the substrate if the flowerpot begins to hurt. The plant is transplanted 5-7 days after flowering. He is carefully taken out of the old pot. Soak in water and remove the old substrate. If the flowerpot was sick, then the substrate is completely removed. Remove all dead and damaged roots. The places of the cuts are sprinkled with wood ash, and the cut parts are thrown away.The plant is placed in a new pot, after covering the bottom with a thin layer of a new substrate, and covered with fresh substrate. A transplanted pot for 2-3 days is placed in the shade. The first watering of the transplanted orchid is carried out immediately by the transplant field. The next watering of the transplanted orchid occurs after 10-14 days.

In order not to damage the root system when removing the pot from the old pot, it is cut.

Phalaenopsis disease

It’s difficult to care for a sick orchid. Often, affected plants die. Most often, phalaenopsis undergoes fungal and viral diseases.

Fungal diseases

Fungi are characterized by the appearance of small tubercles on leaf blades and peduncles. Inside these tubercles are spores of the fungus. It is impossible to open tubercles. This will speed up the spread of fungal spores.

If the damage is on the edge of the leaf plates, then the damaged parts are removed. If the tubercles are located on the entire surface of the leaf, then the plant is treated with fungicides. In parallel with the treatment of the flowerpot with fungicides, they completely replace the soil.

Viral diseases

Viral diseases are not treated. Sick plants destroy. The presence of the virus is determined by yellow or brown spots on the leaves. Sometimes a gray coating appears on the inside of the sheet.

If a virus is suspected, the plant should be treated with antibiotic and fungicide. If the treatment has not yielded results, the flowerpot is cleaned away from healthy plants, and its condition is monitored. If the virus is confirmed, the flowerpot is thrown away.

Other problems

Often the flower withers and withers due to improper care.

  • Grow at home a plant with large leaves in low light is impossible. The lack of light also has a negative effect on flowering. The flowers are pale, and the flowerpot produces one peduncle. In rare cases, the plant gives two or more arrows, on which no more than 4-5 flowers are formed.
  • Burns are large yellow spots. The chemical type of burn a plant receives when it is fed with highly concentrated fertilizers or treated with improperly diluted insecticides.
  • With excessive watering, the roots of the flower rot, and the leaves become wrinkled and become yellow-brown in color, become watery. Sometimes mold appears. Leaves become wrinkled with a lack of moisture.
  • Under the influence of low temperature, the leaves wither first, then become yellow-brown in color and become wrinkled.

When growing a pot in a ceramic pot his health is judged by aerial roots. If aerial roots dry or rot, then the plant is unhealthy. Damaged aerial roots must be removed.

Из-за неправильного ухода орхидея может погибнуть

Due to improper care, the orchid may die

Phalaenopsis propagation

Propagation of a flowerpot occurs by dividing the rhizome, shoots, cuttings or seeds. It is possible to grow a plant from seeds only in the laboratory. Use the method for growing orchids on an industrial scale. At home, reproduction should be done in any other way.

Division of the bush

The easiest way for beginning gardeners is a method of breeding by dividing the rhizome. Autumn is the best time to perform the procedure. Produce division in the summer, after the plant has flowered. In spring, touching the plant is undesirable. When propagating by rhizome division, sharp garden shears or a knife are needed. To get a viable plant, it must have at least 3 false bulbs. The resulting flowerpots are planted in separate pots. They are maintained according to the same rules as adult plants.

Plant transplantation is combined with propagation.

Shoots

Some varieties let out lateral processes (children). Kidneys are formed from the kidney. After the children have become stronger, they are separated from the mother tree. Planting children is the same as transplanting a pot. So that children grow faster, the plant is fed with nitrogen-containing fertilizers.

Tubers purchased abroad do not always take root. In accordance with the advice of agronomists, plants should be planted that are acclimatized to a particular region. They will grow faster and easier to care for.

Cuttings

Planting cuttings is the most difficult. With a sterile knife, the shoot is cut off at an angle. The cutting site is disinfected, after which the stalk is planted in a separate pot. Small shoots with poorly developed knots for cuttings are not suitable. Large shoots are cut to ½ length.

Choosing a phalaenopsis

The choice of orchid in the pot should be governed by the conditions that the owner can provide to the flowerpot, and not its appearance or attractive name.

Unpretentious are varieties of Burrageera, Berry, Oncidium, Bernard, Wanda, Hummingbird, Dendrobium Nobile. Beautiful, but moody are Bamboo Orchid and Vietnam or Vietnam. The street bush variety that is grown in the garden attracts attention. Its maintenance requires the presence of greenhouses.

There are blue phalaenopsis on sale. They are obtained artificially, and in the second generation, the plant gives white flowers. If the painting technology is not followed or cheap materials are used, irreparable damage is caused to the flowerpot and it is difficult to reanimate it.

Conclusion

When growing phalaenopsis, a number of rules should be observed. There are folk secrets for caring for the plant. Recently appeared a method of growing phalaenopsis in a bottle, which is hermetically closed after placing a sprout in it and placed on a window. Water is poured onto the bottom of the bottle.

The flower stalk is removed after flowering, even if it has buds. Someone leaves part of the flower stalk, on which 3-4 kidneys are located, of which As a result, children or a new peduncle may appear.If neither the peduncle nor the shoot appeared, then the kidney has not woken up.

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Anna Evans

Author ✓ Farmer

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