Poltava clay breed of chickens is hardy, disease-resistant and has good meat and egg productivity. To obtain it, breeders crossed Poltava chickens with Wyandotte, Orpington and New Hampshire. How are these birds kept and bred?
- Characteristic of the breed
- Productivity Indicators
- Character <
- Cost <
- Advantages and Disadvantages
- Features of breeding
- Incubation <
- Care <
- Content rules
- Birdhouse <
- Food ration
- Walking patio
- Shedding and egg laying break
- Possible illnesses
- Reviews of breeders
Characteristics of the breed
Description of the appearance of Poltava hens:
- medium-sized head, rounded;
- a scallop in the shape of a rose, consists of numerous segments, in some birds it is leaf-shaped;
- earlobes and a scarlet-colored comb with white spots;
- eyes are yellow-red or fiery tones;
- the beak is compact, pointed at the tip, yellow;
- neck, massive, strong;
- the frame is elongated, the chest is wide;
- medium-sized wings, close to the body;
- legs are not too long, yellow hue;
- plumage is light or dark brown, the tips of the feathers are black.
Adult females reach a weight of 2.2-2.5 kg, males from 3 to 3.5 kg;
Egg production varies between 180-200 eggs, the average mass of cream-colored eggs is 55-56 g.
Chicks of this breed have good survival – 97%, one-year-old individuals – 90%. The fertility rate is from 80 to 83%.
The Poltava clay breed of chickens has a friendly character. There are no conflicts or fights in the herd. Males favorably with young growth, do not show aggression in relation to the owner and individuals with a different color. Therefore, joint content with representatives of other varieties is allowed.
It tolerates stress and easily adapts to new conditions, therefore it is often transported to various regions of the country for further breeding.
The average price for one hatching egg is 55-60 rubles, young growth has grown – from 300 to 350 rubles. Purebred chicks can be purchased in the Sergiev Pasad gene pool.
Advantages and disadvantages
The characteristics of the breed include several important advantages:
- excellent taste of meat and eggs;
- fast weight gain and early egg laying;
- loving in nature;
- good adaptive abilities – they easily tolerate stressful situations when moving to another habitat or long transportation, while not reducing productivity indicators;
- possibility of soda . Jania without area for walking;
- high resistance to many diseases
There is one drawback – the propensity to obesity, which leads to a decrease in egg production, a decrease in the number of hens. To avoid this, chickens need to provide a balanced diet with added greens, calcium and a reduced amount of feed, especially if the birds are in captivity.
Features of breeding
To breed this chicken breeds within the tribe will need a strict selection of layers:
- the first screening at an early age – 1-2 weeks, the most active females are selected, without defects and pathologies;
- the second selection is carried out in 5 months and determined by indicators of productivity;
- further monitor the behavior of the bird and its the desire to incubate eggs.
Two-year-olds are suitable for breeding new offspring. Eggs are laid under the hen in late April or early May. After 20-21 days, chicks hatch.
13-15 eggs can be laid under one individual. In the first week, it is important that the chicken does not leave eggs for a long time, otherwise they will cool down and chickens will not appear from them.
Many breeders believe that the natural way of breeding birds does not always give an effective result, so they resort to using an incubator.
For laying in the incubator, medium-sized eggs with a flat and smooth surface, without cracks, are selected. They must not be washed before installation.
All items must be fresh – no older than 6 days. Select not too pointed or dull, because high probability of the appearance of offspring with defects.
The stuffed material is tightly closed in the chamber, the temperature is set at around 40 ° C. Every day, the testes need to be turned over so that they evenly warm up. Every 7 days it is lowered by 1 ° C.
In the incubator, the chicks are born after 3 weeks.
General rules for caring for chickens:
- hatched individuals are placed in a cardboard small box lined with straw, sawdust or a rag so that they dried out faster;
- additionally, at a distance of 0.5 m from the drawer, install an IR lamp and keep it on for at least 22 hours a day;
- the optimum temperature is 32 ° C, then with every day it is gradually lowered and brought to the level of 19 ° C;
- in 10 days it is fashionable for young animals to be released into the fresh air in the morning, when the sun is shining – this will favorably affect their growth and health;
- to six weeks of age grown chicks is transferred to the contents of the common herd.
The diet depends on the age of the young:
- on the first day they offer a boiled and finely chopped chicken egg ;
- from the third day, chopped feathers of onions;
- at seven days of age, chicks can be given low-fat cottage cheese, small cereals, boiled grated carrots;
- three weeks later in food add a cut of dandelions, nettle, plantain and clover – these components normalize the digestive system;
- use vitamins and minerals in eggshell powder, meat and bone flour, fish oil, sour milk, as well as grated fruits and vegetables;
- glucose solution gives strength, energy, improves immunity, so they are advised to solder the chicks in the first days of life – 50 g is dissolved in a liter of water.
Young growth quickly gaining mass, easily gets used to any conditions, if it is regularly and often fed – at least 6 times a day. At the age of 1.5 months, they fully transfer to feeding adults.
The health, productivity and growth of the entire livestock depends on the proper equipped habitat of the bird, its feeding and further care.
This breed is large, therefore it requires a lot of space – about 50 m³ per individual.
The chicken coop should be clean – it will be cleaned from debris, disinfect all surfaces with lime or a solution of colloidal sulfur (2%).
To create a good microclimate, you need to insulate the floor – it is covered with tin or boards, covering all the cracks. Then a thick layer of litter of hay, straw or sawdust is laid up. Bookmarking is carried out on a dry and sunny day, otherwise the flooring nourishes moisture and quickly grows moldy.
Low perches for hens – 0.5 m are installed near the walls. Nests are also placed – for 4 laying hens 1 box. Choose a quiet place with a dim light so that the bird can easily lay eggs.
On the floor are placed feeders and drinking bowls for one individual 4 and 3.5 cm, respectively. Install a wide basin filled with dry clay, ash or sand to take a dry bath. Regular procedures will help protect against the appearance of various parasites.
The optimal humidity indicator is not higher than 60%, so the room should have good ventilation – through windows or doors. The temperature in winter is 17-20 ° С, in summer – 12 ° С.
Feed poultry with mixed fodder – purchased or own production.To get a good composition, you need to mix several ingredients: minerals, sunflower meal, chopped wheat or oats, meat and bone meal or fish meal in a ratio of 1: 3: 4: 1. Consumption per individual – 130 g.
Depending on the season, they give different food.
- In winter, when a deficiency of vitamins and minerals occurs, they are fed with grass flour, small pieces of cabbage beets. They give boiled, grated potatoes, carrots, but in a limited amount, because this bird is prone to obesity. From dry mixes, crushed corn, wheat, oats, barley are offered. Separate feeding troughs with meat-and-bone or fish meal are placed on the layers, fish oil, egg shells, chalk, sprouted wheat, rye or barley are added to the food. All these components increase immunity and contribute to good productivity. Also, vitamins and minerals are mixed with birds in the off-season to prevent the appearance of various infections.
- In the summer, they willingly eat shells, insects that are found in the yard. Additionally, they are offered fresh grass – dandelion, nettle, clover. Grated vegetables, fruits and root vegetables.
You need to feed the herd twice a day – morning and evening.
Drinking should always be clean and fresh therefore it is replaced every day. In winter, warm water is served at room temperature, in summer – cold.
Try to arrange a place for walking for this breed, asdue to lack of mobility, hens quickly grow fat. They allocate 2-3 m³ for one individual.
At the beginning of spring, the courtyard is grassed so that the chickens have fresh greens all summer. The surface is sprinkled with gravel, small pieces of chalk, cockleshell.
To prevent birds from leaving the yard, it is necessary to make a fence about 1.5 m high. Cover with a net from above and cover with slate in winter. Under this cover, the hens will be able to walk not only in the warm, but also in the cold season, pecking the snow and looking for leftovers in it.
Shedding and egg laying break
Usually this the process occurs in the spring and is accompanied by the cessation of egg production. Duration of molting is from 2.5 to 3.5 months, after which the bird completely changes its plumage and restores clutch.
For a quick recovery, the breeder should strengthen his diet – increase the protein content in food and reduce the amount of calcium.
It is better to keep molting chickens separately, as bare covers can be injured during mating with roosters.
These chickens have good resistance to many sores, but in conditions of dampness, cold, microclimate disturbances and poor nutrition, their immunity decreases and the body undergoes various diseases.
Often has a cold from hypothermia, coccidiosis when kept in a dirty room.To avoid this, care should be optimized and all sanitary and hygienic standards must be observed.
If crowding occurs, disturbance of the microclimate in the musty chicken coop, birds may develop worms, ticks, lice and lice. Their appearance can be prevented if only clean and fresh food is given, contact with wild or neighboring birds, which are carriers of parasites and diseases, is excluded.
Also for prevention, it is necessary:
- once every year to change the litter, disinfect the floor and walls;
- vaccinate at an early stage of life;
- examine birds for infections and parasites, and also move individuals to quarantine in time;
- provide clean drinking, balanced nutrition according to age.
Per diem breeders chicks note the development of various pathologies, defects, some are born stunted and die. The whole reason is the use of old, contaminated with diseases and low-quality material. Therefore, when laying in the incubator, the above-described egg selection rules must be observed.
Many owners give a positive characteristic of this breed:
- П Altavian chickens quickly start to skid, gain weight well and are not demanding in feed, which makes it possible to significantly save on their content;
- some choose this breed because of the tasty and juicy meat, which, with a balanced diet, practically does not contain fat;
- many birds are attracted by the calm and peaceful nature of the birds, which allows them to be kept together with others;
- many farmers are engaged in natural breeding, and the result is quite successful – over a season, a brood hen can bring 2 -3 offspring.