The type of orchid growth can be monopodial and sympoidal. Each of them has its own characteristics, the study of which will allow you to properly care and grow plants.
- Description of the types
- Monopodial orchids
- Sympodial orchids
- Traditional way
- Intensive way
- Planting and propagating a monopodial orchid
- Planting and propagating a sympodial orchid
- Care for flower stalks
- Diseases and pests
Description of types
Monopodial orchids do not have a rhizome, pseudobulbs, the species has 1 vertically growing stem, 1 apical growth point. The apical bud remains throughout the plant life, it grows up, not wide, the leaves are laid at the top, the stem is elongated.
They begin to develop from the top of the shoot, leaves appear on it in turn. In the sinuses among the leaves, buds are laid, lateral peduncles or aerial roots grow from them. Over time, the lower leaves age and die, the updated root system develops on the stem.
Monopodial orchids are characterized by the presence of a long, medium or short stem.In phalaenopsis, the stem grows slowly, the leaves appear thick and fleshy, form faster at the apex, and are collected in a rosette. Leaves (Brassavol, Phalaenopsis) or stems (Vanilla species) of plants without bulbs accumulate moisture, are stored by it.
Sympodial orchids have a large number of shoots (pseudobulb), growing in a horizontal position, which are united by a rhizome (rhizome). A plant has more than 1 growth point, development occurs when fresh sprouts are formed. Over time, the sprout turns into a pseudobulb.
The sympodial form of growth is characterized by a horizontal direction similar to a vine. In a sympodial orchid, the vertical signs of growth stop at the end of seasonal growth, and fresh lateral growth appears in the new season. The horizontal parts form the rhizome, and the vertical ones appear above the ground.
The sympodial orchid has different pseudobulbs: round and elongated. Pseudobulbs are formed by 1 or more stem internodes. After the appearance of leaf-like scales, their growth begins, leaves grow from the scales. After a while, a characteristic type of pseudobulb is formed at their base, in which 2 new buds are laid.
The vital activity of the pseudobulb lasts 2-3 years, after which they turn yellow and die. After the maturity of the pseudobulb, its apical bud disappears or passes into an inflorescence.After the formation of the peduncle, the pseudobulb does not grow, a new growth is formed at its base and a new development cycle takes place.
In plants, the flower arrow develops from buds located at the base of the shoot, either in the axils of the leaves or in its upper part. Sympodial orchid has thin, narrow leaves, the death of leaves occurs faster than that of monopodial. This type will bloom if it is provided with a dry and cool dormant period, watering is stopped for 2-2.5 months. Nutrition occurs due to the accumulation of moisture in pseudobulbs.
There are 2 ways of growing at home – traditional and intensive.
There is a clear alternation of periods of growth and dormancy. The growth period falls on summer time. Orchid grows resistant, but development is slow.
Growth is stimulated due to the intensive irrigation regime. This method is also used on an industrial scale: a gain of 2 or more times a year is obtained. The plant has a fast flower production rate, and there is a risk that it will turn out weak.
Planting and propagating a monopodial orchid
Orchids have long stems, dendrobiums propagate by cuttings of air shoots .Cuttings are cut at the top of the stem above the leaf. Within 24 hours, the cuttings are dried, after which they are planted in a dry substrate and placed in a greenhouse. The temperature should be 25 ° C. The roots will appear in the cuttings after 30 days.
In phalaenopsis, the formation of vegetative buds is stimulated by wrapping the sleeping buds with moist sphagnum and polyethylene. Wet and hot rooms are suitable for development.
Planting and propagating a sympodial orchid
Sympodial orchids are planted at an angle, laying on a substrate, and a garter to the support or peg is made. This type of plant can hang over a pot. When planting, the vegetative mass is placed near the edge of the pot using support. Rhizome is placed horizontally, this stimulates the growth of rhizomes.
Reproduction occurs after the appearance of nodes with leaves and pseudobulbs. When dividing the rhizome, it is divided into sections with nodes.
Each node should consist of 2 pseudobulbs with leaves and root bundles. Plots after separation are planted in different pots. If the plant began after division, then new roots and leaves will appear.
First you need to check the condition of all parts of the orchid:
- root neck.
If all parts are intact, it should not be transplanted.
The flower needs to be created under favorable conditions:
- proper watering;
- high humidity;
- transplant if necessary.
Sympodial orchids suffer from malfunctioning periods of rest. If shoots with bulbs appear during this period, leaves and roots grow in the summer, the plant will have problems, it will become weak and will not be able to bloom.
Care for flower stalks
If the plant has bloomed, yellowing and drying of the peduncle occurs. Peduncles of sympodial orchids are removed, monopodial peduncles are allowed to be left.
Peduncles are pruned in the following cases:
- the plant became ill or became weak;
- flowering continued for a long time, was delayed rest process;
- drying the flower stalk.
Diseases and pests
Diseases caused by bacteria, viruses or fungi are dangerous for plants .
Monopoidal orchids are often affected by infections that develop in the water around the stem. You can protect the plant by creating favorable conditions.
Diseases caused by fungi arise due to increased humidity and lack of ventilation. They develop if temperature changes occur.
If you are affected by a viral disease, the plants will have to be removed.
Pests have a negative impact on the growth and development of monopoidal and sympoidal orchids:
- scale insects;
- leaf mosquitoes;
- slugs, snails.
The study of monopodial and sympodial orchids allows you to select and grow the most suitable type of flower. With proper care and cultivation, they will please with their flowering and active growth.