Rice, Calories, benefits and harms, Useful properties

Rice is a common product, but underestimated in our country.
Compared to the inhabitants of Asia, the Europeans eat 20-25 times less rice.
However, the reason is not only in different eating habits, but also in the fact that
that we just do not notice it in rice
medicinal properties. The specifics of industrial grain processing are still
then leads to the fact that the usual white rice for us is often deprived of
its most valuable part is the bran casing. True, for “salvation”
nutrient manufacturers have already come up with something.

Useful properties of rice

Composition and calorie content

Boiled white medium-grain unfortified rice contains (per 100 g): .

Calories 130 Kcal

PP 0,4 Phosphorus,
P 37 Vitamin
B1 0,02 Potassium, K 29 Vitamin
B2 0,016 Magnesium, Mg 13 Vitamin
B6 0,05 Calcium, Ca 3 Vitamin
B9 0,002 Zinc,
Zn 0,42

The table below shows data on boiled white
(polished) rice – in other words, what, in most
cases, we consume in the finished rice dish after mechanical
and temperature exposure.

But the amount of useful components in the original chemical composition
product varies significantly depending on the type of rice, degree
and the type of processing (cleaning, grinding, steaming), use
genetically modified technologies, as well as varieties and growing conditions.

To summarize, then, in general, rice that has undergone the least purification
(peeling, sanding, polishing) retains more
useful substances than rice, which has gone through several stages of processing.

White rice, familiar to us and the most widespread in the whole world
Is the most refined product with a polished brown
or the black outer layer of the rice kernel. In dry rice grits
up to 80% of its mass is carbohydrates, from 2 to 12% – proteins and up to
1,5% fat. But most often the following ratio is found on packages:
carbohydrates 70-75%, proteins – 6-7%, fats – 0,5-1%, calories – 330-350
kcal / 100g. With an abundance of vitamins, polished unfortified rice is not
is different.

In unpolished grain, as well as in cereals, to a large extent
retained the bran casing (this category also includes those who are gaining
popularity of brown rice), and vitamins and minerals
much more.

Rice preserved (or partially preserved) in such a cereal
bran are distinguished by a higher content of oils, polysaccharides,
proteins and trace elements. They contain a lot of vitamins
group B and minerals, but in addition, more
one hundred antioxidants
and several categories of bioactive phytonutrients: polyphenols,
phytosterols, tocotrienols, gama oryzanol. Rice bran
considered a good plant source of magnesium, selenium, zinc,
vitamin E, omega-3
fatty acids.

In order, on the one hand, to preserve the valuable substances of the bran
shell, and, on the other hand, prevent rapid rancidity
oils and grain spoilage, manufacturers use the technology of thermal
steaming rice. First, such rice, along with the shell, is soaked
in water and then “blown through” with hot steam. Thanks to such a steam
“Pumping” part of the valuable substances from the bran goes into rice
grain and starch
gelatinized (gelatinized).

Due to these factors, all existing rice consumers
often so conditionally and are divided, according to the method of processing, into three categories:
brown / brown (that is, to some extent retained valuable
shell), peeled (brushed white) and steamed.

In GOST 7301-2013 . a much more detailed breakdown is presented

  • Unbroken – preserved husk after threshing,
    aka paddy.
  • Collapsed – with removed husk, husked (husked
  • Sanded – with the removal of husk and embryo (milled
  • Highest degree of grinding – with the removal of more
    parts of husk and germ particles (well-milled rice).
  • Unfinished – some intermediate option
    between the previous two (undermilled rice).
  • Extra class – with the removal of almost all the husk
    and germ particles (extra-well-milled rice).
  • Steamed – soaked, steamed
    and then parboiled rice. GOST allows steaming
    both husked and milled rice, so by definition
    “Steamed” on the label may be different in the set of chemical
    items product.

Types of rice

Moreover, even this classification does not take into account various
options for increasing the nutritional value of rice. For example, there are
technology of 15-minute soaking of whole peeled-off whole
or crushed grains in solutions of B vitamins at a temperature
90 ° C. Complete spraying of whole kernels with a solution is also practiced.
vitamins at 35 ° C, followed by drying in an oven. In both of these
cases, the output in rice contains more vitamins B1, B2, B3,
B5, B6, B12 (although the second method is considered more efficient).

The nutritional value of rice is increased not only by technological
processes in production, but also through genetic engineering. So,
at the beginning of this century, a genetically modified
golden rice. It got its name for its rich yellow color.
and increased nutritional value due to increased content
in a grain of provitamin A (beta-carotene).

The scientific presentation of transgenic golden rice came out in 2000.
After 5 years, biotechnologists from Syngenta presented the second
version of transgenic rice. It has a beta-carotene content of 23
times exceeded its number in the first version. However, for a long time
this rice was not officially grown anywhere, because immediately after
his appearances around the world sparked a heated debate about security
GMO products for humans and the environment. It took years
for conducting experiments confirming the safety of transgenic
rice, and its value in the nutritional system. It is believed that to ensure
60% of a person’s daily need for vitamin A is enough to eat
100-150 g of boiled golden rice.

Finally, some natural varieties of rice differ from
“Congeners” with such features of the chemical composition that
allow them to be used for therapeutic purposes. In particular,
there is a variety of Japanese rice known as glutinous
(sticky) rice. Due to a natural mutation, it is almost not synthesized in it
starch polysaccharide amylose ., and the starch base here is
amylopectin. And the composition of red yeast rice contains monacolin
K, which can potentially reduce abnormally high levels

Rice fields

Even in the same region, you can find rice varieties that differ
different genetic makeup and different concentrations of chemical
components. For example, in northeastern India, a high content of
zinc was found in the Badalsali variety, and the increased iron content
– in the Fazu variety. Moreover, the difference between the varieties with the highest and
the lowest component content can be overwhelming. So,
in the Fazu variety – the regional record holder for iron content,
of this mineral was found on the order of 215 μg / g, and in the Idaw variety –
only 11 μg / g. .

When analyzing pigmented Japanese rice varieties, it was found that
which is very promising from a medical point of view of gamma oryzanol
in black-purple varieties per 100 g of dried weight contains
54,2 mg, in red – 47,3 mg, in green – 44,3 mg, in brown
– 43,3 mg. .

Not surprisingly, with such a variety of “rice variations”
and the glycemic index for each rice category will be different.

On the Harvard Medical School website under “rice products”
there are three lines with different indicators:

  • boiled white rice: 73 ± 4;
  • boiled brown rice: 68 ± 4;
  • rice porridge / boiled: 78 ± 9. .

But researchers who have dedicated their work to glycemic control
load and prevalence of insulin resistance, note
that the glycemic index of rice depends on both the variety and the composition,
and from the method of processing, and from the mass of accompanying factors. .
In general, among rice products, the highest index values ​​are in
rice chips – 82 ± 2, and the lowest – in rice noodles – 53
± 7.

White rice

Medicinal properties

Most Common White Peeled Milled Rice
on store shelves, high in carbohydrates,
easily digested by the body, quickly saturates and in some
regions of the planet practically solves the problem of providing the population
food. However, due to the fact that during processing such a product
loses its valuable outer shell, in the countries where it formed the basis
diet, in the past there were even massive cases of deficiency
vitamin B1, which is considered a key cause of beriberi disease,
leading to damage to the nervous and cardiovascular systems.

Thus, the medicinal properties are mainly not
white, but pigmented varieties of rice and unrefined
(or incompletely refined) grains containing bran oils.

The main components of these oils are unsaturated
fatty acids, triterpene alcohols, phytosterols, tocotrienols,
alpha-tocopherol and others – demonstrated the ability to improve
the lipid composition of plasma in some animals and humans, reducing
total cholesterol, plasma triglyceride concentration, at the same time
increasing the level of “good” high density lipoproteins.

Potential medicinal properties of rice bran oils (detectable
in experiments “in vitro” and on animals) include their ability to:

  • modulate the secretion of the pituitary gland;
  • inhibit gastric acid secretion;
  • slow down the clumping of platelets and the formation of blood clots.

Red rice

For example, red fermented rice (a purple-red hue of which
gives the yeast culture Monascus purpureus) is used in
as a dietary supplement, mainly as a means to reduce
cholesterol levels. Experiments have shown that red extract
yeast rice can lower total serum cholesterol levels
and “bad” low density lipoproteins. Chemical analysis of components
rice revealed the presence of several monacolins in it, one of
which (monacolin K) is chemically identical to lovastatin, widely
used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia.

Scientists see brown rice as the basis for promising
means of prevention of sugar
diabetes and obesity.
. And all because
unrefined grain is regarded as the main source of gamma-oryzanol
(γ-oryzanol). Mainly derived from the fat fraction of rice
bran and therefore partially preserved in brown
rice, gamma oryzanol, according to scientists, reduces tolerance
to glucose
(insulin resistance) and dependence on fatty foods in men
with obesity and prediabetes.

But animal experiments suggest an even broader
the spectrum of possibilities of this lipid fraction of rice bran and brown
rice. For example, it was experimentally demonstrated that gamma oryzanol
crosses the blood-brain barrier in an intact form
and has a beneficial effect on brain function. . Cognitive
tests using new object recognition and Y-maze
have shown that the use of rice gamma-oryzanol allows
mice can do tasks faster and better.

Similar promising results have been reported by another group.
scientists. In their study . gamma oryzanol prevented inflammation
brain and cognitive impairment in adult mice. Its impact
contributed to the improvement of cognitive functions during neuroinflammatory
answer. The authors suggested that systematic use
gamma oryzanol can restore memory and cause severe
anti-inflammatory response.

In general, if we talk about some specific rice components,
capable of providing therapeutic effects, it is gamma oryzanol
today it seems to be the most promising of them. However, simply
when using rice bran (and even more so, “semi-refined”
rice) in food to gain sufficient for a therapeutic effect
the amount of gamma oryzanol is rather difficult. The share of this compound
accounts for about 0,1% of the mass of bran, and you need about 2 g of oil
to obtain 100 mg of gamma-oryzanol (in the described experiments
mice were given 100 mg / kg compound daily).

Rice bran oil

But this does not change the prospects for the use of gamma oryzanol in
neurology, cardiology, dermatology and other areas of medicine.
There are laboratory studies in which isolated from
rice bran components (0,2% concentration of tocotrienol,
phytic and ferulic acids, but especially gamma-oryzanol) reduced
the size of the colon tumor, suppressed the formation of new vessels
in tumor tissues, reduced melanin synthesis.

  • Nervous system. In animal experiments,
    switching to a diet based on brown rice resulted in
    that laboratory rats preferred such a high-carbohydrate diet
    diets high in fat. .
    Scientists linked the change in food preferences to the fact that gamma-oryzanol
    (by acting on the hypothalamus) reduced the stress of the endoplasmic
  • The cardiovascular system. Studies show
    that gamma-oryzanol interferes with the absorption of cholesterol in the intestine.
    However, the potential for therapeutic use of rice oil
    bran remains in question.

In an experiment with 30 volunteers (men with mild hypercholesterolemia
38-64 years old) some of the participants took rice bran oil for 4 weeks
with a relatively high concentration of gamma-oryzanol (0,8 g / day),
while others are very low (0,05 g / day). Analyzes of both groups
showed a decrease in total plasma cholesterol (by 6,3%), “bad”
low density lipoprotein (almost 10,5%) and the ratio
levels of “bad” and “good” cholesterol (by 18,9%). But essential
there were no differences between the indicators of the groups. .

In the manifestation of anti-sclerotic properties in animal experiments
black wild rice also performed well. . It is also often called
water, Indian and Canadian rice, since three out of four
its species in natural conditions used to grow in the Northern
America and only one in East Asia. Today in natural
environment it can be found in New Zealand and Australia, but is cultivated
him in his historical homeland.

Black wild rice

Strictly speaking, wild water rice is not really rice. It refers to
to the genus Zizania (Tsitsania), and sowing rice, the grains of which are sold
in our stores – to the genus Oryza. So although both
the plant represents the Cereals family, they cannot be called very
close relatives, and, in general, put in one row (in one
article on rice) is not very correct. But interest in wild black
rice has been growing so rapidly lately that not to mention
about him is impossible.

Wild water rice (tsitsania) has a lower carbohydrate content and calorie content,
than polished white rice of the genus Oryza. And since it is traditionally
is not cleansed, then both fiber and vitamins and minerals remain in it
3-5 times more than in white polished. Nutritionists consider
citation as a promising object of healthy nutrition aimed
to lower cholesterol levels. But it is too early to announce
its product is more valuable than, for example, brown rice with bran
shell. It is made a delicacy, first of all, not unique
medicinal properties, and laborious harvesting and relative rarity.

Use in medicine

In the wake of the popularity of “dark” types of rice, the dietary supplement industry began
release of “rice tablets / capsules”. For example, by different manufacturers
red fermented rice is released (its search engines
issued on request “brown rice”), which consumers accept,
mainly to lower the level of “bad” cholesterol.

At the same time, reviews of people who regularly take such an extract are
contradictory nature. The main claim that is voiced
dissatisfied, – the absence of any recorded in the analyzes
positive effect.

The producers of such plant extracts themselves in the accompanying
instructions are usually more cautious about the potential therapeutic
the effect of red fermented rice. As a rule, they emphasize,
that their fermentation technology eliminates the
in vivo mycotoxins of molds citrinin.
And in the list of the medicinal properties of rice, they mention the improvement of digestion,
work of the respiratory tract, the immune system. If rice extract
additionally enriched with coenzyme Q10, it is indicated that red
yeast rice is able to support cardiovascular function.

Brown rice

In folk medicine

Speaking about the beneficial properties of rice, traditional medicine, too, in the first
queue describes the use of unrefined rice grains. Usually
with their help, lowering cholesterol levels, treat atherosclerosis,
angina pectoris, they are used to prevent heart attacks
and strokes.
Rice compresses are applied to the “sore spot” in case of dislocations,
bruises, rheumatism.
Sometimes such compresses are used to relieve symptoms of colds.
diseases: runny nose, cough, etc.

But white rice has also found application in traditional medicine. Withdrawing from
using it, excess fluid, traditional healers, reduce blood pressure
and eliminate edema.
Boiled rice compresses cleanse the skin of boils
and carbuncles. And they drink rice water to disinfect organs.
Gastrointestinal tract, stopping diarrhea,
caused by infectious diseases.

Rice water is a starch slurry left over from cooking
rice. In some cases, to obtain rice water, cereals are boiled
until it is completely dissolved. Less concentrated
means – water drained after 15 minutes of boiling rice, –
recommend wiping your skin or washing your face, combining the procedure with
elements of facial massage.

In oriental medicine

In the specialized literature regarding the role of rice in Eastern
medicine, you can find two almost opposite points
vision. According to the first (more common) rice is a product
with a weakly expressed “warm” Yang energy. According to the second, this is,
rather, a “cold” Yin product, as it grows in water and is cooked
in water. And, indeed, “moisture” is a property of Yin products,
and “dryness” refers to products of the Yang category.

Another view reconciles these points of view, according to which,
rice has neutral energy, and the preponderance in one direction or another
determined by the way the rice is prepared for consumption and the neighborhood
in a recipe for other products with a more pronounced beginning.

Rice field

So, for example, for the prevention of heart disease, rice is recommended
eaten in combination with beef
and ginger
to improve liver and kidney function – with sesame seeds:
in this case, rice (50 g) and sesame seeds (25 g) are boiled for a quarter of an hour
in 250 ml of water. To normalize blood pressure according to the same recipe
rice (50 g) cooked with corn
(25 d).

In one old rice-water Chinese medicine recipe
mixed powder of dried ginger (about 0,5 tsp), appointing
it is a remedy for sharp and sharp pains in the abdomen. In the other – rice
proposed to exclude pregnant women from the diet, although it was believed
that if a woman does not want to change her eating habits, then it is better
and do not insist, since disputes on this matter will harm

Rice is also included in the recipes for several dietary soups prescribed
cancer patients. There rice is mixed with onions,
ginger and chicken
egg. But it is believed that the same soup will help cure and
from colds provoked by the Wind and Cold.

As part of our general guidelines for healthy eating, whole grains
Rice grits with salt are advised to eat regularly to improve appetite.

At the same time, raw rice is also used in Chinese medicine. He is appointed
for removing worms (about 1 tbsp. l in the morning before meals).
In addition, raw rice grain is crushed and ground into powder,
with the addition of a small amount of water is used as an external
compress for inflammation.

Combining rice with warm water, milk and salt in a special “rice
tea “is accepted in those regions of Asia where the climate is harsh
conditions: Mongolia, Buryatia, Tibet. Such tea with ground rice
(0,5 tsp per cup) warms the internal organs of a person.

Growing rice on the mountainside

But in general, in some sources it is believed that in the Tibetan folk
medicine, rice is a potentially cold yin product that
not shown to all “types of constitution”. So, people like “Bile”
it will be useful because energetic and quick-tempered representatives
this type with the help of rice can balance the internal “heat”
and “cool”. And in people of the “Wind” and “Slime” types, rice can cause
upset gastrointestinal tract, deterioration of the kidneys and bladder,
provoke an exacerbation of prostatitis.

In the traditional medicine of neighboring China, a therapeutic purpose
rice differs depending on the consistency of the rice base.

  • Liquid rice. Such a water-boiled product
    without the addition of spices, it quenches thirst well and helps to restore
    intestinal patency in case of chronic constipation.
  • Rice porridge of medium consistency. She is also capable
    normalize the digestive tract, but, in addition, increases heat,
    and, as a consequence, body temperature and activity in general. Also
    such porridge removes traces of diseases from the body.
  • Very thick rice. Such a viscous agent is used
    in extreme cases of diarrhea, when other rice recipes
    do not work.
  • Puffed rice. “Airy” consistency reaches
    by drying pre-washed rice and then
    frying in a small amount of vegetable oil. After
    with this preparation, the rice grains burst and crumble easily. It is believed
    that puffed rice can improve bone regeneration

But in general, rice porridge in any form in Chinese medicine is called
normalize the work of the digestive system and restore the strength of the body
after intestinal disorders.

Brown rice

For losing weight

“Empty” rice (that is, rice porridge without added oil or
jam) very often become the basis of diets aimed at
reduction in weight and waist size. The authors of these diets put special emphasis on
on the fact that you should not eat white polished rice, but
unrefined – brown.

He earned such a reputation not only because it retains
a complex of nutrients, and also because of the fiber in the composition, which provides
longer saturation period. In addition, rice belongs
to absorbent products that effectively absorb moisture.

As evidence of the effectiveness of the rice diet is often cited
“Calculations” by a group of Japanese scientists led by Tomoko Imai. In the European
obesity congress in Glasgow, Japanese researchers
showed the relationship between the prevalence of obesity in the population
and the traditions of eating rice. Extrapolated statistics
to the whole world led scientists to the conclusion that an increase in the average daily
eating even 50 grams of rice can reduce obesity
in the world by 1%.

However, the calculation method and, as a consequence, the conclusions set out in the report,
soon raised doubts. It was not about intentional falsification,
but critics have found that direct causation
no reduction in obesity with increased consumption of rice has been shown.
The Japanese, on the basis of large data sets, in fact, simply stated,
that in western countries the percentage of obese people is higher than in eastern countries.

And although people in the East and West do have different food
habits and traditions, there is no evidence that exactly
rice provided such a positive advantage over a lifestyle and
food in general.

High-calorie rice is generally not considered by nutritionists as
a particularly promising product that can help reduce waist size.
Leading gastroenterologists and nutritionists say in their interviews
about a possible weight loss, but, first of all, by removing
body fluids. In addition, the lack of in a mono-rice diet
protein and fat leads to medium- to long-term loss of muscle
masses. Intense physical activity with such a reduced
rice diet is not recommended and effective getting rid of fat
mass during the rice diet does not occur.

Moreover, almost all rice products differ enough
high glycemic index, which provides a rapid increase
glucose in the blood, which in people with disorders of carbohydrate metabolism
more likely to be used to synthesize fat.

Boiled white rice in a plate

In cooking

If, in assessing the medicinal properties of rice, the key factor is considered
the degree of its purification from the valuable bran casing, then in cooking
other criteria come to the fore: taste, smell, appearance
cereals and the ability to maintain all these characteristics in one way or another
a different dish.

Accordingly, in one of the conventionally accepted “culinary” classifications,
and in the classification according to GOST 55289-2012 . rice is divided by three
type (with several subtypes according to the characteristics of grain consistency):
long-grained, medium-grained, short-grained (round-grained).

Long grain rice is most often used for
cooking pilaf and side dishes. There are many varieties of rice
with long grain, but the group of Indian
origin, known collectively as “Basmati”. The word itself
“Bāsmatī” is translated from Hindi as “fragrant”, so it is not surprising
that earlier, under this name, any
fragrant rice.

In Indian, Pakistani, Arabic cuisine, varieties of the Basmati group
(Type-3, Taraori Basmati, Basmati 370) occupy a leading position
thanks to a pleasant spicy refined aroma and sweet taste
with nutty notes. An aromatic compound that responds
for these qualities, – 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline – can be found in other
“Ordinary” varieties, but in basmati it is 10-12 times more. Moreover
it is believed that such rice should
lie down for at least a year, and it is better if it “ripens” after collection
up to 10 years.

The peculiarity of basmati grain is that during cooking it increases
occurs in length, but in width (thickness) it increases slightly.
Basmati varieties generally stand out for their extra-long (from 6,5-7
mm and more) thin grains that contain little gluten
and are easily separated from each other after rinsing. It is believed
that the best basmati dishes come from steaming.

However, aromatic rice includes not only the varieties of the group
basmati. Recently, the popularity of one more very
fragrant rice, known in our country as “Jasmine”, and on
homeland – in Thailand – as the “White Jasmine Flower”, because it
really smells like a plant bud with milky notes.
In European cuisines, they try to emphasize this aroma, not interrupt.
strong smelling spices. In Thailand itself, it is prepared in different ways:
including hot spices, seafood
and fish sauce, meat.

Jasmine rice

Jasmine is also best steamed. In Thailand for this
grains are placed in bags made of fabric that allows air to pass through (for example,
from muslin), and hung directly in a double boiler or boiler. But we have
the more common way of cooking Jasmine is in a saucepan with a covered

How to cook jasmine rice:

  1. 1 As usual, the cereal is first washed several times, stacked
    into a cast iron or other thick-walled pan and filled with water
    in the proportion of 1,5 cups of water per 1 cup of grain.
  2. 2 The water in the saucepan is quickly brought to a boil at maximum
    fire with the lid open.
  3. 3 After boiling, the fire is screwed down to the minimum, rice
    closed with a lid and left for 20 minutes. Do not add water
    you don’t even need to remove the lid to prevent hot steam from escaping.
  4. 4 After 20 minutes, the saucepan is removed from the heat, and the rice in it gently
    fluffed up and left in the pan for another 10 minutes.

From such “Jasmine”, if you do not salt it first, you can
make great desserts with coconut milk.

But delicious dessert dishes are also obtained from one more variety.
rice – sticky, which is often called sweet. He imagines
is one of the varieties of Japanese rice and is often used
for making pies and dessert sweets. In particular,
in Japan itself from it after a long pounding to a pasty
state is made the mochi rice dough. According to traditional technology
rice is first soaked overnight, then boiled, and then, periodically
moistening and stirring, pounded with a large two-handed hammer made of wood
in a stone mortar. Subsequently, such a molded dough goes to
soups, ice cream, waffle cakes and other pastries.

Rice with sushi and sake

In general, Japan, thanks to its rice, “launched” at least
two culinary phenomena known all over the world: sushi and sake.

  • For land usually use fine-grained white
    rice, which, after adding rice vinegar sauce to it,
    sugar and salt, and so called “vinegar rice” – sumeshi. Although
    in some establishments today you can also find brown sushi
    or black rice.
  • Sake – alcoholic 15% drink, which
    domestically, it is more commonly referred to as nihonshu. Manufacturing technology
    involves pasteurization and mold fermentation, which is why
    in the best sake varieties
    you can “hear” the taste of cheese and mushrooms, although apple-grape

Of the types of hostess rice we sell, so as not to get confused,
sometimes they even make an approximate “culinary map”. It has basmati
more often taken for pilaf, jasmine – for salads and desserts, arborio
with a creamy consistency – for risotto soups, camolino – for desserts
and porridge, etc. But, of course, each hostess always decides for herself,
which dish with which rice is tastier.

In cosmetology

In cosmetology, rice is used to moisturize the skin, stimulate
cell regeneration, whitening and elimination of inflammation. Components
rice bran are included in creams from various manufacturers
cosmetics, and in the composition of home anti-aging cosmetics.

In one of the experiments, the topical application of gamma-oryzanol obtained
from rice bran casing, when applied topically for
28 days allowed to increase skin hydration in 1/3 of the participants,
and 90% of all subjects reported that their skin was lightened.

At home using rice flour (powdered
whole grains or brown rice), peels, whitening
and tightening masks. For example, to create a peeling composition, you will need
mix this flour with honey
in a ratio of 1: 3, and after applying to the skin, massage for
5-10 minutes. But even after that, the composition does not need to be washed off immediately. If a
leave the mixture for another quarter of an hour, it will begin to play the role of a nutritious
and a whitening mask.

We have collected the most important points about the benefits and possible dangers of rice
in this illustration and we will be very grateful if you share
a picture on social networks, with a link to our page:

As we said above, any rice has several
key characteristics that manufacturers put on the label:

Therefore, for any rice, the name usually consists of several words,
for example: “Long Grain Ground Basmati + Brand Name”.

Those consumers who choose rice according to the criterion of usefulness give
preference for brown (brown) steamed product. If choose
rice for a certain dish, then they focus more on shape and texture
(stickiness / friability) grain. If it is most important to keep specific
smell and taste, look at the varietal group.

But here you need to immediately make an amendment. If the first three characteristics
(grain shape, degree of purification and additional procedures) manufacturers
usually indicate honestly, then with the varietal affiliation they can
“Dissemble”. Such “deceit” well illustrates the use of
the term “basmati” on the packaging.

Basmati varieties are distinguished by their extra-long fine grains, however
rice is still counterfeited by mixing with other, less expensive varieties.
Moreover, the release of counterfeit products takes place all over the world. For example,
in the UK a few years ago, half of all basmati rice
went on retail sale with admixtures of other long-grain varieties.
In Indian wholesale consignments, a third of the rice contained impurities from the cheaper
product. At some point, the problem became so acute that
it took the introduction of a “DNA certificate” of purity for each batch
basmati. And at the end of the .s, an Indian company
even began the release of special kits that allow using a DNA test
to distinguish real basmati from fake.

It is now believed that rice from this group began to be grown in much
large volumes and the situation with counterfeits has changed for the better
side, but pay attention to additional control factors
you still need it. So, for example, as the country of origin
Basmati raw material can only be specified by India or Pakistan possessing
exclusive rights to export it.

Marketing moves include the mention of “gold” on the labels.
rice marked “Non-GMO”. This combination is impossible because
“The same” beta-carotene-rich golden rice is the result
transgenic modifications. Therefore, the word “Golden” in product names
usually just indirectly indicates that the package contains
darker (that is, less peeled) rice.

There is, of course, and outright falsification, when part of the rice
grains in the package are replaced by starch pseudo-grains. If such
Throw the “substitution” into water, then the real grains will swell, and the starch
– turn into a gooey porridge. It is even more dangerous if the “Asian” fake
kneaded from starch, rubber and plastic. These seeds look beautiful
but they, unlike real ones, do not sink in water, melt when heated,
and give off a strong bitterness if chewed.

In addition to the above criteria, rice, according to GOST 55289-2012, is accepted
divided into 4 classes (higher, 1, 2, 3 classes), according to the selection criterion
quality grain. In the upper class, yellowed grains should not be
to be in general, and no more than 2% are allowed for reds. In the third (lowest)
class, the percentage of yellowed and red cereals can be up to 4
and 15%, respectively.

In order to consider grain before buying, it is often advised to buy
rice in a transparent package. However, cereals do not like sunlight,
and dark rice, partially preserved bran oils – is no exception.
Therefore, it is better to buy it in an opaque package with a transparent
“Window” for visual assessment of grain quality and the amount of flour.

In relatively dry (humidity 60-70%) and cool (up to 18 ° С)
place under a tightly closed lid, rice can be stored for about 12-18
months. The exact date is indicated by the manufacturer on the packaging. But
brown rice is stored less because it retains more oils,
vulnerable to light and oxygen.

To absorb excess moisture (and the moisture in rice may initially
do not meet the requirements of the standard) in the same jar with rice sometimes
put a cloth bag of salt. And to avoid the appearance of insects
– laurel
leaf, unpeeled garlic
cloves or dry citrus zest. Cooked rice in the refrigerator is stored
up to 4-5 days, but there it should be isolated from other products,
tightly closing the jar or pan.

Rice has a very rich history. About 7-9 thousand years ago it was domesticated
in East Asia (the territory of modern China), a little later and
independently – in South Asia, about 2-3 thousand years ago – in Africa.
Rice was also cultivated by the aboriginal inhabitants of North America. Not surprising,
that over such a long history of the world has accumulated a lot
interesting stories about rice. We took from them only a few facts:

However, if you behave carefully, rice in this sense is no more dangerous,
than any other product. And the real danger comes from overestimating
the therapeutic role of rice and avoiding medications in
when they are really needed. So, evaluating the medicinal
the effects of rice, it must be remembered that it is, first of all, a food product,
not a medicine.

  • , title : 'The Truth About Rice: Brown vs White (Science)
    The Truth About Rice: Brown vs White (Science)

Anna Evans

Author ✓ Farmer

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