Black currants are healthier, larger, and generally sweeter than red currants.
Apparently, therefore, it is more popular with gardeners in our country and about the benefits
everyone knows its fragrant fruits for health. Moreover, modern
scientific research confirms its antimicrobial, antioxidant,
anti-radiation, anti-inflammatory and other healing properties.
Useful properties of black currant
Composition and calorie content
Fresh berries contain (in 100 g): .
Calories 63 Kcal
As part of black currant berries, the “main” useful component
commonly referred to as vitamin C. By its quantity, black currant
gets into Top 10
a list of herbal vitamin sources. Only 20 is enough
grams of berries to meet the daily requirement of an adult
human in ascorbic acid, and in the unripe fruits of its
even more than ripe ones. The concentration of this vitamin is even higher
in buds (up to 450 mg / 100 g) and plant leaves (after flowering
– up to 470 mg / 100 g) ..
There is also a lot of it in flowers and buds, therefore, in folk medicine
there are recipes with all the listed parts of the plant.
The amount of ascorbic acid depends on weather conditions (in
the dry hot period is reduced by about 25-30%),
from the region (in the northern cold regions there is more vitamin C in berries)
and from other factors.
Among the minerals, there is quite a lot of potassium in berries (about 13-15%
from the daily requirement) and iron (about 9-10% s. p.). The fruits accumulate
zinc, copper, selenium. But black currant shows its healing effects
not only due to the presence of some individual components.
Researchers often talk about a synergistic effect that
manifests itself due to a complex of substances that systemically enhance
actions of each other. Therefore, scientists pay special attention to
content in berries of carotene, phenylalanine, lemon, apple
and other organic
acids, glycosides, anthocyanins
(cyanidin, delphinidin), tannins and pectin substances, essential
oils and various sugars (glucose,
Blackcurrant phytochemicals show antimicrobial,
neuroprotective, hypotensive, immunomodulatory, diaphoretic
effects of varying severity, as well as powerful anti-radiation,
and anti-inflammatory properties that may be helpful in
prevention and treatment of cancer. Currant substances show potential
to improve the general health of a person, especially when
diseases associated with inflammation and glucose regulation
in blood. In addition, blackcurrant extracts have the ability
inhibit low-density lipoproteins and reduce the risk of cardiovascular
The medicinal properties of black currant have been demonstrated so far, mainly
in experiments “in vitro” on cellular material (in vitro)
and in laboratory animals. But even these experiments lead researchers
to promising conclusions and assumptions:
- Anthocyanin-rich blackcurrant extract is likely to
inhibit the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Moreover
an aqueous extract of the peel of the berries showed an even more pronounced cytotoxic
effect on human liver cancer cells HepG2 than anthocyanin aglycones
berry pulp. .
- Eating black currants reduces liver inflammation and
lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammatory responses of splenocytes
(monocyte cells of spleen tissue) in obese mice.. Additive
extract reduces obesity-induced inflammation in adipose tissue
and splenocytes, at least in part, by modulating energy
exchange in skeletal muscles. .
- Blackcurrant extracts can improve postprandial
(“After meal”) glycemic control in type 2 diabetics thanks to
antiglucosidase activity of plant polyphenols. .
- Wild Blackcurrant Leaf Extract Suppresses Influenza Virus
And in vitro and in experiments on mice. The extract interferes with attachment
and the penetration of the virus into the cell, and the secondary metabolites of the plant
able to inhibit the replication of influenza virus through intervention
in the synthesis of hemagglutinin, reduce the level of expression of inflammatory
cytokine, interfere with interaction with the cell membrane
etc. This gives hope for the development of a drug or therapeutic
strategies to prevent infection and spread of the virus
at an early stage. .
Antiviral activity of the extract was discovered even earlier.
fruits against influenza A and B viruses and herpes simplex virus.
- The use of preparations based on black currant polysaccharides,
may be used in the treatment of atopic dermatitis
(inflammation causing dry skin and dysfunction of the skin
barrier). It is still far from the creation of a medicine, but with experiments
on laboratory mice, the currant preparation has a diverse effect
on the immune system (suppressed the migration of mast cells into the skin
epidermis and hyperproduction of immunoglobulin E) and generally softened
symptoms of atopic dermatitis. .
- Berry extract combined with cyanidin-3-O-glucoside can
be promising candidates for the development of new treatments
periodontal disease caused by smoking. This is because
that currant extract neutralizes the cytotoxic effect
nicotine on epithelial cells and fibroblasts .
- Blackcurrant juice can cause significant and dose-dependent
lowering blood pressure and heart rate.
So far, this has been discovered with intravenous juice administration and in experiments.
in animals, but the results allow a better understanding of the mechanism of manifestation
The influence of black currant on functionality is being actively studied.
organs of the gastrointestinal tract:
- Plant anthocyanins are able to regulate the gut microbiome,
which is confirmed by experiments on mice. True, essential
only long-term use of berry supplements has an effect
and only on young mice. But even such results open up prospects
in the creation of programs for the treatment of the gastrointestinal tract using diets.… Already exist
projects that investigate the positive effects of powder
blackcurrant extract on the human colon microbiome
to reduce the risk of developing cancer.
- Blackcurrant juice has an antispasmodic effect on
smooth muscles of the gastrointestinal tract (in vitro), due to
which common gastrointestinal disorders may be able to
treat with a currant supplement without resorting to medication
- Arabinogalactan protein, isolated from plant seeds, in
moderately inhibits the adhesion of Helicobacter bacteria
pylori to the walls of the stomach (in an experiment on mucosal sections
shell), which can potentially be used in the treatment of gastritis
Research is also underway on how antioxidants in black
currants are able to stop pathological tissue proliferation,
exhibiting antiproliferative activity on the material of tumor lines
cells of murine melanoma, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer. Are being studied
diuretic and saline-removing (saluretic) properties of different volumes
ethanol extracts of black currant, as evidence of the effect
preparations of this berry on the excretory function of the kidneys are still controversial,
and the nature of the effect is likely to depend on the dosage. .
Some works show the healing effects of black currant,
which are manifested in experimental programs involving
of people. So, for example, it was found that:
- currant juice reduces the effects of oxidative and inflammatory
biomarkers in cultured macrophages in patients with addiction
- black currant anthocyanins as a food additive to the main
treatment inhibits the progression of glaucoma
., and reduce intraocular
pressure in both glaucoma patients and healthy people
- consuming black currants before smoking significantly reduces
negative impact of tobacco smoke on the immunological status of saliva,
and, accordingly, the risks of cavity diseases
When voicing the results of the work, the researchers very clearly describe
experimental conditions and characteristics of the patient group in which
the medicinal effect of black currant was noticed, because when
changes in the specified conditions, the effects can weaken or even
disappear. But in general, the research results show how much
great healing potential is found in berries and leaves
Use in medicine
Black currant fruits are produced as a medicine,
which, according to the indications, is intended for the treatment of diseases
Gastrointestinal tract, atherosclerosis, colds, asthenia
(pathological condition of rapidly emerging fatigue), cardiovascular
diseases and periodontal disease.
Black currant berries with rose hips
in a ratio of 50/50 included in Vitamin collection No. 1. It is prescribed
with vitamin deficiency
(lack of vitamins A, C, P, K). Brewed infusion is recommended
drink 100 ml 3-4 times a day.
Also, currant fruits are part of complex plant
preparations “Travohol” (where currant berries are one of the main
components of the product), “Nevrosin”, “Gerboton” and many others:
- The pharmacological action of the elixir “Travohol” suggests
its use mainly as a choleretic
(stimulating the formation and secretion of bile) in therapy with
violation of the outflow of bile by hypokinetic type and during treatment
chronic non-calculous cholecystitis.
Among the accompanying are named antioxidant, anti-inflammatory,
membrane stabilizing and antispasmodic effects. It is noted
also bacteriostatic action of the drug against bacteria
Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus.
- Tablets “Nevrosin”, according to the instructions, are used for
physical and mental fatigue, neuroses,
depression, diseases of the cardiovascular system, vegetative
disorders, spasms of smooth muscles, climacteric syndrome.
- Tincture “Gerboton” is positioned as a general tonic
to increase physical and mental activity during periods of recovery.
Plant leaves are used in complex herbal supplements
«Phytoline № 24 Adaptofit map», «Phytolann № 11 Urofit map» «Extract
antialcohol-biol “,” Cirrofit “and others. Foreign manufacturers
a number of dietary supplements are produced based on berries and seeds of black currant
(one of the most common forms is capsules). Among the named
effects – prevention of problems of the cardiovascular system and
disorders of visual function, a decrease in the intensity of menstrual
pain, improvement of the condition of the joints, etc.
In folk medicine
In folk medicine of those countries where black currants are traditionally
is considered a medicinal raw material, it is almost universally used
for the treatment of colds,
diseases of the respiratory tract, organs of the urinary system
and joints. But there is also a regional specificity of the use of medicinal
- In Central Asia, black currant berries and leaf decoctions
anemia, diabetes mellitus.
Berry and deciduous decoctions are taken to normalize work
Gastrointestinal tract and cessation of vomiting. Leafy “teas” (which are brewed
similar to tea leaves) drink as a laxative, urinary and diaphoretic
means. Decoctions of leaves when taking a bath relieve joint pain
and muscles, help in the treatment of furunculosis.
In mountainous areas, black currant is used to treat skin
- Bulgarian folk healers recommend currant infusion
leaves to drink for rheumatic
pain. In combination with white wine, such an infusion is prescribed for
weakness of the stomach.
- In folk medicine of Belarus, black currant berries are popular
product for the treatment of diseases of the liver, heart, as well as recovery
functions of the nervous system. With gastritis characterized by low
acidity, use currant juice (50-70 ml 2-3 times
in a day). With diathesis and cutaneous tuberculosis, baths are taken with the addition
decoction of the branches of the plant.
- Russian folk therapy uses currant juice as a remedy
fight against vitamin deficiency and colds, and tea from the leaves – to relieve
symptoms of rheumatism and relieve inflammation of the bladder and kidneys.
All East Slavic peoples have a widespread practice of using
black currant to lower blood pressure, and
getting rid of headaches of vascular and neurogenic origin.
Moreover, for therapeutic purposes, they are often simply ground
with berry sugar. Such a “dessert” for 1-2 tbsp. l. use daily
with tea, instead of jam, a long course (from 1 month and, as
as a rule, before the end of stocks of currants). According to supporters
traditional medicine, in addition to gradually reducing the intensity
headaches with such therapy, meteorological dependence disappears (well-being
does not worsen even with a sharp change in weather), ceases to torment
memory improves, energy and strength appear.
But more often all the same, in folk therapy, fresh juice is used or
black currant berries without added sugar. In this form, currant
products are more useful for various diseases of the digestive system:
gastritis with low acidity, inflammation of the gastric mucosa,
diabetes, excess uric acid in the body. Juice with water without
adding sugar it is advisable to rinse the oropharynx with angina
Some sources devoted to treatment with folk methods,
mention black currant as a means of enhancing male sex
functions. Sometimes black currant is used as an auxiliary
means in the fight against cancer.
Decoctions and infusions
Decoctions and infusions are used for therapeutic purposes in folk therapy.
fruits, leaves, flowers, branches and roots of the plant. Of the rough parts
currants (branches and roots) are most often used to prepare decoctions for bathrooms
procedures for diathesis, rickets,
rheumatism, cutaneous tuberculosis at the rate of 1 part of a decoction per 1000
parts of water. Means for the internal are prepared from the tender parts.
- Currant tea leaves and flowers.
It is used in alternative therapy for joint pain of a different nature.
(arthritis, rheumatism, osteochondrosis),
in the prostate
and urolithiasis. Healing “tea” is prepared from the kidneys and
flowers collected in early spring. Dry raw material (2 tsp) is poured
boiling water (250-300 ml) and infused in a teapot under the lid
20-30 minutes. One such teapot should be enough for a day.
In total, the course of treatment lasts from one and a half to three months, but
every three weeks there is a 5-7-day break.
- Dried fruit decoction. Recommended for colds,
high blood pressure, edema.
Dry berries (3 tablespoons) are poured with water (500 ml) and aged first
over low heat for about 5 minutes, and then additionally insist
In one hour. After straining, the broth is drunk in half a glass.
during the day 4-5 times. A whole glass of broth is drunk immediately
bring down the heat if necessary.
- Infusion of fresh young leaves. Vitamin
fortifying “energy” drink is prepared from spring
leaves of a plant, which are filled with equal shares of boiled
water and sour fruit juice (in an approximate proportion of 50 g of leaves
for 1 liter of liquid). “Cocktail” is infused for a day, filtered
and is taken half a glass a day. To improve palatability
it can be sweetened a little.
- Infusion of dry leaves. Diuretic drink
with pyelonephritis, cystitis,
urolithiasis is prepared from crushed black leaves
currants (5-6 tablespoons), which are 1 hour in a hermetically sealed
the dishes are infused in boiling water (1 l). The infusion follows
take 5 times a day, 200-250 ml. with a spoonful of honey or sugar.
In scientific research
When listing the medicinal properties, we have already referred to various
research of derivatives of fruits and leaves of black currant. Most
these projects, within the framework of which anti-radiation, antimicrobial,
immunomodulatory, hypotensive, neuroprotective, antioxidant,
anti-inflammatory and other properties of the plant were carried out
in laboratories – “in test tubes” or on experimental animals. But
the more valuable and illustrative the comparatively rare studies with
participation of people. Examples of such works are given below.
Blackcurrant berries and nectars optimize metabolic
reactions of the postprandial system to sucrose. As a result
there was a delay in the digestion of sucrose and a slower
absorption of glucose. .
In this randomized controlled crossover study
was attended by 20 healthy women who ate whole
berries or nectars from them (300 ml) with the addition of 35 g of sucrose.
Reactions of glucose, insulin and free fatty acids in group C
the berry diet was compared with the results of the group, whose participants
ate the same amount of sucrose without berry additives.
Despite the higher content of available carbohydrate in berry
and nectar food due to natural currant sugar, the concentration
glucose and insulin in the participants of the “berry group” during the first
30 minutes went down. In addition, the levels of these indicators grew
slower for the second hour. In general, women with berry
diet has significantly improved the glycemic profile. And this allowed
suggest that black currants may slow down digestion
and reduce the absorption of sucrose and thereby suppress postprandial
Consumption of black currant before smoking improves immunological
saliva status and rate of salivation in healthy smokers,
partially neutralizing the negative impact of tobacco smoke. .
In the study, scientists first measured the rate of salivation
and the level of secretion of immunoglobulin A in saliva in healthy smokers
after 5 minutes, half an hour and an hour after smoking. And then they measured
the same indicators after eating 100 g of berries and smoking.
In the group “smoking without currants” there was a delayed for an hour
the effect of reducing the rate of salivation, while in the group “currants
+ smoking ”it was not observed. Moreover, in the second group,
a significant decrease in the concentration of the level of secretion of immunoglobulin
A after a 5-minute interval with a further increase in performance
in 60 minutes.
Researchers believe that eating black currants before
smoking significantly reduces the effect of tobacco smoke on salivation,
physical and chemical properties of saliva, its biological activity
components, including salivary immunoglobulin A. But they emphasize that
what is the best strategy in the prevention of chronic diseases,
there will be a complete cessation of smoking.
Blackcurrant extract powder has a positive effect
on the gut microbiome and colon cancer risk markers
in humans. .
The study involved 30 healthy adult men and
female volunteers who took two drugs based on
blackcurrant extract powder (in the second case – with lactoferrin
and lutein). At the same time, scientists conducted fluorescent hybridization
and analysis of populations of their fecal microbiota before and after taking the drugs.
The results showed that the consumption of currant extracts
led to a significant increase in the population of lactobacilli
and bifidobacteria, while the population of Clostridium bacteria
spp. and Bacteroides spp was significantly reduced. Also after drugs
decreased fecal pH and β-glucuronidase (bacterial
an enzyme that can increase the risk of developing colorectal
Based on this, scientists concluded that the extract preparations of black
currants can act as prebiotic agents, increasing
the number of beneficial bacteria (lactobacilli and bifidobacteria) in
intestines, and deactivating toxic bacterial enzymes involved
in colon carcinogenesis.
In addition to those described, there is also a whole cluster of works on the material
New Zealand berries, in which scientists under different initial conditions
studied the ability of black currant to increase stamina and influence
on some other physiological characteristics in athletes.
The conclusions of scientists cannot be called unambiguous, because the indicators
depended on the type of load, age ., degree of fitness
the subjects . and even on their ethnicity .. But
all results indicate that a certain “sports” effect
from taking black currant there is also to reveal the maximum
potential, you just need to find and observe the optimal parameters
and dosages when using a currant remedy.
For losing weight
Relatively low amount of calories (63 kcal / 100 g of berries)
makes black currant a popular staple among berry lovers
diets. Delicious fruits help a person to diversify the menu and provide
a supply of important vitamins and minerals. But there is another mechanism
probably allowing the use of the berry in the fight against extra pounds:
under certain conditions blackcurrant anthocyanins can help
control weight gain, although their effect is not universal.
So, in the study described below . studied gastrointestinal
distribution of black currant anthocyanins and phenolic metabolites
acid in overweight mice. Compared animals with a microbiome,
artificially disturbed antibiotics, and healthy mice. It turned out,
that the daily intake of a mixed diet of low and high
fat content, supplemented with 1% powdered black extract
currants for 8 weeks, really reduced the growth
body weight and improved glucose metabolism, but only in mice with
intact gut microbiome. In case of violation of the state of microflora
this effect was no longer observed.
But it turned out that with the help of some currant products
dysfunctions associated with obesity and its complications can be eliminated.
So, using the extract of black currant cake, scientists in another
experiment were able to improve the serum lipid profile and positively
influence markers of insulin resistance and antioxidant status
laboratory rabbits on a diet high in
Blackcurrant flavor can range from sweet to
sour with a mass of intermediate flavors. Plant fruits
more often they are eaten fresh (or thawed), but often they are cooked
sauces, preserves, jelly, cookies, marmalade, marshmallow and jelly, as well
alcoholic liqueurs, wines
The buds of the plant are also used for syrups and liqueurs. In Russia
mash was traditionally made from black currant.
In the cuisines of northern peoples, black currants, like other berries,
may be included in the recipe of national dishes. So in Estonia Latvia,
Sweden, Finland are famous for their summer airy semolina dish,
black currant and sugar. This semolina mousse in every country has
its name (in Estonia – mannavaht, in Latvia – uzputenis, in
Sweden – klappgröt), but it is prepared in about the same way.
Black currant (at the rate of 300 g for 6 servings) is pressed until
dry cake, and the resulting juice is mixed with water (400 ml)
and cook for 10 minutes over medium heat. In a strained broth
sugar (250 g) is added, after which it is brought to a boil again.
Semolina is poured into this hot liquid in a thin stream
(100g), which, with constant stirring, cook for about
10 minutes. After cooling, the currant-semolina mass is whipped
with a mixer until an airy fluffy consistency is acquired and sent
in the refrigerator for 2-3 hours. This dish is usually served in bowls.
with whipped cream,
However, in cooking, not only taste is widely used, but also
strong aroma of fruits and leaves of the plant, which is clearly felt
thanks to the abundance of essential oils. Leaves are added for the smell and
The strong currant smell made it possible to use the extract
plant buds as an additive in the perfume industry.
But especially often, black currants can be found in cosmetics.
as part of products for eliminating numerous dermatological
problems of a different nature: eczema,
itching, neurodermatitis, exudative diathesis, systemic scleroderma,
lichen planus. In folk cosmetology, currant juice
fruits are used externally to remove warts.
Also, currant remedies are used to reduce the severity
(pathological condition associated with the disappearance of melanin
on separate areas of the skin). At home, pigmented
spots and freckles are eliminated with a mashed berry mask,
able to whiten the skin.
Blackcurrant masks are used in the “berry season” to prevent
and strengthening hair. In addition, on thematic sites are widespread
recommendations for preventive lubrication of the nail plate
and cuticles with currant juice to prevent fungal
We have collected the most important points about the benefits and possible dangers of black currant.
in this illustration and we will be very grateful if you share
a picture on social networks, with a link to our page:
Berries of a typical blackcurrant shape change color when ripe,
passing through the red phase, gradually becoming darker. therefore
the blacker such a fruit is, the better. Although, on rare occasions,
berries of breeding forms of Ribes nigrum can be caught, which and
when ripe, they are yellow, whitish or green in color.
When an alternative is available, buyers usually opt for a large berry.
In some varieties, the diameter of the fruit can reach 2,5 cm, and the weight is
6-7 grams. But more often berries up to 1 cm are on sale.If they
collected on time (before shedding), then in such, relatively small,
fruits retain all the nutrients. And to buy for sure
ripe, but not overripe black currant, you can choose berries
on green twigs. In addition, such fruits will last even longer.
It is important to always buy dry berries. Collect black currant
also better in dry weather. So she can lie at room
temperature for 4-5 days. Otherwise, the crop will start to deteriorate.
after 2 days. To extend this period up to 2 weeks, currants
usually placed in a refrigerator in a glass container with regular ventilation.
Save ascorbic acid in black currant fruits
ways ”is quite difficult. Exposure to high temperatures and oxygen
in the process of making such a popular five-minute jam
destroys vitamin C, reducing its amount by more than 60%. Even
remaining on the bush, overripe fruits begin to lose ascorbic
acid. And 2 weeks after ripening, its amount in berries
decreases by almost 70%.
Therefore, freezing is considered the best way to store black currants.
In one of the experiments of the Research Institute of Canning Technology, after checking
first frozen, and after a while thawed berries, it turned out
that there is a lot of ascorbic acid left there – about 110
mg / 100 g
Before freezing, the fruits should be separated from the branches, washed, dried,
freeze and only then transfer to glass or plastic
utensils for long-term storage.
The scientific name of black currant is Black currant… It is believed
that the plant got its generic name thanks to the Arabs. According to the legend,
arriving in Spain, the eastern conquerors did not find among the represented
there is the vegetation of the beloved rhubarb.
And so they began to call the “ribes” scrapped berries, which resemble
its sourness rhubarb, and the bush itself.
The Russian name of the plant also has an interesting etymology. Suggest
that it appeared from the word “stench” or “currant”, which connected the meaning
with a very strong odor. However, according to another version, the name
“Currant” could appear from the word “nugget”, which speaks of
“Spontaneous generation” of berry bushes in the forest without human intervention.
Indeed, on the territory of Ancient Russia, currant bushes probably
no one imported – the Slavs at first for centuries harvested from wild
plants, and later, from about the XI century, began to grow currants
at monasteries: berries became both a medicine and a useful supplement,
diversifying ascetic food. Another variant of the name is “monastic
fruit “- reflects this part of the story. However, about the species and even more so
varietal variety of black currant was out of the question then (in Europe
only one type of black currant grows in the wild).
But now there are already dozens of subspecies and hundreds of cultivated
varieties of blackcurrant plants.
Active domestication of currants began in the Middle Ages together
with population growth in Germany, France and England. Moreover,
black-fruited shrubs were undeservedly less popular,
However, from the .th to the .th century, along with the rapid development of breeding
activities both in the West and in the Russian Empire, this is a cooling
began to shrink. By the beginning of the XX in the farms of gardeners throughout Europe
it was possible to find high-yielding large-fruited varieties of black currant
with tasty and aromatic berries. However, later evolutionary paths
the breeding process was divided.
The reason for this was a large-scale epidemic of powdery mildew that struck
most of the usual currant varieties at that time. Moreover,
if some botanists primarily focused on the chemical
war against plant disease, other breeders began to refuse
from growing more vulnerable varieties in favor of more resistant to
fungal diseases. At the same time, the growing population of Siberia and the Far
East also started breeding resistant varieties based on local
subspecies adapted to the climatic characteristics of the region,
with the addition of European and even American branches.
Despite the fact that for many varieties the breeding material was
received from the American continent, in the United States itself, fate
black currant was unsuccessful. To prevent the spread
fungal diseases, the US government and a number of states simply banned
growing currants. And although the federal ban in 1966
was canceled, at the state level in the north of the country in relation to the black
currant he remained in effect. This is doubly “offensive”, since the “American”
currant with a black fruit skin is very sweet
pulp that looks like semolina and is often cultivated
In our country, the fruits of black currant have always been more than just valuable
culinary and food object. From generation to generation it has evolved
the image of a medicinal berry that can replace half of the “first aid kit”.
And it is not surprising that today we see how many hopes,
associated with the wellness effects of black currant are already being confirmed