Butter, Calories, benefits and harms, Useful properties

In 2008, a sculptural composition was briefly installed in the United States.
girls with a cow, almost entirely made of 500 kg of cream
oils. This was done to acquaint schoolchildren with the oldest
and the most important process for humanity in the creation of butter
from milk. But over the long history of oil, this product has not always been given
monuments. In the second half of the .th century, the reputation of butter
so shaken that it is still perceived as a source
harmful cholesterol, suspected of provoking obesity, tumors,
directly accused of creating atherosclerotic plaques and developing
coronary heart disease. How true is this? Understanding
article using current scientific evidence.

Useful properties of butter

Composition and calorie content

Butter contains (in 100 g): .

Calories 731 Kcal

Vitamin E 1,37 Sodium,
Na 583 Vitamin A 0,683 Potassium, K 41 Vitamin
B2 0,064 Phosphorus,
P 24 Vitamin
PP 0,022 Calcium, Ca 23 Vitamin
B6 0,008 Magnesium, Mg 1

Butter is the result of the stage-by-stage processing of animal milk.
Nowadays, we are talking mainly about cow’s milk, although in antiquity
butter was made from sheep and goat milk. And even now in some
countries are based on the milk of yaks or buffaloes.

Milk is used to make cream
which in turn get lost or separated, as a result
what is the emulsion – fat (in the higher categories of oil,
the proportion reaches 85%) with the inclusion of water (15-25% depending on
category and type).

In addition to fat and water, butter contains milk proteins and
insignificant amount of carbohydrates. Of fatty substances
contained in butter, the greatest concern among supporters
healthy eating cause cholesterol
and trans fats. The share of the latter can be 3-6%, which is usually
exceeds the number of trans fats in modern spreads.

The nutritional features of cows in winter and summer are several
differ, and this causes a slight difference in composition
“Winter” and “summer” oil. So, for example, in the “summer” 2-4 times
more vitamin D than in “winter”. Also in the “summer” oil of the order
0,17-0,55 mg / 100 g of carotene, which is used as a food coloring
added artificially to the “winter” oil at the production stage.
In addition, butter contains 2 to 5 mg / 100 g of tocopherols
– biologically active compounds that often combine
under the general name “vitamin E”. This product is also rich in vitamin A.

Since butter is the result of a phased production
process, in the course of the composition, some additional
ingredients regulated by regulations for which
manufacturers are guided. So, for example, oil can additionally
be enriched with vitamins. Almost always in the composition of a larger or
to a lesser extent include salt
(sodium chloride), which acts as both a preservative and a flavor enhancer.

Fermented milk butter is made from fermented cream that has naturally sour
way during fermentation, when bacteria convert sugar into
lactic acid. Sweet butter is made from fresh cream.
Fermentation, as a rule, is carried out by introducing into pasteurized
cream of bacteria and / or lactic acid culture. As a result
fermentation forms diacetyl and other aromatic compounds,
making the final product richer.

Butter raises questions

Medicinal properties

Butter is one of the most controversial foods around. It
it is heavily criticized for the presence of saturated
fat, then rehabilitated for the high content of easily digestible
fatty acids or, for example, for the ability to increase the level of “good”
cholesterol.

As a result, on the one hand, there are reasonable and clear limitations.
according to the maximum allowable amount of consumed oil. With another
– there are studies that question causal
connection between consumption of butter and an increase in mortality from
diseases of blood vessels and heart.

General WHO guidelines limit intake of saturated fat
10% per day (of the total calorie content). In general, this means that
eating about 15-25 grams of oil per day, you can stay
outside the risk zone. But since, in addition to butter, there is
and other sources of saturated fat, better navigate
to the lower marks of the range. Alternatively, it is proposed
switching from butter to vegetable oil: soybean oil,
rapeseed,
sunflower
and others, rich in polyunsaturated fats.

In the UK, the Daily Value of Saturated Fat
is considered to be approximately 30 g for men and 20 g for women – that is,
up to 11% of incoming calories. In the United States, as in the recommendations of the World
healthcare organizations – up to 10%. And the American Association
cardiologists reduce the upper limit generally to 5-6%.

Moreover, if you choose such an amount only with butter,
then it may seem that the usual volume of its consumption can be
and do not reduce – after all, 20 grams is about 2,5 tablespoons.
However, considering that 20 grams of saturated fat is gained
just one hamburger with cheese or bacon and two or three sausages,
then there is practically no room for butter in the diet.

However, recently, voices and defenders have been louder and louder.
butter. In a 2015 study, the impact of introducing
in the diet, a moderate amount of butter was estimated at
experiment with 47 healthy women (70%) and men. They’re in
within 10 weeks (with a two-week break) added to their
the usual menu is either creamy or refined olive
butter. .

Hot toast with butter

At the end of the experiment, in the “butter” group, scientists recorded
more pronounced increase in total cholesterol and the concentration of “bad”
low density lipoprotein than in the “olive oil” group.
At the same time, butter increased the participants in the experiment
the level of “good” high density lipoproteins. At the same time, not
there were significant differences in the concentrations of triacylglycerol,
C-reactive protein, insulin and glucose.

This assessment of the role of butter is very illustrative. In the end
of their article, scientists voice a conclusion, which today is more often
in total, other researchers come: patients with hypercholesterolemia
consumption of butter should be kept to a minimum, and people
with normocholesterolemia can enter butter in moderate
quantities in your diet.

In a universal and simplified form, an assessment of the role of butter
usually sounds like this: eating a lot of butter is harmful even for healthy people
people, and those who have already found problems with the state of the cardiovascular
system or gallbladder, it is advisable to use butter
in minimum quantities. But healthy people completely refuse
after all, few experts advise from this product.

Such a relatively loyal attitude towards butter is justified
theoretically and confirmed by some large-scale observations.

Within the framework of the theoretical justification, the protection of butter is built
on the important and positive role of fats in human life, which
are part of the cells of organs and tissues, participate in the formation
new cell structures. With fats enter the body and substances
with high biological activity: from vitamins A, E, K, D,
and lecithin to essential fatty acids and the notorious cholesterol.

Lecithin, by the way, refers to anti-cholesterol factors. AND
although it is 5-7 times less in butter than in unrefined
vegetable oils, but it is still found there too.

Cholesterol plaques in blood vessels

As for cholesterol, by itself it is necessary for the body.
Thanks to it, the permeability of cell membranes is regulated, in
the skin forms vitamin D, sex hormones are synthesized
etc.

Butter does contain a lot of cholesterol,
although significantly less than in egg
yolks, black
caviar or liver.
And indeed with metabolic disorders of various nature
and damage to the inner walls of blood vessels, “heavy” fractions of cholesterol
can be deposited in the vessels, becoming one of the causes of atherosclerosis.

However, advocates of butter in this case remind that
with food, about 0,5 g of cholesterol comes in daily, and the body
for the same time synthesizes it in the amount of 1,5-2 grams – in
3-4 times more. At the same time, a sharp rejection of cholesterol-containing
products leads to an increase in its synthesis by the body. So that
even with diagnosed gallstone disease or atherosclerosis
do not rush to completely eliminate “cholesterol” foods.
It is believed that it is more expedient to simply reduce the volume of consumption
cholesterol up to 0,25-0,3 g per day. In terms of “butter”
this will be about 10-13 grams.

Several studies also support butter.
in which the role of this product in
increased risk of death from various heart diseases and stroke.

Dr. Dariush Mozaffarian, Dean of the School
Dietetics and Policy at Tufts University in Massachusetts,
stated that the resulting analysis of previous studies
the data “do not support the need for special emphasis on dietary
recommendations for increasing or decreasing oil consumption ”.

The very work of the group of scientists, which included Dr. Mozaffarian, represented
is a meta-analysis of information from 9 previously published studies,
which collectively described dynamic health indicators
more than 636 thousand people from 15 countries. .
Authors of those projects for a minimum of 10 and a maximum of 23 years
observed the state of various groups of the population. During these
observations more than 28 thousand people died. 9,78 thousand were diagnosed
heart disease, 23,95 thousand have diabetes
2nd type. Average amount of butter consumed
people in studies ranged from one-third tablespoon
up to 3 tablespoons per day.

Girl eating butter sandwich

By comparing the amount of oil consumed with diagnosed diseases,
scientists did not find a significant statistical relationship between consumption
of this product with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
In particular, when eating an average of 1 tablespoon of butter
oil per day (about 14 g, which corresponds to one portion determined
USDA), the likelihood of death from
of these diseases increased by 1%.

Moreover, referring to the analysis of the health of nurses carried out by
in 2015 year ., the authors draw attention to the fact that during that
experiment replacing 8 grams of olive oil with an equivalent amount
butter was associated with an 8% lower risk of diabetes
2nd type. Overall, meta-analysis showed that different portions of oil
(up to 3 tablespoons per day) reduced the frequency of
type 2 diabetes. And the use of the recommended 14-gram
servings per day reduced the likelihood of developing diabetes by 4%.

Such “percentages” allowed scientists to assume a relatively small
or the neutral overall association of oil with type 2 diabetes and mortality
from cardiovascular diseases.

Redefining the role of butter in increasing the risk of ischemic
heart disease has occurred in another meta-analysis. .

The authors took previously unpublished data from a longitudinal study
1968-73, conducted as part of the “Minnesota Coronary Experiment”,
and placed these results in a new context, taking into account the rules for conducting
modern randomized controlled trials. Also
scientists have evaluated the effectiveness of replacing some components of the cream
oils are theoretically safer alternatives.

Meta-analysis suggests that replacing saturated fat in the diet
on linoleic acid effectively reduces cholesterol levels in
serum, but does not support the hypothesis that this leads to
to reduce the risk of death from coronary heart disease. Others
in other words, the researchers found no evidence that it was saturated
fats become a direct cause of coronary artery disease.

Heart shaped oil

But there is a widespread belief that careless
and ill-considered replacement of butter with other products can
be more hazardous to health than the oil itself. People in private
refuse “harmful” components, reviewing their diet
so that as a result, the likelihood of the development of already others increases
diseases that are also associated with increased mortality.

For example, by blindly following the recommendations of nutritionists, people exclude
butter from the diet, but switch to instant porridge
and yoghurts that are high in refined carbohydrates. As a result
exceeding the norm of consumption of sugars, a mass of pathologies occurs,
the development of chronic inflammatory processes begins and, as
consequently, among other things, the condition of the cardiovascular
system.

It is also quite risky to replace butter with a classic
margarine.
There is no animal fat in the margarine itself, but in the manufacture of this
the product is hydrogenated vegetable oils,
leading to the appearance of transunsaturated fatty acids. And here
they just create conditions for damage to the walls of blood vessels and
blood clots. Trans fats also cause cancer.
They are also called the causative factor of depression.

Margarine with a high milk fat content is less harmful. Palm
and coconut oil in the composition is also practically
do not form trans isomers (unlike, for example, sunflower
or soybean oils). But, in most cases, call margarine
a product more useful than butter, after all, it is impossible.

In addition to private initiatives, there are examples of government programs
ditching butter in favor of safer foods.
Probably the most ambitious project of such a change in food
habits became the Finnish state program known as
the name “North Karelia”. Within the framework of this project, a creamy
oil began to be gradually replaced by spreads.

Spread instead of butter

Feasibility of replacing butter with spreads

Spread is a product based on butter and / or milk
fat with the inclusion of vegetable oils in different proportions. The spread is not that
fatty, like butter (the total proportion of fat according to GOST must be at least
39%) and much softer and more plastic (in fact, the English
the word “spread” means “smearing”). To taste butter and spreads
similar – especially creamy vegetable spreads with 50 percent
and more milk fat content. But also saturated fatty acids
in spreads, respectively, 2 times (and often 3-4 times) less,
than butter. Many spreads have no cholesterol at all.

At the same time, the spread from classic margarine is also fundamentally
differs in that in its production they are mainly used
transesterified fats. The absence of hydrogenated fats allows
and significantly reduce the percentage of trans isomers. In modern spreads
trans isomers of fatty acids contain no more than 2%, which, as
generally even less than butter. About 50% spreads
are ahead of butter in terms of unsaturated and almost
4 times – by the content of polyunsaturated
fatty acids. All this gave the Finnish authorities a reason to try
using spreads to change the eating habits of the population of the North
Karelia (region of Eastern Finland).

The North Karelia project started in the 70s. At that time,
initial research of risk factors by sample survey
residents of North Karelia and Kuopio. Based on the published results
., bread and butter at that time was preferred by 83% of the population.
By the end of the project, in 2006, when a number of eating habits were changed,
only 7% of the population spread butter on bread.

As a result of the project, a significant decrease was recorded in
deaths from a range of cardiovascular diseases and tumors:

  • from ischemic disease – by 85% in men and 90% in women,
  • from cerebrovascular disease causing brain damage
    circulation – by 69% in men and 82% in women,
  • from cardiovascular diseases – by 80% in men and by 83% in
    women,
  • from tumors and neoplasms of various nature – by 67% and 27%
    in men and women, respectively.

Butter on bread

But, despite this, one cannot attribute all the positive effect to
the transition of the population from butter to spreads. Under the program
changes in eating habits of about 70% of Finns:

  • began to cook food in vegetable oil 22 times more often,
  • reduced the average consumption of fat milk by 6 times,
  • began to eat 3 times more vegetables,
  • reduced the amount of salt eaten, etc.

In addition, since the 70s, the level of social and medical
security

Thus, most researchers are useful and harmful
properties of butter are considered to reduce the amount of saturated
fat is still necessary, although not necessarily by reducing
consumption of butter. Comprehensive reduction is more important
intake of saturated fat from food.

In folk medicine

People used butter in folk medicine at least
since the time of the existence of Ancient Egypt. Then with his help they were relieved
from the consequences of burns
and treated eye diseases. Although, most likely, the oil was used
as a medicine and much earlier.

In ancient Rome, it was also believed that butter is good for helping
in wound healing, but, in addition, they lubricated the joints with it to remove
pain, and was also added to various potions to get rid of
cough.

In modern folk medicine, there are also recipes for cough suppressants.
and diseases of the respiratory system with butter
consisting of:

Melted butter

  • When coughing. Butter, honey, horseradish and garlic
    mixed in a ratio of 1: 5: 0,5: 0,5, respectively, and then
    10 minutes are kept in a water bath. The resulting syrup is accepted
    40-50 g each until the symptom diminishes or disappears.
  • With tuberculosis. Into a mixture of creamy
    butter, cocoa powder, honey, lard (unsalted), taken in equal
    proportions, 0,15 share of aloe juice is added. This remedy is taken
    twice a day for three weeks by adding art. spoons
    means in warm milk (200 ml).
  • In the pleura. The melted piece of butter is mixed
    with melted sugar and taken in the afternoon, one tbsp.
    spoon a day.

In Medieval Europe, butter was used to treat urolithiasis
disease. In modern folk medicine in the treatment of diseases
genitourinary system butter is seasoned with soft-boiled egg.

With dysentery, loose stools are normalized by preparing a mixture
butter (30 g) and warm pomegranate
juice (180 g), or a mixture of melted butter and warm red
wines in the same proportion.

To relieve symptoms when heel spurs appear, an ointment is prepared
based on a raw egg, which is poured directly from the shell with melted
butter (100 ml.) and vinegar essence (2 tsp.). Ointment
before use, it should be infused for 3 days. But a lot to cook for the future
not necessary, since the term of the “life” of the funds is no more than a week.

As a general tonic for oral administration, traditional healers
recommend preparing a mixture of butter, honey, walnuts
nuts, viburnum pulp,
aloe juice
in a ratio of 1,5: 1,5: 1,5: 1: 0,5, respectively. You need to store the mixture
closed without light at a temperature of 0-3 ° C. And take
– 2 tsp. three times a day.

Butter with honey and tea

In oriental medicine

On the Yang-Yin product scale (from +3 to -3, respectively) creamy
the oil is rated “-3”. This means that with regular use
butter can cause imbalances and high energy imbalances
towards “Yin”. This is like any process of creating an imbalance.
in a healthy body, it is considered unhealthy in oriental medicine
practice. However, some food combinations are able to balance
each other and not cause side effects.

This is how, for example, a combination of butter and hot
water with the addition of honey.
This combination improves memory, appetite, optimizes
“Digestive heat”, promotes the elimination of metabolic products.
But the combination of oil with cold water increases the load on
the digestive system of two heavy “foods” and promotes the formation
blockage of blood vessels, leading to accumulation of fluid
in the tissues.

In addition, it is believed that in the event of Wind diseases,
as a corrective measure, butter may be prescribed
some patients, taking into account their physiological data and condition
organism. For these purposes, a “one-year-old” creamy
oil (aged for a year). But fresh oil can be consumed
with diseases of Bile. It is also useful for people with unhealthy yellow
complexion and red streaks that appear on the skin.

It is dangerous to eat rancid butter – it promises an aggravation
mucus diseases.

Ghee (ghee) is widely used in Indian medicine
for the treatment of burns. According to the canons, the wound must be treated first.
cold water, and then apply a lotion of medicinal herbs, boiled
In oil. The idea is to compensate for the excitement of the fiery
doshas of the opposite in properties “cold” ointment.

Scientists examine butter in the laboratory

In scientific research

Research groups around the world are constantly working on
improving the technology of oil production and over issues
improving its taste. But there is one more curious
line of research when butter
is not being studied to directly improve its consumer
and medicinal properties, and in order to create a healthy alternative to it.
And in this search, scientists sometimes find very unexpected solutions.

For example, bioengineers from Belgium as an optimized replacement
butter have developed a technology for obtaining “fat from insects”,
and not from the milk of cows. . This “oil”, as well as the more familiar
us a product that is easily absorbed by the body, has many
additional beneficial effects (from antibacterial to antifungal)
and has consumer properties very similar to the properties of the classical
butter.

At least groups of volunteers who tasted pastries
cooked with butter and “insect” oils, no difference
discovered. Everything was identical: taste, smell, color, and consistency.

So far, the production of new oil is very expensive, but growth
production volumes should correct the situation. Besides,
making “insect fat” would help reduce the burden on
ecology and would simplify logistic tasks.

Girl thinks if there is oil

For losing weight

As a very high-calorie product, butter does not get along well
with the idea of ​​losing weight. Caloric content of oil in the above table
is 731 kcal, this is far from the limit. Besides, the oil is good
assimilated by the body (90-91%). So if you strive to reduce
daily amount of calories consumed, then when you turn on the oil
in the diet, there will be little “space” for other products.

Theoretically, during a fasting day in an extreme format
mono diets, you can choose the entire reduced calorie intake exclusively
butter. But practically whenever possible, freely regulate
diet, it is more advisable to form a more balanced vitamin
food with the inclusion of proteins and “slow” carbohydrates.

In long-term diet programs, when
the term of the menu is built in such a way that the amount of consumed
calories exceeded the amount consumed, you can also butter
from time to time be included in the list of consumed foods. but
it should be done, rather, to expand the range of products and avoid
monotony.

You should also not blindly formally replace butter with vegetable,
since olive oils are all popular today among fans of healthy lifestyles,
avocado and flax,
are also very high in calories, and also require a restrictive approach.

Butter in a frying pan

In cooking

As a very high-calorie product, butter itself can
give energy for a long time. Among European manufacturers
it is even common practice to eat during the entire work
a small day – with a walnut – a piece of butter. His
enough to maintain strength between breakfast and dinner.

But in general, as a self-sufficient product, butter in cooking
rarely used. Although, without oil, some dishes, of course, have lost
would be attractive, and the classic butterbrot
as a combination of the words “butter” and “bread”) would have lost its meaning altogether.

In some countries, butter is marketed as a national
delicacy and has its own unique name. Yemeni melted
oil – change (smen) – abundantly seasoned with aromatic herbs and
salt, and in order to give the product a deep aroma, it is smoked inside
pumpkin.

In North Africa, oil of the same name is first boiled
a quarter of an hour (sometimes adding fenugreek or thyme seeds),
and then buried in the ground for maturation. Ripe smen reminds
blue cheese to taste. But the warmer the weather, the longer
the dish ripens. In the cool season, it takes about
1-2 months.

In Tibet, butter made from yak milk is mixed with barley
flour and in this form is positioned as one of the main products
nutrition. They also drink “butter tea” there, in which they put salt and
rancid oil. Tea with oil is also drunk in all neighboring regions:
India, Nepal, Bhutan, etc.

Ghee - ghee

Ghee plays an important role in the preparation of sauces in European
(especially French) cuisine. So, the famous sauces Beurre noisette
and Beurre noir are heated until the ghee is
darkens to gold and dark brown, respectively.

In Poland, pieces of butter are used to sculpt decorations for other dishes or a festive
table. So, for example, Baranek wielkanocny is made for Easter – “oil
barasek ».

All categories of butter differ in taste. For the fatty ones
categories are characterized by the taste of boiled milk. Less fatty –
for example, in “Krestyanskoye” (72,5%) there may be an additional
nutty flavor. A little bit of fermented cream is noticeable in the taste
sour shades that are popular with the Germans. Some people
like more salty species. But the most popular in our country remains
slightly sweet product made from pasteurized fresh cream.

Butter recipe

How to make butter at home? Homemade butter is still prepared in compliance with those
the same principles that underlie the production technology
thousands of years ago. Here’s what the simplest recipe suggests using
popular British chef and health food promoter
James Oliver:

  1. 1 Chilled cream 33% fat (or more) is whipped in a mixer
    at maximum power for 10 minutes. 400 ml of cream should make
    about 150 g of oil.
  2. 2 The liquid separated during this time is drained, and the oily
    the mass is whipped in the same mode for up to 5 minutes.
  3. 3 The cycle of liquid separation and whipping is repeated once more for
    2-3 minutes, until the mass is compacted.
  4. 4 The resulting oil is collected with a spoon in a “bun” and slightly crushed.
    Such a bun should “rest” a little in order to release more
    a little extra liquid.
  5. 5 Then the lump of oil is rolled out on the parchment.
    and salted to taste. You can add finely chopped to it
    greenery
    or spices. To mix well, fold it several times
    in half and rolled again. Besides mixing in this way
    you can also get rid of moisture residues.

Homemade butter and milk

This modern homemade way of making butter
interesting to compare with the ancient, classical method of fermentation
cream, shaken until the fat is separated from the water fraction (buttermilk).

For example, according to one of the classic handicraft technologies, solid
the butter extracted from the buttermilk had to be rinsed in cold water.
This, among other things, increased the shelf life of the product. Moreover
it was necessary to rinse until the water became completely
clean. And the water that was still held in the lump of oil
knocked out, with force throwing a lump on a hard surface.

In addition, even at the stage of preparing the cream, they should have been filtered,
passing through a dense bundle of grass or cloth. In the first case
some amount of lactic acid bacteria was added. In the second
– bacterial spores were collected on the tissue dried at the end of the season,
which in the new “milk season” gave a new generation. Apparently
such fabrics were dried in the dark – otherwise it is difficult to explain why
spores were not destroyed by ultraviolet radiation.

Fermented cream used to be whipped too, of course, not with a mixer.
For whipping, they were usually poured into wineskins made of animal skin and
swayed intensively, hanging a leather “bubble” on a tree branch.

In cosmetology

As a base for masks, balms, creams and ointments, butter
oil in home cosmetology is used quite widely. The resulting
the products are designed to improve the condition of the skin, hair, nails.
Here are examples of recipes for home cosmetology for various purposes:

Butter in cosmetology

  • For face. Whitening mask for dry skin
    made from butter, heavy cream, and ground oatmeal
    in equal shares – 3 tsp. Before applying to the face, the mixture for
    the masks are insisted for 10 minutes, and the mask itself is washed off with a cool
    water.
  • For hair. Dry, dull and brittle hair is smudged
    melted butter and spread with a brush throughout
    length. After applying the mask, cover your head for half an hour.
    with a scarf or hat, and after this time, wash off
    oil shampoo.
  • For nails. Combination of 4 parts of creamy
    oil and 1 share of a decoction of nettle forms an ointment, which is necessary
    rub into the skin of the fingers around the nail plates. Such a procedure
    makes nails less brittle.

We have collected the most important points about the benefits and possible dangers of butter.
in this illustration and we will be very grateful if you share
a picture on social networks, with a link to our page:

When buying oil, the main difficulty is the choice of such
a manufacturer who would not use anything in cooking,
except for milk fats and processed cow’s milk products.

According to Ukrainian laws and DSTU 4399: 2005 ., in butter
vegetable fats cannot be added. True, judging by the published
the results of inspections, and manufacturers do not always adhere to the rules,
and counterfeit oil quite often, replacing processed products
cow’s milk vegetable oils. Permissible additives in
the composition of the oil can contain lactic acid, natural dyes
(e.g. beta-carotene), vitamin A, salt.

Despite this, each new test proves that about half
(and sometimes more) manufacturers violate these requirements. But since
it is impossible to independently identify the “extra” additive in the store, the buyer
we have to rely on manufacturers’ ratings.

It is also important to pay attention to the outlets where the oil
sold because some of them can sell counterfeit
and outright fakes under the guise of proven brands.

In Russian stores, the percentage of counterfeits is also high. According to
Roskachestvo, most often counterfeit butter with a fat content of 72,5%, by
“Overestimating” the real percentage or by adding plant
oils. The producers of Krasnodar
edge and Tyumen.

The minimum fat content of butter according to DSTU 4399: 2005 is 61,5%.
Such fat content is possessed by “Sandwich” oil (fat content range
61,5-72,5%). In addition, there is “Peasant” butter (72,5-79,9%)
and Eksta (80-85%). Ghee (or milk fat) can be
and 99%.

For comparison,., According to GOST R 52969-2008 ., in the assortment
also included less fatty “Tea oil” with a mass fraction of fat
not less than 50%. But in the tabular part of GOST 32261-2013 . nor him,
there is no “Sandwich” butter anymore. Remaining: “Traditional” (82,5%
fat content), “Amateur” (80%), “Peasant” (72,5%). In addition to fat content,
acidity, microbiological indicators, content
toxins and other parameters.

The general assessment of oil quality (according to GOST) is carried out according to a 20-point
a scale where scores for taste, color, smell, appearance are summed up,
plasticity, packaging and information on it. If the product is aggregate
scores less than 11 points, it does not go on sale. If 17-20
points, of which taste and aroma account for at least
8 points, then the oil is classified as the highest grade.

So, what indicators should be guided by when
choosing quality butter?

If you still doubt the purchased oil, then its quality
you can try to check at home.

Unfortunately, such popular methods of assessment do not always allow
objectively evaluate the product. Subjective determination of the status of physical
processes “by eye” can frighten the consumer in vain if
it will seem that there is too little or too much foam in the pan, and the frozen
the piece does not want to be smeared on the bread crumb.

By the way, in order for the oil to spread well, store it in the freezer.
not necessary. Best kept in refrigerator compartment with temperature
about + 3 / + 6 ° С in a tightly closed oiler or wrapped in foil
packaging so that the oil does not absorb foreign odors.

It is better if the oiler is made of porcelain or opaque glass.
Oil does not like light, and although it is stored in the refrigerator in the dark,
but if at each meal you take out the oil can and leave it until
the end of lunch on the table, then in this mode, an opaque container will do
more.

A standard package of oil (180-200 g) is usually consumed within
1-2 weeks and during this time it does not have time to deteriorate even without additional
measures. But if the oil is not used very often, then the briquette can be
divide into parts, wrap each of them in foil and send
freeze in the freezer even for 9-12 months.

In some countries (for example, New Zealand) manufacturers of household
technicians arrange a special compartment for oil in the refrigerator,
equipped with air conditioning. In such a compartment, the temperature is higher than
in the rest of the refrigerator, but lower than outside.

In the absence of a refrigerator (for example, in the country), oil can also be
save up to 2-3 weeks if you use the following folk methods:

But this is not all the folk ways of storing butter. let’s
let’s see what unusual methods our distant
ancestors.

From time to time there are reports in the press that the miners
peat in Scotland and Ireland find artifacts in the swamps,
known to science as “swamp oil”. In fact, we are talking about the familiar
for us butter, which ancient people hid in peat bogs.

The way to “bury” butter and animals for long-term storage
fats seems to have been quite popular. From the date of the first discovery
peat oil in 1817 and up to the present day from the swamps was
more than 430 “bookmarks” have already been extracted in completely different “containers” –
from fibers of sedge and reindeer hide to wooden buckets and birch bark
bark. The most ancient of them date back to about 400 years before
n. e. So this storage technology is very old and, judging by the results,
very effective.

Cold peat bogs provide low oxygen content
and high acidity, which creates ideal preserving conditions,
comparable in efficiency with freezers. Moreover, such
the way the oil was able not only to protect it from rancidity, but also
improve its gastronomic properties. True, tasters and not
unanimous in the last assessment. Some of them compare the taste
swamp oil “with the taste of fat, turned into cheese and saturated
The aroma is. .

Although the butter of the Irish swamps is considered one of the oldest
preserved to this day, the culture of the manufacture of this product
much older. The first documentary mention of butter
refers to the middle of the 3rd millennium BC. e. – drawings with production
scenes were depicted on limestone tablets found during
excavations in the territory of Ancient Mesopotamia. But there is an opinion that
the economic process of whipping cream into butter at least 10 thousand
years.

In the Old Testament, butter is mentioned as a gift to the messengers
God. In Hinduism, it is also customary to bring it as a gift, but already directly
to the god of the hearth Agni. There is still a legend in India
about Krishna, who stole and ate butter as a child.

But what is good for the gods is not always good for man. Despite
active attempts to rehabilitate butter as harmless
product, most experts still advise using
it in a strictly controlled and limited quantity. Then and harm
there will be no butter.

Video

Anna Evans

Author ✓ Farmer

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