Grapes, Calories, benefits and harms, Useful properties

Grapes (Latin Vitis) are usually called the fruits of the plant of the same name,
family Grape. Cultivated these
berries as early as 8000 years ago in the Middle East. Around the same time,
and wine culture.

Already in ancient times, grapes and their derivatives were appreciated not only
for taste, but also for their medicinal properties. Modern
scientific medicine confirms that berries contain a large amount
antioxidants,
which protect the body from chronic cardiovascular diseases
and nervous systems, and also contribute to the fight against free radicals.
Even a high sugar content does not spoil the berry, since it contains
there are also substances that improve the absorption of glucose.

Useful properties of grapes

Composition and calorie content

Nutmeg grapes contain (in 100 g): .

Calories 57 Kcal

From the vitamin and mineral complex contained in grapes,
it is difficult to single out the elements that are present in abundance here.
Of course, there are useful substances in the berry, but relatively
small quantities. But grapes are rich in simple sugars.
and carbohydrates, but proteins and coarse fibers in their composition are minimal
quantity. Note that the differences between different grape varieties
(for example, with and without seeds) are insignificant.

But the situation changes dramatically when it comes to raisins.
Dried grapes contain more minerals, fiber,
and most importantly – much more sugar and carbohydrates, which leads to
a sharp increase in calorie content. Thus, it is best to consume
fresh berries. And it is recommended to exclude raisins from the diet,
especially for people who want to lose weight.

Medicinal properties

As mentioned above, grapes are not considered a vitamin bomb,
but its nutrients
still make a valuable contribution to the functioning of the body. For example copper
participates in the production of energy, and together with vitamin C, is responsible
for collagen formation. Potassium, in turn, is important for cellular
metabolism. A number of trace elements (calcium, magnesium, phosphorus,
manganese) and vitamin K help to strengthen bones. By the way
100 g of berries provides 28% of the daily value of vitamin K, which
is necessary for the body not only for healthy bone tissue, but also
for normal blood clotting. In addition, berries contain
small doses of beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, etc.

The antioxidants found in grapes help
reduce the level of oxidative stress in the body, which, as
known to be the root cause of many chronic diseases
nervous and cardiovascular systems. Note that the more powerful
berries of dark varieties have an antioxidant effect, since
they contain natural anthocyanin pigments.

In addition to reducing oxidative stress, the flavonoid complex
supports the normal functioning of the cardiovascular system
in several more ways. First, these substances reduce the risk of
thrombus formation, preventing platelets from sticking together. Secondly,
due to the production of nitric oxide, they dilate blood vessels, reducing
risk of heart attack
and hypertension.
In addition, there is a little phytosterol in grapes.
(vegetable analogue of animal cholesterol), which prevents
plaque formation on the walls of blood vessels and thus
protects the body from atherosclerosis.

Beautiful wine-grower

However, the composition of grapes usually attracts the most attention
the antioxidant substance resveratrol, which belongs to the group
polyphenols. It is credited with anti-cancer and anti-aging properties.
In addition, resveratrol is believed to be able to protect the brain
from damage leading to various neurodegenerative diseases,
including disease
Alzheimer’s. Note that the amount of matter entering
from grapes, not large enough to prevent the development
pathological process, but can delay its occurrence.

Regarding the effect of resveratrol on cancer,
then experiments have shown that the use of juice from dark red varieties
grapes contributed to the reduction of breast tumors in
rats. Also, this antioxidant slowed down the development of agents that
cause colorectal cancer.

Finally, resveratrol, along with zeaxanthin and lutein, has
a positive effect on the state of the visual organs. This substance
participates in the protection of the retina from ultraviolet radiation, reducing the
the highest risk of developing age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma
and cataracts.

It should be noted that a large number of biologically
active elements (antioxidants, vitamin E) are concentrated in
seeds and skins of grape berries, therefore, to obtain maximum
benefits it is recommended to eat whole grapes. And by the way, it’s not worth it
believe the myths that pitted berries can lead to appendicitis.
Moderate consumption does not cause inflammation of the appendix.

Interestingly, all the beneficial properties of antioxidants are preserved
during fermentation of grapes, and accordingly they can be obtained from
fault. Truth,
note that we are talking about a drink from dark varieties, since white
wine is mainly made using grape juice without pulp
(skin and bones).

Antistax and red grape leaves

In medicine

Due to the presence in the composition of red grape leaves P-vitamin
substances, their extract began to be used as the main active
component in a drug called Antistax. It is used
with chronic venous insufficiency, hemorrhoidal lesions
veins, hypertension,
various dental pathologies, as well as as a neuroprotective
and an anti-inflammatory agent. This medicine does a pretty good job.
with the elimination of symptoms such as edema,
cramps of the calf muscles, pain in the legs.

In addition, in the phytopharmacological market are now very popular
biologically active additives based on grape extract
seeds from dark varieties. Manufacturers claim that thanks to
phenolic and tannins, as well as unsaturated
fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic) these supplements support
health of veins and blood vessels, reduce the risk of thrombus formation, activate
lymphatic drainage, normalize blood pressure, provide nutrition to cells
brain, reduce age-related visual impairment.

In folk medicine

The grape berries, along with other parts of the plant, are used
in folk medicine for the treatment of a wide range of ailments and
diseases. There is even a separate direction – ampelotherapy
(grape treatment). The plant is used for digestive problems,
vision and blood vessels, as well as with kidney disease, sore throat,
bronchi,
periodontitis,
gout,
migraine
and so on. In addition, the leaves, as well as decoctions and infusions of them are often
used to treat skin diseases (boils,
ulcers),
healing wounds.

Moreover, herbalists advise replacing cabbage leaves with grape
when cooking stuffed cabbage. Such replenishment of the diet will help to establish
the work of the pancreas and intestines. No matter how amazing
it was, but even the ash of the vine finds use in folk
medicine, helping with intestinal ulcers.

Grape tincture

Infusions

For gargling with sore throat or rinsing the mouth
with periodontal disease, it is advised to make an infusion of grape leaves: 1
a tablespoon of dry crushed raw materials is poured with one liter
boiling water and insist for 2 hours. Then filter and apply according to
several times a day. The same liquid can be used to wipe wounds and
skin ulcers.

Also, inflammation in the throat is treated with alcoholic tincture of grape
bones. To prepare it, you need 100 g of seeds of dark berries
wash, blot with a napkin and crush in a mortar. Then pour
0,5 l of vodka,
close and leave in a dark place for 1 month, shaking regularly.
After straining, add a few drops of the tincture to the herbal
broth and gargle with this mixture. You can also take this
drug 1 teaspoon before meals. It helps to strengthen the walls.
vessels, contributes to the fight against varicose
dilated veins and prevents platelets from sticking together.

Broths

Traditional healers offer a decoction of grape leaves to treat
gout, metabolic disorders and night blindness. To prepare it
it is required to add 1 tablespoon of dry raw materials to 200 ml of boiling
water and leave on low heat for 10 minutes. After straining
the medicine can be taken 50 ml four times a day. Moreover,
to accelerate the healing process of wounds, it is advised to wipe the affected
areas of the skin.

Alternatively, the decoction can be prepared using grape seeds
berries: for a tablespoon of seeds, usually take one glass of boiling water,
and then put in a water bath for 20 minutes. After straining
it is recommended to drink this liquid 1 tablespoon three times a day
before meals. It has a strong diuretic effect.

Grapes with wine and cheese

Wine

Grape wines were used as medicines
even in Ancient Egypt and Ancient Greece. Then they were treated as physiological
ailments and mental disorders. In addition, for the purpose of disinfection
they were added to water. And by the way, it wasn’t useless at all,
as they are indeed toxic to certain types of bacteria.

Today wine is also actively used in folk
recipes. For example, for headaches and migraines, it is recommended to mix
dry red wine, honey and aloe juice
in a ratio of 1: 1: 0,5. Take a teaspoon three times a day for
throughout the month. According to another recipe, you need to fill
red dry wine a jar filled with raspberries.
Insist for 3 weeks in a dark place, and then take 50 ml
three times a day 30 minutes before meals. Red wine itself is considered
a good remedy for insomnia.
Usually, it is enough to drink 100-150 ml an hour before bedtime.

It is used in folk medicine and white wine. For example, for
removing small stones from the kidneys, you need 100 g of marshmallow seeds
pour two liters of dry white wine and leave to infuse
in a dark place for 4 weeks, shaking from time to time. Then
you need to boil the liquid over low heat for 30 minutes, strain
and consume 50 ml three times a day before meals.

For urinary problems, XNUMX liter of boiling dry white
wine is poured into 30 g of dry birch leaves and left on a weak
heat for 15 minutes under the lid. Then the liquid must be filtered,
add 3 tablespoons of honey and drink 70 ml three times a day every other
an hour after eating.

During an exacerbation of bronchitis, it is recommended to put 4 large sheets
aloe in 0,5 l of wine and leave to infuse in a dark place for 4
day. Then take 1 tablespoon three times a day.

Grape juice

Juice

Traditional healers claim that 1 glass of grape juice is
in the morning can relieve headaches. It is also recommended to him
treat kidney disease. Drink daily for a month
1 liter of grape juice with the addition of 10-12 drops of lemon
juice. With proteinuria (the appearance of protein in the urine), you need to drink this
mixture in one gulp, and the induced urination should flush the urinary
ways.

In oriental medicine

In ancient oriental medicine, grapes (both the berries themselves and
the rest of the plant) were highly prized for their medicinal qualities.
The vineyard was classified as a cold yin type and was considered a product
dry in the II degree, but ripe berries are hot in the I degree
and wet. Healers claimed that if you knead young branches
grapes with leaves and tendrils, and then mix them with barley
flour and attach to the body, then you can get rid of the hot head
pain or hot swelling.

Juice from grape leaves helped to get rid of problems with hot
stomach: stopped vomiting, bilious diarrhea, healed ulcers. It was believed
that it has a diuretic effect, saves from hemoptysis
and increases potency. It was recommended for pregnant women because
it strengthened the developing fetus. External application of the juice should
was to stimulate hair growth. Vineyard gum, according to
ancient healers, cleansed and dried nature. And together with the wine they
cleared the spleen well and cured eczema.

Used in healing practices and grapevine ash. Mixing
her with vinegar, got a medicine for hemorrhoids,
and when adding vegetable oil and honey to this mixture, they prepared
an antidote for snake bites.

Hot berries normalize the disturbed nature and strengthen the organs
in the chest area. Grape juice is good for the stomach, kidneys, liver
and bladder. Grape oil, in turn, warms up well
body and stops the development of tumors.

Scientists study grapes and wine in the laboratory

In scientific research

Grapes are often the subject of scientific research. Mostly
the attention of scientists is focused on its anti-cancer properties.
The antioxidants are believed to be found mainly in the skin
and seeds of berries, effective as a preventive measure,
and in the form of an addition to cancer therapy, if the disease has already developed.
For example, resveratrol has been shown to help lower levels of
oxidative stress and thus protects the rectum,
breast, prostate and lung cancer..

But one of the latest studies has shown that grape extract
juice with its phenolic composition significantly reduces the viability
pathogenic cells with lesions of the rectum. The experiment used
raw materials extracted from the berries of the Autumn royal variety
and Ribier. By the way, depending on the dose, the extract is not
only led to cell death, but also reduced their mobility, slowing down
metastatic process.… And another experiment showed
that in colorectal cancer, infected cells are vulnerable to proanthocyanids,
isolated from grape seeds..

There are also several scientific papers confirming the effectiveness
various constituents of the grape berry in the fight against breast cancer.
Scientists claim that grape seed extract has a significant
effect on cell motility in mice breast cancer.
Thus, they inhibit the formation of metastases in other organs.
.… In another study, the process of metastasis was stopped,
thanks to the polyphenols extracted from the skins of grape berries.
True, they influenced the viability of infected cells in much
to a lesser extent, mainly limiting their mobility..

As for the prostate tumor, after a series of experiments, scientists came
to the conclusion that the anthocyanins contained in dark grape varieties
Muscadine, have a devastating effect on
pathogenic cells without touching the healthy epithelium. Also
they help prevent the spread of bone metastases..

Grape leaves large

Note that all of the above studies examined anti-cancer
the properties of various components from the composition of the grape berry, but
each group of scientists focused on a specific substance,
without considering it in conjunction with other components. With one
hand, this made it possible to learn in more detail about all the properties
one or another antioxidant. On the other hand, it did not give
see the results of its interaction with other substances.

That is why scientists from the University of Wisconsin took as
the object of research is all the polyphenols contained in grapes
(resveratrol, quercetin, kaempferol, catechins, anthocyanins, etc.).
So, they came to the conclusion that, getting into the body along with others
antioxidants, the effectiveness of many of them is enhanced..
This synergistic effect is important in the prevention phase
cancer.

These studies were confirmed by an experiment conducted by
by a group of American scientists. For two weeks, 30 people
with the risk of developing colorectal cancer gave up to 450 g of grapes
in a day. As a result, after the end of the experiment, the risk of
the disease has decreased, especially in people after 50 years.. If
the pathological process has already been started, then, of course, the amount
polyphenols found in grapes and any other fruit
or a berry will not be enough to cure the disease. For achievement
the desired effect would need to eat tens of kilograms
berries a day.

In addition to studies examining the effects of grapes and their individual
components for oncological diseases, a few years ago appeared
a scholarly work in which Australian David Sinclair argued
that resveratrol isolated from wine slows down the aging process
cells. This discovery quickly spread throughout the world media, but often
journalists missed important nuances. For example, what experiences so far
carried out only on mice. And the level of resveratrol in the body
rodent was so tall that it took
to drink a few hundred glasses of wine.

Large grape seeds

By the way, the bioavailability of resveratrol is not very high, that is
it is poorly absorbed from food and drinks. Scientists have found out that higher
total concentration of this antioxidant in the skin and seeds of berries
dark wine varieties. Also, frequent rains during ripening
grapes increase the amount of bioavailable resveratrol in
the skin, but at the same time does not affect the content of this substance in the bones
..

However, all this is still not enough for the body to receive
biologically active dose. Scientists from Johns Hopkins University
For 9 years monitored the state of health of elderly people in
the Chianti region in Italy. Their traditional diet includes
many foods containing resveratrol. But researchers so
and it was not possible to establish a connection between life expectancy or
the rate of aging and the level of resveratrol in the body.

But numerous studies of polyphenols from grapes have confirmed
that these substances are capable of supporting normal functioning
of cardio-vascular system. Reducing cholesterol and stimulating
production of nitric oxide, they help prevent the development of atherosclerosis
and improve endothelial function..

In one experiment, 69 adults were divided into three groups.
Participant of one of them daily for eight weeks
were given 500 g of dark grapes each, the other participants – 500
g berries of light varieties, and the rest were completely excluded from grapes
from the diet. As a result, those who ate dark varieties recorded
a significant reduction in the level of “bad” cholesterol. White berries
lost in terms of efficiency, but still led to an improvement in performance
in comparison with the third control group..

Despite the fact that grapes contain a lot of sugar, scientists
claim it may be useful for diabetic patients
2 types. In a 16-week experiment, 38 men took daily
20 g of dark grape extract of wine varieties, after which
their blood sugar levels decreased compared to the control
by group .… In addition, resveratrol increases sensitivity
insulin, which helps the body process more glucose
and thus helps to lower sugar levels..

Beautiful girl eating a bunch of grapes

For losing weight

An unequivocal opinion about the benefits of grapes for weight loss
does not exist. Some nutritionists call these berries the most useless.
of all, other specialists willingly include them in various diets.
It usually speaks against grapes that they contain a lot
sugars and carbohydrates. On the other hand, its glycemic index
not that high – 45 units, which means that grapes do not cause
a sharp increase in blood glucose levels.

In addition, some of the substances that make up these berries increase
insulin sensitivity and thus help to improve
assimilation of sugar in the body. Moreover, American scientists
conducted an experiment in which people with significant
being overweight. They were divided into 3 groups and for three weeks
they took 30-minute walks daily. The first group in
the diet added grape juice, the second – grapes, and the third
– no changes were made. As a result, after 3 weeks representatives
the first group lost an average of about 1,5 kg of weight, the second – about
2 kg, and the third – about 0,5 kg.

Nutritional researchers concluded that grapes improved
insulin metabolism and prevented the deposition of fat. Berries provided
the best effect because most of the essential substances are concentrated
in the skin, which usually does not get into the juice. So the grapes
should not be written off, because with moderate use
and in combination with little physical activity, it brings
the body benefits and helps to gradually get rid of excess
weight.

But all this cannot be said about raisins – one of the most terrible
enemies of losing weight. It contains practically no nutrients
and 60% consists of sugar, not much different from sweets. Calorie content
raisins (299 kcal) 4 times higher than the calorie content of grapes (67
kcal).

Note that when losing weight, little attention is usually paid to drinks,
basically trying to limit myself to products. However, one should
take extra care when drinking wine, because
an average 175 ml glass contains 160 kcal. Calorie content
depends on the variety of grapes used and even more on the quantity
added sugar, but remains high enough anyway.

Churchkhela

In cooking

Grapes are used in all cuisines
the world. In addition to the berries themselves, the leaves of the plant are used, of which
in the Middle East, for example, dolma is prepared. In addition, during
making red wine with berries is often used
and scallops (the twigs to which the grapes are attached). Concerning
the berries themselves, then they are dried,
pickled, they make jams, ice cream, stewed fruit,
fresh they are added to various desserts, salads and even
served with meat.

Grapes are often used to make snacks. Insofar as
it goes well with cheeses and nuts,
it can be dipped in soft goat cheese, then poured with honey and
sprinkle with chopped pistachios.
These balls must be refrigerated for 45 minutes, and then
can be served at the table. By the way, if we are talking about cheeses, then berries
grapes can be safely served with blue cheese. A feature
French cheese “Arôme au gêne de marc”,
reminiscent of brie, is that for 30 days
kept in grape brandy along with seeds, skins and twigs
grapes remaining after pressing.

Real balsamic vinegar is made from grape juice. First
it is boiled down to the consistency of a thick syrup, and then kept
in barrels for at least three years. Also from grape juice
in Transcaucasia, a traditional sweet is prepared, which the Armenians call
“Sudjuk”, and Georgians – “churchkhela”. The juice is boiled until
its volume will not decrease 3 times, then add a little flour
and dipped nuts strung on a thread into this syrup. Then the received
“Sausage” is dried in a cool dark place.

For the preparation of wines, special wine varieties are usually grown.
grapes, but some winemakers go even further. For example, Tokay
wines in Hungary and several expensive wines in France make
from grapes covered with gray mold. It helps the berries
get rid of unnecessary moisture and increase the concentration of sugar. Besides
Moreover, there is the so-called ice wine, which
made from grapes caught in the first frosts. By the way,
frozen grapes are often used as ice.
They cool the drink without diluting it with water.

Grape seed oil

In cosmetology

In cosmetology, grapes have been used for a long time and successfully.
The beauty industry actively uses extracts and extracts from the skin
and berry pulp, seed oil, and the antioxidant resveratrol.
You can find these components in a variety of products: creams for
hands and face, cleansing foams, scrubs, anti-cellulite gels,
shampoos, lip balms, lipsticks, nail coatings, and
also in anti-aging products.

The most common and popular ingredient is oil.
grape seeds. Due to the presence of vitamins in its composition
A and B, tocopherols, flavonoids and polyunsaturated acids, it
well nourishes the skin and leaves no shine or sensation on the face
films. Regular use of products based on this oil
stimulates the regeneration processes of the skin and gives them
elasticity.

Products containing grape seed oil are recommended for owners
problem skin. As a rule, they help to narrow the pores, normalize
robots of sebaceous glands and elimination of acne
rashes. You can also make a care product at home.

For oily skin:

  • mix 2 tablespoons dark grape juice with egg
    protein and a little starch
    or flour. This mixture is applied to the face for 15-20 minutes, and then
    washed off with warm water;
  • a handful of dark berries, mashed into gruel, are mixed with sour cream
    until a thick mass is obtained. Apply to face for 20 minutes and then
    washed off with a cotton pad dipped in cool milk.

For dry skin:

  • combine egg
    yolk, a tablespoon of honey, half a teaspoon of olive
    butter, a tablespoon of chopped oatmeal with a tablespoon
    spoon of red grape juice. Apply on face for 15 minutes,
    then rinse with warm water.

Cleansing Lotion:

  • 400 ml of dark grape juice must be mixed with two
    tablespoons of honey
    and 200 ml of vodka.
    Store in a refrigerator in a glass container for no more than 7 days.
    Wipe your face twice a day.

We have collected the most important points about the benefits and possible dangers of grapes.
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Grapes are exported to almost all countries of the world, and more recently
time, breeders have done a lot to expand the geography
growing these berries. Interestingly, the grapes were actively cultivated
in many republics of the Soviet Union. At that time, his image
could be seen on the coats of arms of Moldova, Armenia, Georgia and Turkmenistan.
Unfortunately, during the anti-alcohol campaign, a huge number of
vineyards were barbarously cut down. And yet today
day about 80 thousand sq. km. the territory of our planet is planted with this
plant.

Problems with winemaking also occurred during Prohibition
in USA. However, no one destroyed the vineyards there, and the enterprising
Americans began to produce very hard grape concentrates
juice, which are called “wine bricks”. To avoid
of problems with the law, sellers applied a warning to the briquette
that a brick dissolved in water should never be stored
in a cool, dark room for 21 days, thereby creating
excellent advertising for your product.

As for the former Soviet republics, after the collapse of the
traditions were renewed with renewed vigor. Particularly good at this
Georgia and Moldova. By the way, not so long ago, remains were found in Georgia
an ancient jug, on the fragments of which clusters were depicted.
Very old seeds of wild grapes were also found there.

The fact that in ancient times grapes were equally popular,
than now, is evidenced by the mention of him in mythology, art
and the Christian religion. For example, the Bible says that the first
plant planted on Mount Ararat after the great flood was precisely
vine. The ancient Slavic goddess of fertility I always live
depicted with an apple in one hand and a bunch of grapes in the other.
The ancient Greek poet Homer wrote about eating grapes in the Odyssey.
Also, images of berries often appeared on the coins of different states.

As for painting, in all eras, vines and bunches
depicted in still lifes. In addition, in the Middle Ages, these berries are often
used as a symbol of the Holy Communion – the blood of Christ.
In addition, grapes are found on Karl Bryullov’s canvas “Girl,
picking grapes in the vicinity of Naples “(1), Michelangelo Caravaggio
“A young man with a basket of fruits” (2) and in the painting “Red grapes in
Arles ”by Vincent van Gogh (3). By the way, this canvas is considered the only one
work sold during the artist’s lifetime.

Grapes are immortalized not only through painting, but also by others
ways. For example, in 1913 the name Vinifera, which is from Latin
translated as grapes, got an asteroid. And in France, Israel,
Turkey,. Monuments have been erected in Tunisia and many other countries,
depicting bunches or the harvesting process. Also worldwide
hold thematic festivals and celebrations dedicated to the collection of wine
berries.

By the way, about the holidays and related traditions: in Cuba, it is customary
On December 31, pour water out of the window, wishing the new year a clean path,
and directly at midnight, under the chimes, the Cubans eat 12
grapes – this is considered the key to the realization of the hidden
desires. Portuguese New Year’s tables are not complete without grapes.
There, these berries are considered a symbol of abundance and happiness.

When choosing grapes, it is necessary to give preference to bunches.
with whole, dense berries without damage, rot and mold. Light brown
dots on white grapes indicate that they are very ripe
and is ready for use, but it will not be stored for a long time even in the refrigerator.
You should not refuse to buy grapes if it is noticeable on the berries
light whitish coating, since this is their defensive reaction to external
irritants. Sometimes white traces of chemical substances may remain on the berries.
substances after processing, so in any case grapes need to be well
wash.

As for storage, usually ripe berries are in the refrigerator.
about 3 days. It is best to put them in plastic or glass
container, since moisture accumulates in the bag, and in combination
with sugar secreted along with grape juice may develop
fungal infections. To preserve the harvest for the winter, it is necessary to remove
grapes from a bunch and, having laid them out on a tray in one layer, send
in the freezer. After a while, they can be transferred to any container and
store until the end of winter. This method allows you to keep the maximum
the amount of nutrients.

Pickling, canning and drying deprives the grapes of practically
all vitamins, minerals and antioxidants. In the case of raisins,
questions also to the production process, since almost all dried fruits,
to prevent spoilage and preserve the presentation, they are processed
preservatives (for example, sulfur dioxide). If you still decide
buy dried grapes, then you need to soak it for half an hour in a cold
water and then rinse well.

Grape varieties are striking in their diversity, and breeders continue
work to improve their chemical composition, taste and make
possible cultivation in various climatic conditions. Usually
grape varieties are divided into table varieties (eaten fresh
form) and wine (used to make wines). Among the first
Seedless berries (for example, raisins) are often found. Also grapes
distinguished by color: white, pink, red and black. The most common
our varieties are: Veles, “Adler, Jupiter, Muscat, Ladies
fingers and Chardonnay.

Among the unusual grape varieties, one can note “Witch’s fingers”.
These dark berries really resemble their elongated oblong
shape of short fingers. And the fruits of the Cotton Candy variety outwardly do not
differ from others, but the breeders have endowed them with a pronounced
cotton candy taste. They contain 12% more sugar and almost no
have astringency, which makes them very popular with children.

It is impossible to ignore the variety “Roman Ruby”, which is grown
and sold at auction exclusively in the Japanese prefecture of Ishikawa.
These red berries contain 18% sugar, so they have a special
sweetness. Their size is also striking – each grape must
weigh at least 30 g, and the whole bunch – at least 700 g. In 2017
a sprig of such grapes was sold at auction for $ 9800.

Of great interest are the so-called sea grapes and Brazilian
Jaboticaba grape tree. True, none of these plants
has no relation to the Grape family. They probably got
their names are purely for visual similarity. Moreover
under the name “sea grapes” the type of algae is hidden at once,
which, eaten, and fruiting evergreen trees.
But jaboticaba is the edible fruit of a plant from the Myrtle family.

As for the peculiarities of growing grapes, the key factor is
choice of location is considered. Berries tolerate heat well, but are afraid of the shade,
therefore, for planting, it is better to choose the sunny side, protected
from the wind. The soil can be sandy, clayey or black earth.
With frequent precipitation, the plant can not be watered, but if it is felt
moisture deficit or drought sets in, then additional
measures. In the absence of rain, you need to water the grapes up to 10 times per
season, but not too abundant.

So, moderate consumption of grapes definitely brings the body
benefit. Dark berries enhance antioxidant protection, support
normal functioning of the cardiovascular, digestive and
nervous systems, protect against the development of chronic diseases, and
also provide activation of skin regeneration processes.

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Anna Evans

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