Chicken egg, Calories, benefits and harms, Useful properties

Chicken eggs appeared in the human diet millennia ago, but
their useful and harmful properties still cause ambiguous
evaluation from consumers and researchers. Some refuse to eat eggs
due to the cholesterol they contain
and the risk of worsening the condition of the cardiovascular system. Others ignore
them due to salmonellosis. Still others consider the store product to be useless.
and buy eggs laid exclusively by domestic hens, giving
preference for eggs with brown shells as more valuable. Confusion
there is a lot with this product, and what is true in all this, we will understand in the article.

Useful properties of chicken eggs

Composition and calorie content

Water 52,31 87,57 75,58 66,82 Carbohydrates 3,59 0,73 0,72 0,76 Sugar 0,56 0,71 0,37 0,39 Proteins 15,86 10,9 12,47 13,27 , 26,54 Fats 0,17 9,44 17,24 322 Calories (Kcal) 52 142 215 109 Potassium 163 137 146 390 Phosphorus 15 197 209 129 Calcium 7 56 59 48 Sodium 166 429 457 5 Magnesium 11 12 13 2,73 Iron 0,08 , 1,74 1,86 2,3 0,03 Zinc 1,28 1,36 0,077 0,023 Copper 0,072 0,076 2,58 0 Vitamin E 1,04 1,95 . . Vitamin
B2 0,528 0,439 0,431 0,459 Vitamin A 0,38 0 0,16 0,17 Vitamin
B6 0,35 0,005 0,16 0,171 Vitamin
B1 0,176 0,004 0,034 0,036 Vitamin

The first two columns of the table show the content indicators
vitamins and minerals per 100 g of product, which allows correct
compare raw protein and yolk and see what the phosphorus content is,
calcium, iron, zinc, vitamins E, A, B1 and B6 almost completely
The yolk “answers”. It also contains 23-26% neutral fat, 16
% protein, phospholipids (11%), minerals (3%), cholesterol
(0,8-1,5%). Includes polyunsaturated, monounsaturated and saturated
fatty acid.

But protein of the same mass contains more potassium, sodium, magnesium, vitamin
PP. In addition, the protein part of the egg is represented by ovalbumin.
(54%), antibacterial ovotransferrin (12%) and lysozyme (3,5%)
and others. But in one egg the masses of yolk and protein are not equal. Average ratio
yolk, protein and shells in a chicken egg that has completed maturation,
– 8: 14: 3, respectively, what to consider when turning on the egg
in nutrition programs.

Boiled eggs

Medicinal properties

The healing effect of the egg is achieved primarily due to
easily digestible protein. When used regularly, it helps:

  • increase muscle mass;
  • strengthen bones;
  • maintain the integrity of tissues;
  • fight overweight;
  • activate brain functions;
  • lower blood pressure;
  • prevent the appearance of cataracts and improve vision;
  • reduce the deposition of cholesterol formations on the walls of blood vessels;
  • maintain the health of the liver.

Chicken egg white is generally considered the most digestible source.
all essential amino acids,
many of which have antioxidant
effect (ovotransferrin, lysozyme).

The yolk has a more controversial reputation. On the good side
it is characterized by the fact that it is useful for skin diseases, protects
from osteoporosis and has a choleretic effect. And the appearance of negative
assessments provoked by the cholesterol contained in the yolk, which
can potentially cause the development of cardiovascular pathologies.

The problem of cholesterol in chicken eggs

In the question of the effect of cholesterol contained in eggs on the condition
of the cardiovascular system, two antagonistic

Scrambled eggs with meat on bread

  • Opponents of the egg diet with links to scientific research
    argue that an abundance of cholesterol increases the danger of sudden
    death and significantly worsens the state of blood vessels. Moreover, as
    “Dangerous dose” is called only one egg per day.
  • Egg nutrition advocates, too, with references to numerous,
    but more recent scientific research suggests that one
    an egg per day not only does not threaten the cardiovascular system,
    but also improves her condition. Even for risk groups (smokers,
    and people with heart problems) moderate
    eating eggs (1 piece every 2-3 days).

In this dispute, we will refer to the opinion of a doctor from the medical school.
Harvard Anthony Komaroff.… According to him, for the majority
healthy people, one egg per day is normal and does not help
the development of heart disease or stroke.

Previously, both in medicine and among the people it was believed that once in an egg yolk
there is cholesterol, and cholesterol in the blood increases the risk of developing cardiovascular
pathologies, it is logical that it is better to exclude eggs from the diet. but
Since then, many studies have shown that basic cholesterol
in our body is produced by the liver, and does not enter directly
from products. The liver produces it through the processing of saturated
and trans fats. One large chicken egg contains only about
1,5 g saturated fat. At the same time, it has many useful
components: lutein, zeaxanthin (for eyes), choline
(for the brain and nerves), vitamins A, B, D.

Evidence that the amount of cholesterol in the egg (if
eat one a day) is safe for most people, serves a large-scale
a Harvard Medical School study that took
participation of hundreds of thousands of people over several decades.
They filled out questionnaires in which they described their food and illness,
which they had. According to the results, it turned out that the presence of eggs
in the diet (no more than 1 per day) was in no way associated with more
high rates of heart disease or death from these

Anthony Komaroff noted at the same time that
what is with the eggs. Saturated
fats from butter, cheese, bacon, sausages, sweets or flour
foods increase cholesterol levels incomparably more than
1 egg a day.

Proceeding from this, apparently, it would be possible to determine the consumption rate
of this product at the level of 1 egg per day for healthy active
of people. However, more cautious dietitians use the optimal amount
called 2-3 eggs per week. For., For example, the recommended
260 pieces are considered the norm. in year. Below, in the relevant section,
we review other studies supporting cholesterol
the safety of a moderate egg diet.

Sectional diagram of an egg

In medicine

Used as a raw material for the pharmaceutical industry
enzyme lysozyme and shells.

  • Lysozyme is an antibacterial agent that can destroy
    cell walls of bacteria. He is known in the food industry
    as a preservative food additive E1105. And in medicine it is used
    as a local antiseptic, for example, as part of Lizobact preparations,
    “Lizoprim Lor”.
  • Some calcium preparations are prepared on the basis of the shell – for example,
    “Calcid”. Such funds are often additionally enriched.
    vitamins (including those that contribute to better absorption
    calcium: D3, C).
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A number of graft bases are grown on chicken embryos,
including influenza vaccines,
pathogens of typhus, yellow fever, encephalitis.
In immunology, the main egg white – ovalbumin – is used
to stimulate test allergic reactions.

In addition, chicken eggs are included in therapeutic diets No. 1 and
No. 5. Diet # 1 is prescribed in therapeutic recovery programs
after acute gastritis, with stomach and duodenal ulcers.
Diet # 5 aims to reduce risks when problems arise
with digestion.

In folk medicine

Diseases have been treated with eggs in folk medicine for a long time
respiratory system, gastrointestinal tract pathology, stopped bleeding
(including hemorrhoidal origin), relieved the condition
with burns. They were introduced into the daily diet of men raw
to enhance potency.

Respiratory system.

In the reference book of traditional medicine, a case of amazing healing is described
patients from tuberculosis
with the help of only one chicken yolks. The girl I gave up
official medicine, drank up to fifty yolks daily
chicken eggs at the beginning of treatment and up to a hundred yolks at the end of treatment,
lasting 4 months. Although this therapy can be called extreme,
she, according to the author of the guide, led to a complete recovery
the patient.

But also a much simpler folk treatment for tuberculosis
also involves the use of raw yolks (2 pcs.), which
in the recipe, grind with creamy
butter (1 tbsp. l.), honey
(1 tbsp. L.) And starch
(1 dec. L). This mixture is kept in the refrigerator, taking 1 tbsp.
l. twice a day.

And to get rid of a light cough
people often prepare a mixture, the recipe for which is generally more similar
on an ordinary eggnog,
which healthy people make themselves for breakfast: beat a raw egg
with sugar or honey and taken on an empty stomach, drinking plenty of water later
hour with water.

A raw egg

Gastrointestinal tract.

In the appearance of gastritis,
stomach, inflammation of the duodenum, the bacterium plays an active role
Helicobacter pylori… To combat it, traditional healers
recommend in the morning two hours before breakfast and always on an empty stomach
drink a raw and preferably still warm chicken egg.

This recommendation can be explained by the fact that crude protein reduces
acidity of gastric juice, which in the morning, before eating,
the norm is approximately 1,5-2 pH. As bacteria persist
activity at 4-9 pH, a decrease in the acidity of the medium is possible with them
fight. In addition, how an antibiotic against a bacterium begins
to act the egg enzyme lysozyme, which only increases the efficiency

If in the previous method it was enough just to drink
one egg every morning, then for the treatment of dysentery, healers used
a whole egg nutrition scheme, designed for 6 days:

  • 1-2 days: 12 pcs. – 2 pcs. every 2 hours.
  • 3-4 days: 8 pcs. – 2 pcs. every 3 hours.
  • 5-6 days: 4 pcs. – 2 pcs. in the morning and in the evening.

Treatment of hemorrhoids

An egg-oil mixture is prepared to stop various
kind of bleeding, but as an example, we give a recipe compiled
for the treatment of hemorrhoids.
The yolk of a boiled egg and a piece of butter of the same size
oils are mixed with each other, and then copper is added to them
vitriol (a pinch the size of a match head). Received remedy
stored in the refrigerator, but before bedtime 1 tsp. such a mixture rolls
into a small cylindrical candle and inserted into the anal
hole. To obtain the effect, the procedure will need to be repeated

Eggshell tincture

Egg infusions

There are egg infusions that traditional medicine positions
as an ancient remedy for cough, bronchitis,
tuberculosis, inflammation
lungs. In one of the existing recipes, washed whole eggs
(7 pcs.) Stacked on the bottom of a 3-liter jar and covered with gruel
minced lemons
(1,5 kg of citrus fruits are ground together with the peel). The bank is closing
gauze and put in the refrigerator for three days. Then its contents
transferred to another dish, carefully kneaded and passed
through a sieve. And in the end, all this is poured with a mixture of honey (1 l)
and brandy
(0,5 l).

You need to take the tincture three times a day 20 minutes after
food for 1 tbsp. l. Store a 3-liter jar in the refrigerator,
covering the neck with gauze. But usually such a remedy is prepared in smaller
volumes to have time to drink it within 2 weeks, while it
will not deteriorate.

In the literature, there are variants of a similar recipe in which
whole eggs (3-4 pcs.) and lemon “porridge” (3-4 cm) are stacked
layers until the vessel is completely filled. The jar is then kept in
dark place for 10 days, and after adding lemon, cognac, and collecting
herbs (sage,
licorice root, sweet clover),
– 3 more days in the cold. In such a recipe for treatment, first use
cake, which is brewed in a thermos at the rate of 3 tbsp. l for 0,5 l
boiling water to drink 150 ml before meals. And when the cake ends,
go to the main drug. Healing liquid 1 tbsp. l.
taken three times a day 20 minutes before meals.

As a remedy for strengthening bone tissue in traditional medicine
infusions of calcium-rich eggshells are used. Before use
the shell is first thoroughly washed, disinfected, ground into powder,
and then pour the powder with hot water to obtain calcium

However, from a biochemical point of view, this is meaningless. Carbonate
calcium, which is the basis of the eggshell (there are 90-95% of it),
is present in a water-insoluble form, and an aqueous infusion from it
will not work. But since such a powder dissolves well the contained
hydrochloric acid in the stomach, then eat a spoonful of shells to compensate
calcium deficiency makes sense if, for some reason, numerous
calcium supplements are not available. This alone will require additional
effort: you will need to first wash thoroughly and then grind
shells. Although, for example, the famous
Avicenna, giving them a pinch of ground egg shells in

In the mystical tradition, another truly folk is practiced
method of treatment – rolling out spoilage and various diseases with an egg.
Over the centuries, this procedure has acquired numerous details. On the
the territories of our country from some point in it firmly merged
elements of pagan and Christian rituals, the choice of which varies
in different regions and healing “schools”. However, the purpose of the procedure
is the same everywhere: as a result, the egg should take on all the negative
and the patient’s illness.

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Egg with vinegar, lemon and other ingredients

In oriental medicine

Chicken egg treatment is very common in Chinese medicine,
and often in combination with vinegar and lemon. But to get
the maximum effect needs to be reviewed and the rest of the diet
for compliance with the rules of the eastern worldview. Below is
examples of some classic “egg” recipes for various diseases:

  • Prevention of atherosclerosis.
    An egg (1 pc.) Is dipped in apple cider vinegar (180 ml) for 2 days.
    Then the softened shell is removed, and the contents are shaken
    and is divided into 7 parts (for a weekly course). The remedy is accepted
    in the morning with two parts of honey dissolved in water.
  • Ischemic
    disease. Chicken eggs (2 pcs.) Dipped in vinegar (400 ml)
    closed and cleaned in a dark place for 4 days. Thereafter,
    eggs are broken, and the contents are mixed and infused
    3 more days. The remedy is drunk for 1-2 tsp. three times a day
    in a week.
  • Hernia.
    Eggs (2 pcs.) Are mixed with anise (20 g), fried with salt
    until a yellowish color appears. Means together with a sip of rice
    vodka is drunk before going to bed for 4 days.
  • Sugar
    diabetes. The content of eggs (5 pcs.) Is mixed with vinegar
    (150 ml) and infused in the refrigerator for one and a half days. Then
    honey and vinegar (150 ml each) are added to the mixture. The drug is taken
    twice a day for 1 tsp.
  • Male infertility. Raw chicken eggs (2 pcs) are mixed
    with boiled milk
    (500 ml) and honey (2 tbsp. L.). Everybody should drink such a “cocktail”
    day for a month.

However, there are even more interesting ways to restore in China.
health. For several centuries, there has been a tradition in Zhejiang province
prepare every new spring a healing dish called tuntszydan,
which literally translates to “boy’s egg.” Chicken eggs for
he is placed in a vessel with urine of immature boys (age
up to 10 years), and then boiled for a whole day. During cooking
first bring the urine to a boil with the eggs dipped in it, and then
slightly prick the shell and leave on low heat, time
from time to time adding liquid.

Since such a tradition is still alive today throughout Zhejiang province
(since 2008, the practice of cooking tuntszydan has become an object of intangible
cultural heritage), then you need a lot of urine for the dish. therefore
in educational institutions of the region they put up special buckets, where
healthy boys pee. Worth a spring delicacy
twice as expensive as an ordinary chicken egg, but also the benefits of it
more. According to representatives of traditional medicine in China,
tuzzidan as a medicine can stop
bleeding and lower fever.

Examination of an egg under a microscope in a laboratory

In scientific research

The scientific community, which used to be largely critical
refers to the regular consumption of eggs due to the harm of cholesterol
in the yolk, in the last decade, has rediscovered this
product and revises previous restrictions and prohibitions.

  1. 1 Regular consumption of eggs reduces
    risks of developing cardiovascular pathologies.

A group of Chinese and British scientists tried to establish a connection
between eating eggs and cardiovascular pathologies (ischemic
heart disease, heart attack,
ischemic and hemorrhagic hemorrhage – stroke). For this
during 2004-2008 the research involved 416 213
people aged 30 to 79 years, who have not previously been identified
cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. And then scientists
observed the subjects until the development of cardiovascular
illness or death.

At the start of the study, 13,1% of participants reported daily
egg consumption (on average 0,76 eggs / day), and 9,1% – about extremely
rare use or absence of eggs in the diet (0,29 eggs / day).
Subsequent analysis of the results showed that, in comparison with humans,
who did not eat eggs, those who ate them every day had less
risks of developing cardiovascular pathologies.

In particular, 1 egg per day reduced the risk of hemorrhagic stroke
by 26%, death from hemorrhagic stroke – by 28%, and death
from other diseases of the cardiovascular system – by 18%. Also
it was found that the introduction of eggs into the diet (5,32 eggs / week) on
12% reduced the risk of coronary heart disease in comparison
with those who excluded eggs from the diet or used them rarely (2,03
pcs / week)..

  1. 2 One egg per day reduces the risk of developing
    diabetes in middle-aged men.

Finnish scientists have conducted a study of risk factors for ischemic
heart disease, often a complication of diabetes
2nd type. They concluded that the average consumption of one
eggs per day is associated with a reduced risk of developing diabetes this
type in middle-aged men who were participants in the experiment.

To establish the connection between the introduction of eggs into the daily diet
and diabetes, scientists used a metabolomic approach (analysis
at the molecular level). They managed to find out what is in the blood of men
diabetic patients who ate eggs had lipid molecules
which are present in blood samples from non-diabetic men

Egg yolk

  1. 3 The yolk helps build muscle.

Usually, when building muscle, people go on a protein diet,
therefore, it is common practice to discard the yolk and consume
only protein. But scientists at the University of Illinois claim
that it is counterproductive. First, the yolk also contains protein.
Secondly, it contains components that are absent in protein,
but allowing the body to increase the incorporation of protein into the muscles.

In a study, 10 youths were doing strength training,
after which some of them ate a whole egg, and some – an egg
protein containing 18 g of protein. In this experiment we used
special eggs with a specially labeled amino acid
leucine, so that scientists at any time (after consumption
eggs), taking blood and a biopsy from the muscles, could understand how
this amino acid.

Using these labeled eggs, the researchers were able to figure out
that both after eating a whole egg and after eating
separately protein in the blood was available about 60-70 g of amino acids
for the synthesis of new muscle protein. Usually this indicator
provides a basis for assessing the potential benefits of the product for building
muscle mass. However, when scientists directly measured the synthesis
protein in the muscles, they found that a whole egg immediately after
training led to increased synthesis compared to consumption
just a squirrel.

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At first, the researchers thought it was all about fats. Generally
an egg, in addition to 18 g of protein, also has about 17 g of fat. But when
they began to add 17 g of fat to the protein, the intensity of synthesis
protein remained unchanged. As a result, scientists have come to the conclusion
that in the whole egg there are some components that enhance the synthesis
and make muscle building more efficient..

  1. 4 Eating eggs can probably contribute to
    decrease in pressure.

Canadian scientists in laboratory research have found that some
peptides (short fragments of proteins) that enzymes produce
in the stomach and small intestine from boiled and fried eggs, they act
similar to ACE inhibitors, which are prescribed for disease prevention
heart and lower blood pressure. Fried eggs provided
the greatest activity of ACE inhibitors. And although the study was conducted
so far only in the laboratory without testing on humans, the revealed dependence
opens up new horizons for further research..

  1. 5 Phosvitin from egg yolk can slow down
    melanin synthesis, inhibiting skin cancer.

Egg yolk contains the protein fosvitin, which has the ability
to bind metals. Scientists tested whether he would help stop
synthesis of melanin in cells with melanoma (skin cancer). results
showed that fosvitin reduced the activity of the enzyme tyrosinase,
which catalyzes the synthesis of melanin. Adding fosvitin in concentration
50μg / ml to melanoma cells resulted in decreased tyrosinase activity
by 42%, and to a decrease in melanin synthesis by 17% in comparison with the control
a group of cells (without the addition of fosvitin).

This study suggests that fosvitin may
be used as an inhibitor of melanin synthesis in cosmetic
industry and dietetics..

Diet boiled eggs on a stand

For losing weight

The calorie content of the “yolk + protein” complex in the proportion in which
they are present in a chicken egg (8:14, respectively) based on
per 100 g is approximately 150-160 kcal. Moreover, the main share
calorie content is in the yolk – it is 6-7 times more caloric than protein.
In one medium raw egg that weighs 50 g (without shell)
will be about 75-80 kcal. In large eggs of the highest weight category
more than 75 g – about 120 kcal.

When including eggs in the diet, the cooking method should also be taken into account.
Depending on it, egg dishes can increase calories.
2 or more times. In addition, the rate of assimilation of the product also changes.
So, for example, hard-boiled eggs will digest more slowly,
than soft-boiled eggs: 3 and 1-2 hours, respectively.

There are no hard and fast rules in egg diets, but athletes and bodybuilders
with a decrease in body weight, usually left in large quantities
only protein and, at the same time, or completely exclude the yolk from the diet,
or keep it to a minimum (for example, mixing protein from 8 eggs
and yolk from 1-2).

Egg diets outside of sports programs aimed at weight loss,
allow the use of a whole boiled egg for breakfast: from 1-2
up to 7 pcs. in Week. But switching to the 7-day mono diet is not recommended.
since it is quite difficult to tolerate. She has a low balance
and the effect of it is greatly exaggerated.

American scientists specifically compared how much breakfast with
egg will be more effective than breakfast with a yeast bagel (equal to
egg in calorie content and energy value) in the fight against excess
pounds in obese people on a low-calorie diet.
Under such a diet, participants in the experiment who received breakfast
with an egg, showed a tendency for a larger decrease in circumference
waist (34%) than participants who ate bagel breakfast. And in general
the first group lost weight 65% more effectively than the second. but
a concomitant low-calorie diet was found to be an important factor in
because without it, the difference between “egg” and “donut” was erased

Boiled eggs with mayonnaise

In cooking

Today, chicken eggs are present in recipes for almost
all countries of the world. They are fried, boiled, baked, pickled, salted and
just eaten raw. The constituent parts of the egg become elements
many recipes. Egg yolk is considered the basis of mayonnaise and
many other sauces (for example, hot egg-butter “Dutch
sauce “) and whipped protein is the basis of biscuit dough, meringue
and soufflé (if you add sugar to it).

Eggs make excellent dessert drinks and cocktails:

  • It is very popular in America and Europe during the Christmas period.
    sweet eggnog
    – a mixture of raw eggs and milk.
  • In our country, from sweet egg drinks, eggnog is better known,
    to create which take whipped egg white, sugar (salt)
    and add wine
    honey, rum,
    juice or even cocoa to taste.
  • Italian sabayon (egg cream with wine, rum and cinnamon, whipped
    on a water bath) has become so popular that it is also made in Argentina,
    both in Colombia and Venezuela under their own names. Similar dessert
    there is also in France. There is a dish on a water bath of yolks and wine
    called shodo.
  • A beaten chicken egg is even mixed with beer.
    So, for example, they prepare British hot flip cocktails,
    pouring rum or other strong alcohol into them.

“Hard” and creamy egg desserts are no less common.
Among the most famous: French meringue (a cake made from whipped
proteins), Spanish flan (caramel pudding), Portuguese
“Barriga de freira” (a yolk dessert created by the nuns still
in the .th century), etc.

Egg omelet with herbs

One of the most common egg dishes is the classic omelette.
It is prepared by stirring (without beating) several eggs
with the addition of spices. In some countries, the resulting mixture is added
milk. Fried
mixture in a frying pan, preheated and greased with butter
oil, bringing the mass to thickening. In this state, the omelet can be
fold in half or “envelope”, stuff with vegetables, rice, meat
and other products traditional for national cuisine.

So, thanks to the peculiarities of preparation or the choice of filling

  • Spanish tortilla on olive
    butter with the addition of potatoes;
  • Italian frittata stuffed with cheese, vegetables and sausages, which
    is brought to full readiness already in the oven;
  • Belarusian jerk off, in which eggs are kneaded in yogurt
    or milk with the addition of flour or cereals, etc.
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Today, omelets are also very popular in Japan. In the middle of the .th century, there appeared
the famous dish of Japanese cuisine – tamagoyaki, representing
a spicy and sweet omelet that Japanese children love.
Tamagoyaki is fried in special rectangular pans (make-up).
The egg in this recipe is first rolled into a thin layer and then
roll up into a roll-roll rectangular in cross-section using sticks.
But in recent years, tamagoyaki in Japan has developed other competing
egg-based dishes:

  • Usuyaki-tamago from even thinner layers than tamagoyaki;
  • iri-tamago similar to our scrambled eggs;
  • consisting of fine threads of kinshi-tamago.

But perhaps the most exotic approach in egg cooking is different
China. We have already mentioned the tungzidan dish – a chicken egg that
cooked all day in the urine of healthy immature boys. But
it is not the only egg delicacy in Chinese cuisine.

Centenary egg in wedges on a plate

Great popularity in the PRC and neighboring countries of the Southeast
Asia uses an appetizer called “century-old egg” (option
names – “millennial egg”). There are several regional
recipes, but they all have one thing in common: to create a chicken snack
(or duck) egg is immersed in a special alkaline mixture, and
“The vessel is sealed so as to exclude air entry.
Traditionally, an alkaline environment was created using a mixture of lime,
clay, ash, tea and salt, wrapped in a cocoon of straw and rice
husks. Then this cocoon was buried in the ground for a period of 0,5 to
4 months. In modern conditions, sodium hydroxide is more often used.
as an alkaline coating and polymer films as a hermetic

During the time spent in a sealed state, protein and
the yolk changes chemical and physical characteristics:

  • the pH level rises to 9-12 (for
    comparisons in fatty hand soap it is 9-10, in ammonia
    – 11,5);
  • the protein changes color to dark brown, becoming elastic;
  • the yolk turns into a creamy state, begins to smell
    ammonia and darkens very much, sometimes repainting in almost
    black color;
  • the surface of an egg without a shell may become covered with crystals,
    resembling frost or a coniferous branch, which was the reason
    the emergence of another alternative name for the snack – “pine
    eggs “.

Such a dish is usually served without additional processing,
simply by cutting them into slices or crumbling into salads. Often a snack
season with oyster or soy sauce.

Yaya in cosmetology for face masks

In cosmetology

In home cosmetology, chicken eggs are used very widely,
being part of dozens of face and hair masks, shampoos and mousses.

  • Protein is injected into masks to tighten pores and cleanse the skin. After
    drying the crude protein along with the film removes both dirt and excess
    of each lard.
  • The yolk is used as a nourishing agent with a moisturizing effect,
    it is usually included in dry and normal care programs

Manufacturers of skin care cosmetics have also begun to actively use
egg. Some companies produce whole egg-based
series of cosmetic products. For example, the Korean brand Too Cool
For School has released a line in which he collected egg masks for narrowing
pores, skin hydration, softening face cream, purifying mousse mask
for hair and even egg body butter.

Dangerous properties of chicken eggs and contraindications

The health risks of chicken eggs are related to three main
factors: an allergic reaction, the consequences of the effects of cholesterol
on the body and the risk of salmonellosis infection.

  • Allergy
    for eggs is considered one of the most common in 2-3 months
    children. By 4-5 years or a little later, it most often goes away
    and in adults it is already quite rare. Causes allergies
    a protein-containing ovomucoid, also known as an allergen
    f233. But if a reaction to chicken protein is detected, to exclude
    cross-reactivity, and the yolk and eggs of other birds can
    generally excluded from the diet.
  • Cholesterol from chicken eggs when consumed in moderation, healthy
    will not harm a person. But people with damaged vascular walls
    and an increased risk of developing atherosclerosis, diabetic,
    acute pancreatitis,
    diseases of the liver and gallbladder, fried eggs are generally
    are not recommended, and the number of boiled ones is significantly reduced.
    In this case, special emphasis is placed on excluding the yolk from the diet.
  • There are no fresh Salmonella eggs inside. Normally, this bacteria does not
    should be on the surface of the egg. But salmonellosis
    the chicken may be contaminated, particles of which sometimes enter
    on the shell. Gradually, bacteria begin to penetrate the natural
    obstruct and infect the contents of the egg. This process can
    take from several hours to 5 days. If the shell is damaged
    (cracks in the surface) infection occurs much faster.

Salmonella eggs

Low temperatures and even freezing do not kill this bacterium,
rather, it can be preserved for a long period of time (for a year or more). And here
high temperatures are fatal for salmonella, but for the destruction
the microbe should be fried or the whole egg should be boiled. I.e,
scrambled eggs with liquid yolk remain a potentially dangerous product,
although the risk of infection is not very high, given that in poultry farms
there is bacteriological control. However, to reduce the risk
it is better to take fresh eggs and wash the shells with soap before breaking,
so that the bacteria (if it was still on the egg) from the surface
the shells did not get into the pan.

Beforehand (for example, before placing in the refrigerator) wash
eggs are impractical, since this is how the protective
the layer and shelf life of such eggs is sharply reduced. But before cooking
you still need to wash each egg with warm water.

In addition, over time, even initially well protected
the whole egg naturally begins to lose its antibacterial
the enzyme lysozyme, so its protein and yolk become more vulnerable
for the multiplication of various bacteria and molds penetrating
through the pores of the shell. This means that fresh eggs are not only healthier,
but also safer.

We have collected the most important points about the benefits and possible dangers of chicken eggs.
in this illustration and we will be very grateful if you share
a picture on social networks, with a link to our page:

Useful properties of chicken eggs

Selection and storage

In addition to the fact that the eggs must be clean – without traces of droppings and
feathers – they also should not have foreign odors. Fishy aroma
even with a seemingly normal egg, it can indicate product contamination.
However, it is not always possible to catch the smell without breaking the eggs. therefore
an important reference point for the buyer who purchases eggs in the store
(and not from the housewives “from the hands”) the marking remains, which is applied to
the final stage of selection of eggs in poultry farms and on general packaging,
and on each individual egg (on the side or at the blunt end). According to
the state standard is divided into 3 classes of eggs intended
for domestic sales (export classes are subdivided separately
eggs “extra”, “A” and “B”):

  • Diet are designated by the letter “D” – the highest class for internal
    consumer. Such eggs should be stored for no more than 7 days (starting
    from the day following the marking) in the temperature range
    0-20 C.
  • Canteens are designated by the letter “C” – eggs are transferred to this class,
    the implementation period of which does not exceed 25 days under the same conditions
  • Food chilled – a class of eggs that have been stored at low
    temperature -2-0 C no more than 90 days.
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There is also a class of eggs intended for industrial processing,
but such a product does not get into stores. Similar (although not always
identical) class division was preserved in some other
countries of the post-Soviet space.

In addition, there is additionally a division by weight of eggs with
indicating one of 5 categories. Ukrainian manufacturers use
for marking eggs for export, Latin letters, as in the dimensional grid
clothes. For the domestic market – the same as Russian and manufacturers
CIS is an alphanumeric designation. Moreover, if the largest
(heavy) eggs according to the Ukrainian state standard are considered “Selected”,
then. – these are eggs of the “Highest” category, although those are also marked
and others alike with the letter “B”. Requirements for categories by criterion
the weights of one egg can be presented in the following table:

Weight, g Category Marking Export Weight, g Category Marking 73+ Selected B XL 75+ Higher B 63-72,9 Higher O L 65-74,9 Selected O 53-62,9 First 1 M 55-64,9 First 1 45-52,9 Second 2 S 45-54,9 Second 2 35-44,9 Small * 3 35-44,9 Third 3

* for canteens and chilled

The standard by which the eggs were graded and labeled
must be written on the package. On dietary eggs (as opposed to
from canteens and chilled ones), except for the group and category, indicate
also the date and month of laying the egg. The name is also applied to the shell
farm in which the egg was collected.

With home eggs, devoid of any markings, in questions
date of demolition and storage conditions of the product, usually you have to believe
at the word of the seller. But there are a few tricks that can help.
the buyer on the spot to determine the quality of the goods.

  1. 1 Transillumination

This method involves scanning the shell with a flashlight or ovoscope.
Modern ovoscopes are more like flashlights, but the classic
the model looks like a “box” with a lamp inside and forms for holding
eggs – these are still found in some grocery and grocery stores
stores. First of all, the transillumination will show the size of the air
chamber, which should not be in a “warm” freshly laid egg at all.
At a lying egg between the shell membranes of the blunt end
an air bubble begins to form. It appears due to evaporation
water through the pores of the shell. The longer the egg is stored, the larger the bubble.

Diet eggs (up to a week old) have a chamber no more than 4 mm.
In eggs 1,5-2,5 years old, it is about 6-7 mm. And in an egg that has lain down 3-4
weeks, the air chamber can increase up to 1 cm. Moreover, in case of violation
storage conditions, it will also begin to “wander” in the egg, although it is normal
should remain at the blunt end even when inverted.

In addition to the air bubble, using transillumination, you can see
and other flaws, in the presence of which it is better to refuse the purchase:

  • large, dark yolk, displaced or even “stuck” to the shell;
  • too mobile yolk, which occurs due to the thinning of the protein
    with time;
  • mixed (spread) white and yolk, which occurs due to damage
    vitelline membrane;
  • blood clots and any dark spots (red, gray) that may
    indicate a fungal disease.

It is also not advised to buy poly-yolk eggs, as this is considered
violation of the standard.

  1. 1 Immersion in water

For testing, water is poured into a transparent container and lowered
an egg into it. The larger the air cavity under the shell, the stronger
the egg will “want” to float. Therefore, by the position of the egg and by the angle
slope, you can roughly determine its age:

  • horizontally at the bottom – fresh egg (up to 3 days);
  • the sharp end is at the bottom, and the blunt end rises up at an angle of 30-60 °
    – 7-14 days;
  • the sharp end is at the bottom, and the blunt end is located vertically (90 ° to the plane
    bottom) – about 3 weeks;
  • the egg rises to the surface or the blunt end is below the sharp –
    the terms and / or storage conditions are violated.

The first method is more suitable when choosing eggs with white shells,
because the contents are brown (due to the dark color of the shell)
is seen worse. But the peculiarity is that in the markets the hostesses
buyers are often looking for brown eggs, considering them better
and more useful than whites.

This is a delusion, and it often coexists with another erroneous
the opinion that the color of the shell depends on the color of the plumage of the bird. To
deal with this, let’s take a closer look at how brown
chicken eggs from whites.

White and brown eggs

Difference between white and brown eggs

From a consumer point of view, there is no difference between shell eggs
different color. Nutritional value, physical and chemical properties
and, accordingly, the therapeutic effect of such eggs, all other things being equal
the same. Opinion that brown-shelled eggs are healthier
should be attributed, rather, to the peculiarities of psychological perception,
which may have different reasons. For example, it is often believed
that the brown color of the shell is a sign that the egg was laid by a home
a chicken that was fed better and better, but this is not so.

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The color of the shell is due to the genetic characteristics of the bird.
Some breeds and crosses of chickens will have white eggs, others brown
(with different shades), the third have blue or green (like,
for example, in birds of the Araucana breed). Neither the nutrition of the hens, nor the color of the plumage
do not affect the color of the shell. Only belonging matters
to certain breeds or crosses.

Chicken crosses are cross-breed hybrids that are bred to improve
consumer characteristics of the product – eggs and / or meat – and only
for this (without receiving offspring from birds). Accordingly, for
to improve egg production, genetics have bred special crosses of chicken egg
directions, and to increase the share of chicken meat – special birds
meat direction. There are also combined (meat-yielding) crosses,
thanks to which, mainly, on store shelves and appear
brown eggs.

Modern crosses of the egg direction lay eggs exclusively
with white shells, because they were all bred from the breed under
the name Leghorn, which genetically has a tendency to carry eggs of white
colors. Chickens of this breed themselves can wear both white and brown plumage,
but their eggs are still white.

But all modern crosses of combined and meat direction
give brown eggs (from dark brown to creamy beige).
And also – regardless of the color of the plumage. For example, white birds
Plymouthrocks lay light brown eggs. Although most chicken
hybrids of these directions were bred on the basis of New Hampshire breeds,
red and white rhode island.

Thus, if eggs of hens of the egg direction turn out to be in the store,
then their shell will be white. If combined or meat
direction, the shell will be brown. (Although the “meat” hybrids
chickens are bred, first of all, for the sake of meat). Why then
in the popular mind, a brown egg is often associated with a domestic one?
An explanation can be found for this.

To prepare eggs in poultry farms, they often prefer to keep birds.
egg crosses, that is, laying white eggs (therefore, in stores
there are more of them). Such chickens, as the name of the direction suggests, differ
better egg production. The most productive hybrids carry about
300 eggs in the first year, but then they maintain high productivity
not capable, and they are usually hammered.

Purebred birds lay one and a half to two times less often (up to 200 eggs
per year), but they do not lose egg production for several
years. Therefore, in households and on mini-farms, they often contain
purebred chickens (not crosses), and often of those breeds that
it is genetically characteristic to lay eggs with colored shells. Such
Breed freedom increases the frequency of brown eggs
it is in households. And if you consider that homemade food
considered healthier for the chicken, it all works together
to improve the reputation of brown eggs.

Eggs in the store

Difference between store-bought and homemade eggs

The difference between domestic eggs and store eggs is not only that the layers
on conveyor-type poultry farms are not fertilized by a rooster
and they lay sterile eggs from which no chick can hatch.
Poultry, unlike chicken in poultry farms, usually lead
free lifestyle, eat varied and, as a rule,
natural food, which is believed to ultimately affect
as eggs. Some egg eaters even claim to be homemade
the egg smells like “health” because of this.

However, it is difficult for the consumer to check what the hostess really is
feeds its layers, and, moreover, it is difficult to compare with the composition of feed
at poultry farms. Typically, in factories, the feeding process is
multi-stage program focused on the needs of a specific
breed or hybrid. The feed may contain wheat, corn,
alfalfa, nutritional supplements, assimilated, processed
substandard product of the same factory, etc.

Among other things, elements that affect
yolk color. Despite the fact that this measure increases the final
the cost of the product, it also increases consumer attractiveness
eggs with orange yolk, because the rich color is very much
buyers “hints” at a higher content of nutrients.
The only problem is that domestic chickens are exactly the same and with the same
purpose can be fed with food additives, from which changes
and the color and consistency of the yolk. Therefore, the buyer, even breaking
egg, is unlikely to be able to objectively choose which one is better: homemade
or store.


In the first week after laying, chicken eggs retain almost
all their valuable qualities and generally age very slowly. But then
rate of biochemical and morphological changes
it grows rather quickly in the egg, so it is better to immediately create
this product has the most favorable storage conditions.

Chicken eggs should be kept in the refrigerator in compartments specially
for this purpose. But in order to extend the term, it is better to turn over
their sharp end down. Then they can lie up to 3 weeks keeping
most consumer qualities and healing properties.

If the refrigerator is unavailable for some reason, then it is better in the heat
stored eggs, the shell of which is grated with sunflower
butter or fat melted from lard (lard). After applying
oily protection eggs are wrapped in paper, placed in a ventilated
container (for example, a basket) and hide in the coolest
a place. In this case, eggs should be isolated from strongly smelling foods,
so that the porous shell does not absorb odors.

Golden egg

Interesting Facts

An unofficial, but at the same time, world holiday “Day of the Egg” (World
Egg Day) falls on the second Friday of October. Decision on its introduction
was adopted at the Vienna meeting of the “International Egg Commission”
(International Egg Commission) in 1996. There is no single format
its celebrations, so somewhere on this day, educational
lectures and massive flash mobs, and somewhere is limited to thematic
promotions and special, especially egg, menus in catering establishments.

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The national alternative to the world holiday can be considered the “Day
omelet “in the French Bessieres. The Giant Omelet Festival, which has become
habitual for the town since 1973, takes place in the period of the Catholic
Easter, so the main dish of the fair was named L’omelette
Pascale “. On the central square of Bessieres in a huge 4-meter
frying pan weighing 400 kg 50 respected locals included in
the composition of the brotherhood of the “Giant Omelet”, they prepare a dish of several
thousand eggs. In 2019, 15 thousand eggs were spent on such an omelet, which
about 10 thousand people were fed free of charge.

It is believed that the idea of ​​ u.b u.bthe tradition of preparing a large “omelet for everyone” appeared
thanks to Napoleon, who, according to legend, on one of the Easter
days, having made a halt in Bessieres, tasted the local omelet. Impressed
from this taste, he ordered his soldiers to cook the same dish,
collecting all the eggs in the town.

It was the giant French omelet that entered the Guinness Book of Records,
as the biggest. But huge omelets are made in other parts too.
the world. One of the most popular egg holidays is American
Giant Omelette Celebration. It is celebrated on the first weekend of November
in Abbeville (USA, Louisiana). To create a giant dish organizers
holiday spend 5 thousand eggs, 25 liters of milk, 10 kg of greens for
powder. To fry such an omelet, you need about 6 liters of oil.
In addition, the Canadian city of Granby is famous for its colossal omelets.
(province of Quebec) and Argentine Pigue. 10 thousand eggs for this dish
crashed in 2017 in the Belgian municipality of Malmedy.

Comparison of chicken and ostrich eggs

But the record holders in egg consumption despite all this today
after all, not Europeans are considered, but Mexicans. One Mexican
eats, on average, one and a half eggs per day. Before the Mexican leaders
the Japanese were considered with an indicator of 1 egg per person per day. And this
despite the fact that culinary egg recipes in Japan appeared only in
second half of XVIII. And before the era of the Tokugawa clan (so-called.
Edo period), chicken eggs on the islands were generally very rare.
Only in the middle of the .th century, when poultry farms appeared and eggs became cheaper,
this product has become available to the mass consumer.

Egg records are set not only by humans, but also by chickens who
from time to time they lay eggs of a huge size with several yolks
inside. So, the chicken, known under the nickname Harriet, went down in history,
owned by British farmer Tony Barbuti. More than 10 years ago
Harriet laid an egg weighing 163 grams. In 2011 it became known
about the appearance on one of the poultry farms in Novorossiysk a chicken egg weighing
184 grams. And soon, in 2016, a message appeared about a new record,
installed on the farm of Ingrid and Gunther Mein from Lower Saxony
(Germany) – an egg weighing 209 grams.

Despite the “efforts” of laying hens, their owners often have
problem with registering records. Applying for a procedure requires
time, but as it passes, the egg begins to dry out and lose weight,
therefore, by the time the official measurements are taken, the egg may have lost
the status of “the largest and most difficult”.

In addition to macro-size, there are other egg anomalies – for example,
the presence of several yolks (usually 2-4) in the shell, or development
one chicken embryo inside another. Some of these anomalies
are perceived by the people as mystical objects. So, sometimes chicken
lay very small eggs, only 1-2 cm in size, which are called
knots, callouts, or footnotes. Knots differ not only
size, but even thicker and harder shell, as well as the absence
squirrel inside.

There is a superstitious opinion among the people that knotweed appear in old
7-year-old birds impregnated by a demon taking advantage of the moment
when the wind, raising the tail feathers of the chickens, for some time opened
their cloaca. If the knotweed that appears after this hatches in its clutch
a snake or a virgin takes out, warming an egg with the warmth of the armpit
depressions for 6 weeks, then a winged
basilisk. Different peoples represented the basilisk in the form of a many-legged
a snake with a chicken beak, then in the form of a rooster with a snake tail. BUT
in Lithuanian beliefs, a basilisk that emerged from the egg of a black rooster,
could even bring food or money into the house.

Easter eggs

In world and national cultures, the image of an egg as a symbol of the beginning,
birth, resurrection and life in general is generally very common:

  • In the old religions of the Middle East, the egg was considered a way of creation.
    and spring update.
  • In Zoroastrianism, the wise god Ohrmazd fought for the possession of the world egg
    with the evil demon Ahriman.
  • In Greek mythology, Helena Troyanskaya, considered the most beautiful
    a woman of the ancient world, hatched from an egg.
  • In Christianity, the egg became a symbol of the Resurrection of Jesus, which created
    folk tradition to paint and paint chicken eggs for Easter.

In East Slavic folklore, the image of an egg is present in fairy tales
about Koschey the Immortal, and about the chicken Ryaba. In particular, in the first case
the broken egg hides the needle “with the death of Koscheeva”, and in the second case
(in the full initial version of the tale) – starts a series of troubles,
leading to the collapse of the previous world order.

In reality, broken eggs do not carry such troubles, but choose them
nevertheless, you should be more careful so as not to get infected and buy as much as possible
fresh and healthy product.


Would you like to learn how to easily cook a heart-shaped chicken egg and surprise your soul mate? Also a trendy way for Valentine’s Day. Watch the video!

And this is how you can “shake” the egg before boiling and get a yellow egg after peeling. Surprise your loved ones!

See also the properties of other eggs:

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Anna Evans

Author ✓ Farmer

View all posts by Anna Evans →