Among the diseases of chickens, mycoplasmosis is considered one of the most common ailments. This disease develops even with a slight violation of the conditions of detention. Consider what symptoms are characteristic of this sore and how to treat it.
- Characteristic of the disease
- Routes of infection
- Symptoms in layers
- Diagnosis <
- Respiratory form
- Folk remedies
- Possible consequences
- Danger to humans
- Preventive measures
Characterization of the disease
Respiratory mycoplasmosis is an infectious disease that affects the airways of chickens.
The causative agent is mycoplasma, haliseptium, an intermediate form between the virus and the bacterium. After penetration into the respiratory system, it affects the reproductive system and muscle tissue.
Not only adults, but also young individuals at the embryo stage are infected.
All breeds are affected by this disease, but according to statistics broilers are more likely to get sick at the age of 20 to 45 days, because they have low immunity.
amymi first infected the roosters, so the owner need to pay attention to their appearance and condition. The signs of the cockerels are coughing, sneezing and shortness of breath.
Ways of infection
The sore is transmitted by airborne droplets, less often through water and food.
Once in the body, the pathogen settles on the mucous membranes of the mouth and eyes penetrates the respiratory tract. The peak of development occurs in the autumn period, when the weather is stable, wet and cold.
The appearance of mycoplasmosis is not affected by the climate of the region. The infection progresses in a herd that is poorly fed, kept in inappropriate conditions. First of all, individuals with weak immunity and low resistance to bacteria are infected.
Chicks can become infected from a sick brood at the embryo stage or after hatching through the respiratory system.
Often carriers of the sore are wild birds, as well as domestic hens that live in the neighborhood. Therefore, it is necessary to protect the place of walking in order to exclude possible contact with them.
The incubation period lasts about 3 weeks. At the same time, infected individuals that do not show any signs of infection are carriers of the virus.
Within 2-4 weeks of illness, all livestock in the household or industrial household are affected.
Symptoms mycoplasmosis is different, depending on the stage and degree of progression.
- At the initial stage of development, the sore is hidden, it is almost impossible to identify. The causative agent spreads throughout the body, penetrating into muscle tissue and blood.
- The second phase is accompanied by a slight deterioration – lethargy, loss of strength, sneezing, inactivity and loss of appetite. Such symptoms appear, as a rule, in 10-12% of infected individuals, the rest is asymptomatic.
- The third degree of damage occurs with characteristic problems – complete refusal of food, coughing, intermittent breathing, excessive salivation and the appearance of foam from the beak. The bird’s body begins to show maximum resistance. Other signs are redness of the area around the eyes, swelling of the eyelids, wheezing, diarrhea with the release of liquid green or yellow droppings.
- At the fourth stage, the symptoms become dull, the infected individual becomes an active carrier of the infection.
During periods of damp, cold and sudden temperature changes, the symptoms are aggravated.
Signs in laying hens
In laying hens, the others described above are joined by others:
- severe damage to the eye cornea;
- inflammation of the oviduct;
- decrease in productivity by 15%;
- higher the number of unfertilized eggs by 30%;
- more frequent cases of embryo death by 25%.
Mycoplasmosis in broilers and chickens can appear for several reasons.
- Dirty drink in a drinker.
- The presence of dangerous insects in the chicken coop.
- Poor-quality feed through which the virus is transmitted.For each breed, a specific diet is selected to saturate the body with minerals, vitamins and all the components necessary for life. Feeding troughs should be regularly cleaned and leftovers removed.
- Weak immune system.
- Genetic susceptibility to the pathogen.
- Stressful situations – moving the livestock to another habitat or prolonged transportation.
- Vaccination of young animals with live vaccines.
- Violation of temperature and ventilation in the chicken coop.
- Air pollution, the presence of a large amount of dust, ammonia and other harmful and toxic substances.
Determine in chickens or adults that sore can be diagnosed correctly.
The above symptoms are similar to other bird diseases – pneumonia, colds, pasteurellosis, hemophilia, colibacteriosis and bronchitis.
Only an experienced veterinarian can make an accurate diagnosis, excluding the likelihood of these diseases.
The bird is examined in several ways:
- blood serum is taken to determine the agglutination reaction;
- mycoplasma is taken for smear using a Petri dish filled with agar;
- analysis of polymer gene a chain reaction that helps determine the genetic predisposition of the bird before infection.
Depending on the age of the bird, different treatment options for mycoplasmosis are used.
After diagnosis sick individuals are isolated – they are placed in a separate room with clean and dry bedding, as well as fresh water and dry food.
Young animals are treated with antibacterial drugs. The medicine is administered intramuscularly.
Several drugs showed the greatest effect:
- Enroflon – 1 ml;
- Tilazine – 0.5 g;
- Tilan – 0.5 g;
- Enroflox – 1 m;
- Farmazin – 1 g;
- Pneumothil – 3 ml.
This dosage is designed for 1 liter of warm water. The treatment regimen, frequency and quantity of drug administration is calculated according to the weight and age of the bird and in accordance with the instructions on the package.
In single cases of infection, resettled broilers and chicks of other breeds are treated with one of the drugs – Lilokolin AF, Tilanic, Tilobel or Thialong.
If the diagnosis is not established, adult birds should be treated with one of the broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs Avimutin hydro, Tetracycline, Eriprim or Tilodoxom.
For diffuse symptoms, use antiviral and antibacterial agents:
- Eriprim – 1 g;
- Macrodox 200 – 1 g;
- Gilodoks – 1 g;
- Hydrotriprim – 1 g.
The dosage is calculated per liter of water.
After making an accurate diagnosis, special drugs are used that treat mycoplasmosis – Thialong, Tylosin or Tilokolin AF. The scheme and frequency of therapy according to the instructions.
At the advanced stage of infection, infected individuals are sent for slaughter, because it is impossible to cure the disease.
The treatment of the respiratory form in chickens and adults is carried out using narrowly targeted antibiotics – Farmazin, Enroksila, Tilsoloma or Tilmikoveta.
Effectively use this scheme: 1 g of substance per 1 liter of water. All livestock need to be drunk, regardless of their condition and appearance.
Additionally, sanitation of indoor air in the presence of birds is required, and the chicken coop is treated with aerosol, disinfectants:
- lactic acid (30 % concentration) – 10 ml;
- Monclavite – 3 ml;
- Iodotriethylene glycol – 0.7 ml;
- Ecocide – 0.15 g.
The amount was calculated for spraying on an area of 1 m³.
Nobody has managed to cure this sore with folk remedies, because Alternative medicine on the powerless with respect to the pathogen.
Here it is more effective to take measures aimed at increasing immunity:
- desalination with goat milk;
- daily chickens are given a drink from a glucose solution – 50 g per liter of water ;
- at the age of seven days they begin to solder with the vitamin-mineral complex.
The defeat of mycoplasmosis is primarily negative affects the general condition and health of the bird.
Without appropriate medical measures in the herd, both egg and meat productivity decreases, since ry refuse to drink, feed, become inactive.
When the mass infection killed a large percentage of embryos increases infertile. The mortality rate varies from 4 to 10%.
Danger to humans
This virus is not dangerous for humans, but to eat the meat of an infected individual, especially at an advanced stage, not recommended.
At the initial stage of infection, the bird is allowed to slaughter, then the carcass is subjected to heat treatment for 1.5 hours. This product can be eaten.
Eggs from diseased laying hens need to be disposed of. Also, they should not be used to breed new offspring, because the risk of infection of young animals is almost 100%.
By performing simple preventive measures, you can maintain the health of your chickens and their productivity.
- From infection with mycoplasmosis, birds are given Furacycline at the rate of 0.5 g per kg body weight, in parallel Immunobak – three doses per individual. Such funds are administered orally in the morning and evening for five days.Preventive measures are carried out three times – in individuals aged 4, 5 and 10 months.
- Vaccination of chickens from an illness at an early age.
- Balanced feeding, providing birds with fresh and clean water, regular cleaning of the chicken coop . Change of litter once a year and its burning.
- Annual disinfection of the chicken coop with a solution of formalin or sodium hydroxide 2% concentration.
- Maintaining a stable temperature, humidity and ventilation.
- Periodic examination of birds for signs of infection and timely quarantine of sick chicken.
- Prevention of crowding, in which the microclimate in the chicken coop is disturbed and there is a high probability of the appearance of various viruses and bacteria.