Chestnut is a beautiful tree, especially at the time of flowering,
when its large paniculate inflorescences give the tree
elegant, festive look, a genus of plants from the family
saucer-bearing. About 30 species of trees or shrubs,
characteristic of temperate and tropical zones. The most important
common chestnut (C. vulgaris) is considered a species, in
south. Europe, Crimea, Transcaucasia, Africa, southern. Asia and
America. It has long been bred for the sake of fruits, sometimes reaches
deep age, up to 1000 years. The wood is very durable
goes to barrel and joinery. Mealy and sweetish
chestnut fruits are traded in southern countries.
Now you can buy different varieties of chestnuts, but the most
a popular Christmas variety is sweet chestnuts. Them
grown in many parts of the world, but be careful
do not try ornamental varieties that grow
on the streets.
Grows naturally in the South of the Balkan Peninsula
(Greece, Bulgaria) at an altitude of 1200 m above sea level.
In culture, it is widespread not only in the subtropical,
but also in the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere, in areas
with a humid and warm climate.
Before Christmas on the streets of many European cities you can see
how chestnuts are baked. This ancient tradition began many years ago,
when special pans were made to bake chestnuts. To
bake chestnuts at home, first of all you need to clean them from the outer shell
and bitter membranes, then rub with a brush to remove all the dirt,
put them on skewers or just make small cuts in the peel
and put on an open fire (if not cut, they can
Useful properties of chestnuts
Raw chestnut contains (in 100 g):
Calories 213 Kcal
Chestnuts are composed of approximately 2-3% fiber, 3% mineral
substances, vitamins A are also present,
C and groups
The seeds contained in the fruit include
coumarin glycosides, triterpene saponin escin,
fatty oil (up to 5-7%), protein substances (up to 10%),
starch (up to 50%), tannins (about 1%). In the bark
discovered glycosides, tannins, sugars, ascorbic
acid (vitamin C), other compounds. Leaves contain
glycosides, pectin substances and carotenoids. Flowers
rich in flavonoids, tannins, pectin substances
Chestnut fruits and bark contain triterpene glycoside
escin, coumarin esculetin and its glycoside esculin. Besides
In addition, flavonoid glycosides have been found – quercitrin, isoquercitrin,
quercetin and kaempferol. Starch is found in the fruits,
fatty oil, sterols, tannins. In the leaves
found quercitrin, isoquercitrin, quercitin, rutin
and spireoside, astragalin, carotenoids – lutein, violaxanthin.
The content of active substances in the leaves during the summer
almost does not change. Flowers contain flavonoids –
derivatives of kaempferol and quercetin.
Chestnuts are lower in fat than others
nuts, they are nutritious and satisfying, but not so oily,
like other nuts and therefore more useful. 100 grams of chestnuts
contains 210 kcal, carbohydrates in them 42, protein 3.6,
fat 2.2. Because of their texture, chestnuts are excellent
a component of a vegetarian diet.
It has been experimentally established that the alcoholic extract
fruit has anti-inflammatory and decongestant
properties, reduces blood viscosity, strengthens the walls
capillaries, lowers blood pressure, normalizes
the content of cholesterol and lecithin in the blood, reduces
the formation of fatty plaques in the aorta. It is also known
that the extract constricts blood vessels and has an analgesic effect.
Usually they use ready-made pharmaceutical preparations Escuzan
Horse chestnut herbal preparations are widely used
in folk medicine: the juice of flowers is drunk with varicose veins
varicose veins (thrombophlebitis), atherosclerosis and hemorrhoids.
Flower juice, canned with alcohol, flower tincture
or fruits are useful for thrombophlebitis and hemorrhoids; infusion
fetuses – with diarrhea (diarrhea), malaria and chronic
bronchitis in smokers. A decoction of the skin of the fruit is used
with uterine bleeding. Freshly chopped leaves
and the fruit tincture is also used externally.
For the preparation of medicinal products,
bark of young branches, leaves, flowers and fruits. Bark is harvested
in spring, cut into pieces and dried immediately after harvest
on open air. Flowers are harvested in May. Them
plucked from inflorescences and on the first day dried in the sun,
and then under a canopy, in the open air. Leaves are harvested
during flowering, without petioles, spread in a thin layer
under a canopy or in a well-ventilated area. This
kind of raw materials are exported. The fruits are harvested during the period
their full maturity when they fall out of the valves. Dried
them in a warm, ventilated area.
Dangerous properties of chestnuts
Chestnut is an allergen, therefore it is contraindicated for individual
intolerance. People with diabetes
chestnut honey should not be consumed without consulting a doctor.
Excessive consumption of chestnut can provoke seizures
– fingers will be brought together on the hands. People suffering from atonic
poor blood clotting, thrombocytopenia, liver disease
and the kidneys should not be consumed chestnuts, as they can cause exacerbations.
Chestnuts are also contraindicated for menstrual irregularities.
In addition, chestnuts are not recommended for children, pregnant women
and nursing, as they can provoke the appearance of allergic