One of the most popular and best-selling flowers is the oncidium orchid. This plant is diverse in its species. Care for orchid oncidium at home for all varieties should be regular, timely and thorough.
- Description of the orchid Oncidium
- Common species
- Features of care
- Lighting <
- Watering and flowering
- Fertilizing and fertilizer
- Propagation of the oncidium
- Protection against diseases and pests
- Conclusion <
Description of the Oncidium orchid
Representatives of this plant grow about the moist and warm forests of Central America, as well as its southern regions. Some species love moisture, others, on the contrary, hot weather and sunshine. Some grow in the mountains, others in the lowlands or hills. That is why oncidium should be selected for each type of orchid own, special care.
To date, more than 700 species of these orchids are known. These are Zygopetalum, Dendrobium, Dendrofalenopsis, Cumbria, Fantasy Music, Black (Black) orchid, Oncidium Twinkle, vanilla (variegated species) and many other varieties. From its usual habitat in Europe, the oncidium came only in the 18th century. And today he is a permanent resident of apartments and houses.
Oncidiums love light more than other varieties and they are most resistant to temperature extremes.The plant is unpretentious in its care, which is why flower growers love to plant it. With proper care, it blooms every 9-12 months, and oncidium orchid will practically not be exposed to diseases and insect pests.
As for appearance, this species is difficult to confuse with others. The peculiarity of this type of orchid is the unusual shape of the lower lip, which is similar to a skirt. From the slightest breath of wind, the flower begins to flutter.
Popular varieties of oncidium, which are most often grown at home. They are loved for their unpretentiousness, ability to tolerate daily temperature drops.
- Yellow oncidium – perhaps this is the most popular and famous species. Such popularity was brought to him by his unpretentiousness in leaving. This variety is recognized by its small yellow flowers.
- Sweet sugars – the flower of this type of orchid consists of two parts. Flowers in diameter reach from 3-5 cm. The length of the peduncle is no more than 40 cm.
- Orchid Twinkle or twinkle is perhaps the smallest variety. The size of the flowers themselves reaches up to 2 cm. They grow well and bloom in moderate temperature conditions, even despite the fact that at night the temperature should be 4-5 ° lower than the daytime. They do not require constant watering, they tolerate transplanting.
- Mike van Holm. This variety is easily recognized by a high branched peduncle.On it are many small, fragrant flowers. Most often they are yellow or red. This variety has several thickened pseudobulbs, from which long narrow leaves extend. It tolerates transplantation.
- Red fantasy is a hybrid variety of oncidium that tolerates a wide range of temperatures: from 10 to 25 °. If the air temperature is higher, then the orchid stops its growth. For this variety, it is important that during the day the temperature difference does not reach more than 3-4 °.
- Curved. This variety has long roots. Pseudobulbs are flattened, separated from each other. From each of them one leaf grows, reaching 20-25 cm in length. The inflorescence itself is loose, and the flowers are miniature. Most often, the shade is yellow with red dots.
- Tiger. This variety has oval pseudobulbs, with 2-3 leaves. The flowers of the tiger oncidium are large and reach a diameter of 7-8 centimeters. The flowers themselves are yellow with dark brown spots.
- Curly oncidium. This orchid loves space, so getting on with other flowers will not be easy. Chocolate-colored curly oncidium petals have wavy edges. When cut, the flowers stand for more than two weeks, all this time they retain their natural aroma.
- Popcorn. Miniature orchid variety. She is completely unpretentious in leaving. The size of the flowers reaches about 1.5-2 cm. The color is white. Oncidium popcorn reaches a height of about 15 cm.
Each of the varieties has its pros and cons. Which variety will grow in your apartment or house is up to you. But when buying a flower, do not forget to familiarize yourself with the features of plant care at home and evaluate your strength and capabilities in this matter.
Features of care
Caring for an orchid oncidium at home does not require any then some knowledge of horticulture or floriculture. The condition of the plant as a whole can be judged by the leaves that have a healthy flower of a juicy green hue, and by the airy and not dry roots of the flower. If you follow the simple rules of care, then the oncidium orchid will delight you for a long time and at the same time bloom beautifully once a year or more.
Orchid Care absolutely any variety at home requires good lighting, since this plant especially loves light. She prefers bright lighting. It should be placed in the shadow only during the midday heat, when the sun shines especially strongly and brightly. The larger and fatter the plant, the more light it requires.
To determine if the flower has enough light, pay attention to the leaves. If they took on a dark green hue, then this indicates a lack of light.If the leaves, on the contrary, become light or become covered with red or even black spots, or the leaf turns yellow, this indicates too much light. Only the setting of the correct level of illumination will allow to revive the flower. In good lighting, the leaf should be juicy, green, without any dots or spots. Lighting is especially important when forming pseudobulbs. If this process occurs in winter time, then in this case, additional illumination with a lamp is required.
All oncidiums are divided into three groups:
- Heat-loving flowers that grow in the tropics, at hot temperatures, sometimes drought. For them, the optimal temperature during the day will range from 28 to 30 °, at night the temperature reaches from 16 to 19 °. The daily temperature difference should be no higher than 5 °.
- Flowers that require and love moderate temperatures. For example, this is a tiger oncidium. For them, the optimal daily temperature in summer should reach no more than 23 °. In winter, it can be slightly lower – about 13-15 ° heat.
- Views that love the cold. They usually grow in mountainous, shady forests where there is high humidity. The temperature range in which they feel comfortable is wide – from 15 to 25 °. However, despite this, it is important for this group of orchids that the daily temperature difference does not exceed 2-3 °.
Orchids that grow in apartments are hybrid varieties.They feel good in a wide temperature range – from 15 to 26 °. If the temperature is higher, the plant stops the process of root growth, which means that the oncidium will not bloom. For good growth and a favorable state, the desired temperature should be maintained, while not allowing its sharp jump or drop. It is in such cases that you can transplant without causing any damage to it.
With the help of aerial roots, a flower receives moisture from the air and nutrition, therefore suffers from insufficient air humidity. Room conditions for this flower are favorable. It is important that the humidity is around 50-60%. Spraying is necessary only in summer, sultry weather, or during the heating season. If the room temperature reaches less than 17 °, then there is no need to spray the plant at all.
It is also important to remember that not only air humidity, but also ventilation should be observed in any room. Fresh air is always important for plants such as oncidium.
Watering and flowering
Watering and flowering in the care of oncidium are closely related. To achieve and obtain flowering, at least once a year, you need to regularly water it.This should be done from the beginning of growth, up to the process of forming a pseudobulb.
- It is imperative to ensure that the soil between the irrigation has time to dry out. It is possible to determine whether the next watering is necessary by the weight of the pot. At the same time, you should not wait for the soil to be too dry and begin to crack, as this also has a detrimental effect on the growth and flowering of the plant.
- You should not adhere to a specific watering schedule for oncidium, because the speed of soil drying depends on many factors . If the street is summer, then the soil will dry out many times faster. In winter, this process takes a little longer.
- When forming a pseudobulb, you need to abruptly cancel watering, only in this case the orchid will bloom. Somewhere in about 21-28 days from a new growing pseudobulb a flower stalk should go. When you are convinced that this is it – resume the regular watering process.
When the flower has already faded, the watering procedure should be slightly reduced, since the plant does not need too much moisture for this period . With proper watering, oncidium blooms approximately every 9-12 months, in some varieties a little more often.
Fertilizing and fertilizing
Fertilizing is required only in growth period of young shoots. During the formation of pseudobulbs no additional feeding is required.When the flower stalk begins to develop and the flowering process begins, top dressing should be resumed again.
It is important that the top dressings are not too concentrated, since the roots of this plant are sensitive to all kinds of drugs and substances. Therefore, fertilizers are best done diluted, top dressing should be done through the leaves. The recommended dose should be 9-10 less than the one indicated on the package.
Propagation of oncidium
At home, the reproduction process is carried out only by the vegetative method. It is worthwhile to start dividing the curtain only when more than 6 pseudobulbs are tied to the flower. Only in this case the divisions will be viable.
The division procedure is carried out with a sharp knife. For this, an underground stem is incised. After this, the place where the cut was made, it is necessary to sprinkle with charcoal. It is important to observe one more prerequisite: during the process of dividing the land must be necessarily dry. Also, after the procedure, the plant can not be watered for about 10 days, which will allow the wound to dry.
Reproduction, you can do it with the help of a baby – a process that has its own root system. However, this phenomenon is rarely found in practice, and if you have a offspring on an orchid, this is more an exception than a rule.
Protection against diseases and pests
It should be remembered that any acquired flower needs monthly quarantine.
As practice shows, in most cases the oncidium is affected by a mealybug. It will be difficult not to notice it, it resembles pieces of cotton wool, which can be either on the ground or on the plant itself. If you notice something like this, then dampen a cotton pad with water, remove the white lumps, and then wipe all areas with alcohol. Do not forget to treat the flower with the drug – Aktara.
If you find small inclusions that resemble droplets of wax, then most likely this is a scab. If a spider web appeared on the sheets, then a tick appeared on the plant. In the fight against the pest, everything should be removed with a cotton pad, treated with an alcohol solution. If possible, treat with a special solution to prevent further development of the disease. At the advanced stage of damage, remove the plants from the pot, remove the damaged parts on the roots, sprinkle with charcoal and transplant into a new substrate.
Often orchids are affected by bacteria and rot of fungal origin. Damaged areas usually take on a brown tint. For example, this is characteristic of leaves. The first thing to do is remove the damaged leaves. Further, it is required to provide good ventilation in the room, as well as to ensure that the land dries between waterings. It will not be superfluous to carry out treatment with fungicides, as well as antibiotics. You can buy them at any gardening goods store.
Caring for this amazing flower will be easy if you provide it with regular watering, top dressing and protection against diseases. and pests. In gratitude for this, he will delight you with his decorative and elegant look all year round.