Pakhira – a tree from the subfamily of flowering plants Bombaks. Refers to Malva. Originally from South and Central America. Found in India and Africa. od covers more than 45 species for cultivation in home conditions most suited Guiana Chestnut
- Botanical characteristic
- Species <
- Purchase and adaptation
- Boarding and transplanting
- Temperature <
- Lighting <
- Feeding <
- Trimming and shaping
- Methods of propagation
- of the Seed
- Cutting <
- Treatment of diseases and pests
Pakhira looks like a palm tree, in the wild the tree grows up to 20 m, at home – only up to 3 m There are related cultures – baobab and durian.
- the trunk has a thickening at the bottom for the accumulation of nutrients and water, looks like a bottle,
- the leaves are bright green, the surface is glossy, brilliant, leathery structure, attached to long petioles, palm-shaped, similar to chestnut;
- middle flowers, collected in paniculate inflorescence about 15-35 cm long, flowering white with a yellowish tint, stamens bright pink, vanilla odor;
- fruits are green, oval, length up to 25 cm, accommodate up to 25 pcs. nuts, seeds are edible in raw and fried form, are used in the bakery industry for the production of flour and baking bakery products.
There is no flowering in an artificial environment.
According to signs and superstitions, pahira brings happiness to the house.
Several varieties are best known in home growing.
- Aquatic. Also called aquatic, water, water chestnut. The classic representative of pakhira. Height is about 3 m, crown diameter is up to 1.5 m. The growth set is slow.
- Silver. It is similar to water, but differs from it in a silver striped pattern on the leaves.
- Round-leaved. It is rare at home. Ampeli variety is often used in the decoration of office premises. It features long leafy shoots and a round shape of leaf blades.
Purchase and adaptation
The most suitable time for purchase is spring. When choosing a plant, it is worth paying attention to appearance. A healthy flower:
- has a rich green color of foliage;
- there is no damage to the trunk and roots;
- there are no spots on the leaf plates.
The average price is 700 rubles.
After acquiring, the pakhira is quarantined for 2 weeks, and after that it is transplanted:
- pot, shake off excess soil;
- lower the roots for 15 min in water to wash off the soil;
- the root system is inspected for rotten areas, cut off damaged fragments;
- pot choose 2-5 cm in diameter large e areas of the underground part;
- fill the bottom with drainage, on top – with earth to the level of 2/3 of the height of the pot capacity, forming a cone in the central part;
- put a pahira on the hill, straighten the roots, add soil filling the voids.
Planting and replanting
A shallow and wide pot is suitable for a houseplant. Too large a capacity increases the risk of stagnation of moisture and souring of the earth, which causes the appearance of fungal diseases.
The frequency of transplantation depends on the age of the flower culture:
- a young plant requires annual replacement of the pot;
- adult pachyra (from 5 years) grows without transplant for 3 -4 seasons;
- for an old flower they cost about changing the surface layer of the soil to a depth of about 5 cm.
A bottle tree is transplanted in the spring, around March-April. The best way is transshipment without substitution of the substrate in order to avoid root injury.
Immediately after transplanting, to adapt to new conditions, put the flower pot in a shaded place for 2-3 days, the plants are not fed for 2 weeks from planting
The most suitable place is the east or west window, where direct sunlight is observed only in the morning and evening hours. In the summer, when located in a southerly direction, the plant needs shading from 12 to 17 hours. When placed in the northern part, it requires additional illumination.
In the summer season, outdoor air removal is shown. It is susceptible to drafts and overheating from heating devices.
In the natural environment it grows on low-fertile lands. Mandatory requirements for the substrate – high breathability and good drainage.
The recommended level of acidity is neutral or weak, but the plant can also grow in acidic and alkaline soils.
Ready-made soil suitable for growing decorative indoor deciduous and palm crops is suitable for planting. Perlite or vermiculite is additionally added to it in an amount of about ¼ of the total volume of the mixture, which helps to increase the aeration of the soil layers.
You can make the earth mixture yourself by mixing equal parts of sod and sheet soil, coarse sand and brick chips.
The culture is undemanding to humidity conditions, easily tolerates being surrounded by dry air, but responds well to spraying on foliage, which makes the aboveground part increases the brightness. Frequency – up to 2 times a day, avoiding getting on the trunk.
Recommended rates are about 50-60%.
For a thermophilic tropical The flower needs high temperatures. Optimum mode:
- in spring and summer – 22-25 ° C, an excess of 35 ° C leads to the cessation of plant growth;
- in autumn and winter – 14-16 ° C , the minimum allowable limit is 6-7 ° C, at which the falling of leaves begins, at 0 ° C the culture dies.
good lighting. With a lack of light, it loses its decorative effect: the leaves become pale, the stem stretches.
The optimal daylight hours are from 10 or more hours. The deficit of lighting in winter is compensated by the use of artificial light sources.
A regular rotation of the flower pot by 45 ° ensures uniform crown development.
Water should be standing, without chlorine, 2-3 times higher than room temperature. Water the flower under the root, avoiding moisture on the trunk, or by immersion for 0.5-1.0 hours.
The submersible method is not used if the ambient air is less than 20 ° C or if the pachira was recently transplanted.
The frequency of hydration depends on the rate of soil drying and is usually about 2-3 times a month in summer and up to a similar interval in winter.
The plant can tolerate short-term drought, spending water injected in a thick trunk, because the basic rule that you should adhere to when organizing watering x procedures, it’s better not to top out than to overfill.
Feeding pachyra from early spring until autumn, when active growth is observed. Feeding is canceled for the winter.
Ready-made universal fertilizers suitable for indoor plants are suitable for nutrition (the dosage is halved).
Often root dressings are combined with watering: half the volume is watered) the plant, the second part is mixed with nutritional composition.
Cropping and shaping
For decorative purposes, cut flower culture in the spring. When trimming, shortening is subject to strongly elongated shoots that stand out from the total mass, which are subsequently taken for reproduction. The shoots that have appeared on the stem are also removed.
Due to the slow growth of pachyra, a bonsai tree can be created.
When several plants are planted at once in a single pot, they form a trunk in the form of a braid on heeled shoes. Only young specimens with still non-lignified, flexible stems are suitable for such a procedure. It is better to braid the trunks more than once, but in several approaches, fixing it on the intermediate stages with a rope.
At home, the pakhira is propagated by cuttings and seeds.
Only high-quality seeds are suitable for sowing, preferably not so long ago extracted from the fruit after flowering. Due to their large size, they are planted immediately in separate containers – small pots or plastic cups.
A peat mix of peat and sand (perlite) is prepared in the ratio 5: 3. Seeds are buried 1-2 cm, directing a bright spot (eye) to the side. Sowing is watered and covered from above with plastic wrap or glass cover to create a greenhouse.
For successful seedling germination, the temperature is maintained at about 25 ° C-27 ° C.
As the seedlings emerge, the shelter is removed, organizing the ventilation and moistening of the soil from the spray gun . The strengthened sprouts can be rearranged when they have 3-5 leaves each, providing them with care as an adult plant.
- From the top parts of lignified shoots choose shoots up to 15 cm long with well-developed 3-5 leaves.
- They are rooted in the soil from peat and coarse sand mixed in equal proportions.
For quick rooting, you need to create greenhouse conditions and maintain high humidity, also use stimulants.
Rooting cuttings is obtained and 4-6 weeks, after which you must take care of him as an adult for a flower.