What is fusarium wilt of cucumbers and how to treat it

Fusarious withering of cucumbers one of the most pernicious and aggressive diseases that actively affect large areas of cultivated plants. Even 20 years ago, Fusarium disease attacked mainly crops, less often other types of garden crops suffered from this. The trend is changing rapidly. Fusarium and cucumbers do not pass by. Persistent disease to almost all fungicides.Therefore, it is very important to know the symptoms and causes of Fusarium wilt of cucumbers, how to deal with it, which will help to preserve plants, how to prevent infection, what to do if symptoms of the disease are found on the bushes.

Content
  1. Characterization of the disease
  2. Causes <
  3. Symptoms
  4. Preventive measures
  5. Treatment
  6. Biological agents
  7. Chemicals
  8. Varieties resistant to Fusarium
  9. Conclusion <

Фузариозное увядание

Fusarious withering

Characteristics of the disease

The causative agent is fungal bacteria, persistent and rapidly growing, which belong to the genus Fusarium Link. Most often, particularly toxic F. graminearum or F. solani (Mart) is found. Distributed in many regions. Active parasitic fungi tend to infect virtually all types of garden crops.

These types of bacteria spread easily, retain their viability in the soil for several years. They can be transferred from plant to plant by wind, water. Spores of fungi penetrate the root system. High temperatures and soil overheating stimulate the development of the disease.Fungal diseases exhibit maximum activity under favorable conditions. Particularly quickly, the disease affects weakened plants.

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Causes

The reasons for this deterioration in the resistance of cucumbers are as follows:

  • poor-quality agricultural machinery;
  • micronutrient-poor soils;
  • sudden changes in temperature;
  • pest damage;
  • high humidity of the air or soil.

Excessive watering, stagnation of water between rows will adversely affect the health of vegetable crops, and will provoke a decrease in resistance to disease.

Varieties grown in a special risk group employed in the greenhouses. Since the soil in greenhouses is rarely disinfected, the temperature and moisture levels are favorable for the life of Fusarium Link. When infected, the crop of greenhouse cucumbers dies very quickly.

Symptoms

It is difficult to detect infection of young plants. In the initial period, fusarium wilting may not occur. The asymptomatic course of the disease lasts a couple of weeks. When diagnosing young bushes, a section of the stem should be examined. In the presence of the disease, there will be a darkening of the transport capillaries of the cucumber whip. In young plants, the first sign is root rot. Visually, it will look like a darkening of a part of the stem and its gradual thinning.

The main symptoms:

  • withering of the lower single leaves, and gradually of all;
  • changes in pigmentation of the green part of the bush (pallor, yellowish spots);
  • exit to the surface of the conidia stem (pink bloom);
  • darkening of the stem cracking, traces of rot.

When the disease progresses, other symptoms begin to appear, which indicate the intensive development of fusarium, the promotion of bacteria along the vascular system of cucumber. The gradual advancement of fusarium on the plant will be accompanied by wilting along the entire growth line. Fusarium fungi, like any other living organism, emit traces of vital activity, and they are toxic and in addition to blocking the vascular system, the process of rotting of the roots, as well as other parts of the bush, is added. As a result, necrosis (death) of vegetative organs and complete death of the plant.

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Preventive measures

In the case of such an illness, the prevention of infection and preventive measures are an ideal treatment method. To do this, there are a number of agricultural activities that will protect cucumbers as much as possible from infection.

Профилактические меры помогут сохранить урожай

measures will help preserve the crop

An important and integral preventive way is to plant healthy seedlings and uninfected seeds.The seeds that have been processed will not be difficult to purchase in specialized stores. As for seedlings, the best choice would be grown on their own with the observance of technology.

The next step is soil treatment in a greenhouse or in a bed intended for planting cucumbers. There are different methods of disinfection and preventive measures:

  • thermal;
  • biological;
  • mechanical;
  • chemical.

Thermal is to process the soil with boiling water, suitable for small beds and small greenhouses. Biological, laborious way, takes time and effort. Such disinfection is carried out by removing 20-25 cm of soil that is sent to compost, transferring the soil with balls of manure and incubating for 2-3 years. The mechanical one is similar to the biological one, in this method the top layer is removed and replaced with a fresh, uninfected one. The chemical remains the most optimal and fastest, they use soil disinfectants using a wide range of disinfectants.

Well, proper agricultural technology will be important so that the plants grow strong and resistant. Moderate watering, timely top-dressing and pest control, as well as the use of covering material in cases of sharp drops in temperature.

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Treatment

Fusarium infections are diseases that are difficult to treat for several reasons:

  • late diagnosis and definition of the disease;
  • the infection comes from the root system.

The first thing to do when identifying diseased plants, remove them from the beds and burn them to prevent the infection of healthy plants, in no case should you leave the affected plant in the garden or in a compost pit.

The next step will be the treatment with biological or chemical agents for the prevention and control of fusarium.

Biological agents

It has proven itself in the fight and prevention of fusarium in cucumbers biological product Trichodermin.

The product is based on the output in l aborories of the Trichoderma strain. Trichoderma is a unicellular organism of the genus hyphomycetes. An organism that parasitizes on certain types of fungus and thereby destroys it. It is this characteristic property of trichoderma that gives reason to use in the fight against fusarium in cucumbers. Absolutely safe for cucumbers and the environment.

The drug is used to spray the stems and leaves of plants, which were at risk of infection. Trichodermin is also used for tillage 2 days before transplanting.

Bactofit, Trichophyt, Planriz are similar analogues. They are also successfully used to stop the spread of fusarium wilt of cucumbers.

Chemicals

The use of chemicals for the treatment and prevention of fusarium wilt also occurs in agricultural technology.Most fungicides do not give sufficient effectiveness to fully combat the disease. A large number of produced chemicals (fungicides) that do a good job in the fight against Fusarium on cereals, grains and ornamental crops. There are not many effective fungicides used on pumpkin family cultures, and their effectiveness is not high enough to combat fusariosis in the active stage.

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Fundazole has shown itself to be effective in terms of research results. The drug is used for seed treatment before planting, and in case of illness, cucumber bushes are added with a solution. The duration of the protection of Fundazole is two to three weeks. A group of benzimidazole preparations proved effective in the fight against wilting.

Fusarium-resistant varieties

The modern seed market allows you to choose varieties resistant to this type of disease, which will make it easier for the gardener .

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Several varieties that have quality characteristics and are particularly resistant to fungal diseases:

  1. Vocals – resistant to fungal diseases, high humidity, insufficient lighting, temperature changes. Parthenocarpic, universal purpose, high-yielding.
  2. Rafael is a self-pollinated strong-growing hybrid, resistant to root rot with smooth cylindrical fruits, of good taste.
  3. Ob – medium-sized hybrid resistant to peronosporosis, fusarium, bacteriosis and sudden temperature changes, tastes wonderful.
  4. Mid-early pollinated hybrid with an early flowering type, resistant to anthracnose, ascochitosis, cladosporosis , fusarium, bacteriosis and viral infections.

Conclusion

Despite the complexity and widespread occurrence of this type of disease, there are ways to grow a quality crop with minimal losses. The main and most effective way to deal with fusarium wilt when growing cucumber is preventive measures, disinfection and tillage. And the main thing is the correct technology of cultivation and careful care of plants. Strong and healthy bushes, rarely exposed to fungal diseases.

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Anna Evans

Author ✓ Farmer

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