The Spanish breed of chickens Minorca was bred on the small island of Minorca. Later this breed was brought to Europe, it came to Russia thanks to the Turkish Khan. An elegant bird with beautiful decorative features has good productivity indicators. In order not to violate these qualities, breeders decided to exclude interference in genetics.
- Brief description
- Description of the breed
- Black <
- British White
- Cost <
- Productivity indicators
- Screening hens
- Advantages and disadvantages
- Features of breeding
- Care <
- Adult chickens
- House requirements
- Feeding <
- Place of walking
- Possible diseases
- Reviews of breeders
- Type of productivity : egg-meat direction.
- Rooster weight : average weight of a male with black plumage – 3 kg, white cock – 3.4-4 kg, dwarf – 1 kg.
- Chicken weight : a female with black plumage weighs 2, 5 kg, with white – 2.7-3.6 kg, in dwarf – 800 g.
- Beginning of the ovipositor : early (at five months).
- Egg production : excellent egg production in the first year of life is 160-170, the second the swarm of the year is slightly lower – 140, in a dwarf breed up to 120 eggs.
- Features : they do not tolerate cold and sudden temperature changes.
- Size : the mass of eggs in young animals is 60 g, in adult laying hens – 70-80 g, for dwarf ones – 35-40 g.
- Will the beginner suit : yes.
Description of the breed
There are three main lines of this breed, each of which has distinctive characteristics.
The Spanish Black Minorca has a small head of regular shape with a red scallop divided into several segments.
In hens, it hangs on one side, in males upright. Earrings are red, white earlobes. The beak is black in females, in roosters on the tip is white. The plumage is beautiful – black with a greenish tint.
The neck is elongated, eyes like buttons – resinous or dark brown. The chest is round, the body is long, the wings are well developed. Legs are stocky, strong, tall, yellow. The claws are black. The average weight of a male is 3 kg, females are 2.5 kg.
White minors of impressive sizes – males from 3.4 to 4 kg, hens – 2.7-3.6 kg.
The description of the breed includes:
- beak, claws and metatarsus of a light pink tone;
- eyes are reddish;
- ridge leaf-shaped, rounded, well developed;
- plumage white with a silver tint.
This bird was bred as a result of the experimental work of German breeders. The hens are miniature – the average weight is 800 g, for males – 1 kg.
Minorca chickens have a peaceful and non-cocky character, so they can be safely kept in the herd with representatives of other lines.
Roosters also favor young animals, owners and chickens of another suit, not showing aggression and impulsiveness.
Purchase this breed can be in the Federal State Unitary Enterprise of the Genealogy of the Russian Agricultural Academy. Depending on the season, the price of an incubation egg varies from 40 to 60 rubles.
Experienced breeders recommend two-week-old youngsters to buy at private farms after a thorough examination of each individual. Cost from 250 to 450 rubles per chicken.
A large yield of meat from an adult on average from 3 to 3.5 kg.
Excellent egg production in the first year life: white and black give 160-170, in the second year a little less – 140 pcs., dwarf ones – up to 120 eggs.
Egg size in young females is 60 g, in two-year-old laying hens – 70-80 g, in dwarf ones – 35-40 g.
Screening of hens
The selection of young animals for further breeding and egg production is selected at a young age based on the general condition of the chicks, then at the age of 5 months, taking into account the egg production.
The quality of the males is determined by the appearance of the ridge and the exterior.
Advantages and disadvantages
Minors have many advantages that highlight it among other breeds:
- good indicators of meat and egg productivity;
- chicks have a good survival rate (about 95%) and a fast p ostom;
- the palatability of eggs and meat at the highest level;
- birds are peaceful;
- early ripening – the first eggs begin to lay in the fifth month of life.
Among the shortcomings there are several nuances – they do not tolerate temperature extremes, they get a cold in damp and cold.
The second minus – the hens are very shy, negatively react to stresses associated with moving to another room or a sharp change in the microclimate, daylight hours, until the termination of egg production.
These birds have a weak instinct for hatching, th bred them with the incubator.
To obtain a strong and healthy offspring selected in pullet eggs, which sweep the second year. Medium-sized specimens are taken with an even and smooth shell, without cracks. They do not need to be washed before laying in the incubator.
The optimal age of the eggs is 5-6 days. Not too pointed or rounded, because from them underdeveloped chickens with various pathologies and defects are obtained.
The harvested material is closed in an incubator and the temperature is set at 40 ° C. After a week, it is lowered by 1 ° C, then another seven days later.
The chicks begin to hatch in 20-21 days from the time of laying the eggs. During this period they must be turned over regularly to ensure uniform heating.
In the first three weeks it is important to ensure optimal conditions for keeping chickens at home:
- they are moved to a cardboard or wooden box with bedding, a lamp with IR rays is installed on top at a distance of 0.5 m, providing illumination of at least 22 hours a day;
- stable heat within 30 ° C , then daily the temperature is lowered by 3-4 ° C, stopping at around 18-19 ° C;
- after 14 days, the chickens can be taken out to fresh air – pr gulki under the sun 1-2 hours a day will only benefit them;
- at 1.5 months, the young growth of young animals is transferred to a common herd.
After hatching, chicks of the Minorca breed grow quickly, fledge, have agility and good adaptive abilities.
On the first day the chickens are soldered with a glucose solution – 50 g are bred in a liter of water. Then they give clean and fresh water at room temperature.
As soon as the fluff dries up on the chicks and they are activated, they are offered the first food – a finely chopped boiled egg.
The next day it is mixed with chopped green onions. Starting from a week’s age, you can give small cereals, low-fat cottage cheese.
After 20 days give finely chopped greens – dandelion, nettle, plantain and clover. The grass contributes to the full functioning of the digestive system.
At the age of one month, they are fed with mash of boiled, grated vegetables, root vegetables and fruits. They also offer bran and yeast, meat and bone meal and vitamins.
At 1.5 months old, young growth can be completely transferred to the diet of adult birds.
Features of keeping adult chickens
One of the most remarkable advantages of this breed is its beautiful crest.
It often happens that in cold and frost conditions this decoration loses its decorativeness – it freezes and dies.
To do this to prevent, birds should be provided with proper winter conditions.
Requirements for the house
The room should be spacious, without drafts and cracks through which rats can get, mice are the main carriers of various infections.
The optimal area for one individual is 50-60 m³.
The house is cleaned of debris, the walls and floor are treated with slaked lime or colloidal sulfur solution (2% concentration). The floor is sewn up with tin or boards, then dry flooring is laid – sawdust, straw or hay.
The ideal thickness in the winter is 40-50 cm. Perches are set at a height comfortable for birds – 0.5-0.6 m. In secluded places place nests (boxes or boxes) per 3 layers 1 nest.
On the floor put containers for feed and water. If the herd is large, several feeders and drinkers will be required. For convenience, many breeders use nipple or groove structures in which the water stays clean and fresh longer. In the middle, a basin with dry clay or ash is set. Regular dry bathing prevents the appearance of various parasites in chickens.
The optimum temperature in the chicken coop should not fall below 20 ° C in winter, in summer – 12-13 ° C. Ventilation is provided by daily ventilation through a window window or door.
Lamps with dim blue light are suitable as such illumination has a calming effect and has a beneficial effect on egg production.
The basis of the diet of adult birds is mixed feed already prepared or prepared independently.
The following ingredients must be mixed:
- meat and bone meal or fish meal;
- sunflower meal;
- crushed wheat or barley.
Optimal proportions 1: 3: 1: 4. They feed based on one individual – 130 g.
In winter, they are fed with sacks of boiled vegetables and fruits. Greens are replaced with grass meal. To compensate for the lack of calcium, pieces of chalk and shell rock are laid in separate feeders. Fish oil is added to the dry food.
In the summer, chickens eat mixed feed, fresh grass, insects, gravel, and shellfish. Additionally, during this period they are given grated fruits, raw vegetables.
A container of sand is placed in the chicken coop – birds eat this component with great pleasure. It helps to prevent blockage of goiter and the development of various diseases. In winter, a warm drink of room temperature is poured; in the summer, drinkers are filled with cold water. A fluid change is carried out daily.
Place for walking
If there is no place for walking, birds are fed less fatty foods – increase the number of vegetables, fruits, greens and reduce the rate of feed, t. to. because of the low mobility, the hens begin to fatten and are poorly carried.
If the area allows, the courtyard is fenced with a net or slate with a height of 1.5 m. It is not necessary to cover from above, since these birds have a large mass and poor flying ability, with the exception of dwarf Minoroks.
Location sow with grain or field herbs to provide livestock in the summer with fresh greens. The site is sprinkled with shells, gravel, chalk.
In the winter, you can make shelter with perches in the walking yard. So the hens and males will be able to walk in the offseason, pecking snow and food under its cover.
These birds are very susceptible to cold, as a result of which they start to get a cold . Symptoms include mucus secretion from the nose, fever, rapid breathing, refusal to feed, and a high need for drinking. The treatment is carried out with the drug furazolidone or biomycin.
For the prevention of infectious diseases, it is recommended to vaccinate chickens at an early age. In addition to this, it is necessary to observe sanitary and hygienic standards of maintenance:
- regularly change the litter – at least once a year;
- clean up the rest of the feed every day and change the contaminated water to fresh;
- ensure stable temperature and light conditions;
- avoid crowding of chickens, which leads to microclimate disturbances and parasites;
- regularly inspect the herd and quarantine sick individuals.
Reviews of the breeders
Many breeders choose the Minorca breed primarily because of the high decorative features of chickens.
Others value the taste the quality of meat and the quick ability to grow mass, as well as the good survival rate of the chicks.
Some poultry farmers were bribed by the calm nature of the birds, which can be safely kept in the yard with representatives of other lines, which is very convenient in small private farms.
According to farmers, keeping in harsh climatic conditions is problematic – the crest freezes, dies, so it often needs to be greased. Ideally, the minor is suitable for breeding in the southern zone.