The name “spathiphyllum” comes from two Greek words: “spata” – a veil and “phillum” – a leaf. This beautiful tropical plant is also called the “white sail”, thanks to its unusual flowers, similar to sails. There are many varieties of this unpretentious, shade-tolerant plant, differing in size, shape and size of the veil and intensity of aroma. About 45 species of spathiphyllum are known. In indoor conditions, Spathiphyllum profusely and Wallis’s Spathiphyllum are most often grown.
Spathiphyllum is a white sail. Farmer Burea-Uinsurance.com Kalendarz rolników
Botanical description of the plant
Spathiphyllum, or Spathiphyllum (Spathiphyllum) Is a genus of perennial plants from the aroid family (Araceae), some representatives are popular indoor plants. The homeland of spathiphyllum is South America, East Asia, Polynesia.
The stem of spathiphyllum is absent – the basal leaves form a bunch directly from the soil. The rhizome is short. Leaves are oval or lanceolate, with a distinct midrib. Lateral veins are depressed from the upper side of the leaf blade. The petiole at the base expands into the vagina.
The inflorescence of spathiphyllum is formed in the form of an ear, on a long stalk, with a veil at the base. The white bedspread quickly turns green after flowering.
Features of growing spathiphyllum – briefly
Flowering: depending on the care, either once a year (in spring), or twice a year – in spring and autumn-winter.
Growth: usually the plant develops quickly.
World: diffused, without direct sunlight, can grow in partial shade.
Temperature: in the spring-summer period prefers temperatures within + 22 … + 23 ° C, not lower than + 18 ° C. In the autumn-winter period, the optimum temperature is not lower than + 16 ° C, as this inhibits the development of the plant.
Watering spathiphyllum: in the spring-summer period and during flowering, abundant, between waterings, the top layer should dry out. In the autumn-winter time, watering is moderate. When watering, the substrate should not dry out, but it should not be excessively waterlogged.
Air humidity: high, spraying is useful. To increase humidity, you can put the plant pot on a pallet with damp expanded clay, moss or other porous material.
Top dressing of spathiphyllum: from March to September and during flowering with full mineral fertilizer of low concentration (1-1,5 g per liter of water).
The rest period: from October to January, the temperature is not lower than + 16 ° C, moderate watering.
Spathiphyllum Transplant: in spring, as needed, when the roots fill the pot.
Reproduction: cuttings and division of the rhizome.
Spathiphyllum care at home
Spathiphyllum can grow in diffused light and in partial shade. In the shade, the leaves of spathiphyllum turn dark green, the leaf may take on a more elongated shape, flowering becomes rare or stops.
If you find these signs, then the plant lacks lighting. The plant should be protected from direct sunlight, keep this in mind when placing the plant on the southern windows. The northern windows are well suited for the spathiphyllum, but on the southern windows the spathiphyllum blooms more abundantly and longer and is much larger in size.
Spathiphyllum is a thermophilic plant, in the spring-summer period it prefers temperatures in the range of + 22 … + 23 ° C, not lower than + 18 ° C. In the autumn-winter period, the optimum temperature is not lower than + 16 ° C, as this inhibits the development of the plant. Temperatures below + 10 ° C are critical, as at this temperature the plants rot and may die. Spathiphyllums do not tolerate drafts.
Watering spathiphyllum is necessary all year round. During flowering, in spring and summer, abundant watering is required, it is possible from a pallet, but the topsoil must dry out between waterings. In winter, watering is moderate. The earthen coma should not be allowed to dry out, at the same time, stagnant water in the pot can be detrimental to the plant.
For watering and spraying, use only settled water (it must be defended for at least 12 hours). The drooping leaves of spathiphyllum indicate that it lacks moisture. From excessive watering, dark spots appear on the leaves.
All spathiphyllums love high humidity. Spraying with soft water, a tray with wet moss or sand, the atmosphere of the aquarium, a warm shower from time to time – all this has a beneficial effect on the growth of spathiphyllums – natives of a humid climate. It is no coincidence that the tips of the leaves are stretched out into a sharp dropper and droop down: this is how the leaves get rid of excessive streams of tropical showers.
In the dry air of most rooms, even with timely spraying (2 times a day), the tips of the leaves dry out. When spathiphyllum blooms, it is necessary to spray carefully so that water does not get on the bedspread and the cob.
From October to January, the plant has a dormant period, but if it is provided with sufficient air humidity, the spathiphyllum may bloom in winter.
Top dressing spathiphyllum
During the active growing season (from March to September), spathiphyllums are fed with a full mineral fertilizer of low concentration (1-1,5 g per liter of water). You can feed it with a special fertilizer for indoor plants that does not contain lime, for example, Azalea, Flower, etc.
Good results are obtained by alternating feeding with solutions of mineral fertilizers and fresh mullein, diluted in a ratio of 1:15 or 1:20. After feeding and before feeding, the plants are watered abundantly with water at room temperature. If spathiphyllum blooms in winter, then it is fed with the same fertilizers after 3-4 weeks. The appearance of brown spots on the leaves indicates an excess of nutrients.
Transplant and substrate
The signal for transplanting are the roots that filled the entire volume of the pot with the plant. Transplant is better to do in the spring. Spathiphyllum is susceptible to damage to roots, transplant carefully.
The soil for transplanting is slightly acidic (pH – 5-6,5). Excess moisture damages the plant, so the soil must be loose so that excess moisture can drain freely into the pan. Spathiphyllums feel quite good in ordinary humus, to which you need to add brick chips, pieces of charcoal. A mixture of equal parts of leaf and sod land, humus, peat and river sand is suitable.
You can use a ready-made substrate for aroids by adding pieces of charcoal to it. Good drainage is essential. A pot for spathiphyllum is chosen a little larger than the previous one; too large a pot will inhibit flowering. It is better to shed the earth with a dark pink hot solution of potassium permanganate.
After transplanting, the plants need warmth, moderate watering, frequent spraying, all this contributes to rapid rooting. Plants take root better if they temporarily create greenhouse conditions (cover with transparent material), but do not forget to ventilate them.
Reproduction of spathiphyllums
Spathiphyllum is propagated by division or apical cuttings, less often by seeds.
Rooted plants are planted in 9 cm pots. The composition of the soil is as follows: leafy – 1 hour, peaty – 1 hour, turfy – 1/2 hour, sand – 1/2 hour. During transplantation and transshipments, damage to the roots should be avoided, if possible, as the plants wilt easily. After transplanting, abundant watering and spraying are required.
Reproduction by dividing the bush is best done in the spring when transplanting.
When propagated by cuttings, the shortened stem of the spathiphyllum begins to branch: new growth points are formed, young leaves unfold in several places. If you do not have a task to create a large thicket, the bush can be divided so that on each fragment there is a growth point and (if possible) roots. However, the roots may grow back a little later.
Spathiphyllum plots are planted in 12-15-centimeter pots in a special “aroid” mixture consisting of humus, whole leaf earth, peat and sand (1: 1: 1: 0,5). 10 g of ammonium nitrate and 5 g of superphosphate and potassium nitrate are added to a bucket of such a substrate. In addition, pieces of broken brick, wood bark and coal, dry mullein are added.
You can use a substate of a different composition: leaf, coniferous soil, humus, peat, sand (2: 2: 2: 2: 1) or leaf, peat, coniferous, humus soil, sand (2: 4: 1: 1: 1) With the addition of pieces of charcoal.
Types of spathiphyllums
Genus Spathiphyllum (Spathiphyllum), according to the latest data, unites 45 species of perennial stemless plants with a short rhizome of the aroid family, some of them are very decorative. Spathiphyllum are common in tropical America, the Philippine Islands, and tropical rain forests in Venezuela, Colombia, Guiana, Brazil.
Spathiphyllum Heliconiophyllum (Spathiphyllum heliconiifolium). Homeland – tropical rainforests of Brazil. Plants up to 1 m tall. Leaves are oblong-elliptical, 35-50 cm long and 20-25 cm wide, shortly pointed, glossy, dark green, wavy at the edges. The petiole is 75-90 cm long, vaginal from the base (5-9 cm long). Inflorescence – ear, 8-10 cm long., White, then darkening to almost black. The cover is oval, almost 2 times longer than the cob, 15 cm long and 10 cm wide. Valuable ornamental plant suitable for indoor cultivation.
Spathiphyllum cannoli (Spathiphyllum cannifolium). Homeland-Venezuela, Guiana, Thailand. A plant with large bright green ovoid leaves, similar to canna leaves. White-green bedspread with very fragrant flowers on a yellowish-green ear. A wonderful houseplant.
Spathiphyllum spoon-shaped (Spathiphyllum cochlearispathum). Homeland-Brazil. It is a large plant up to 1 m high, with oblong-elliptical leaves. The length of the leaves is 30-40 cm, the width is 15-20 cm. The leaf blade is dark green, glossy, wavy at the edges, keeps on a long (up to 50-70 cm), strong petiole. Inflorescence-cob, white. The bedspread is oval, long.
Spathiphyllum abundantly flowering (Spathiphyllum floribundum). Homeland-Colombia. The plant is medium-sized, up to 50 cm tall, leaves are oval-lanceolate, 20-25 cm long, 9-12 cm wide. The number of leaves can be more than 40. The cover is white. Blooms profusely and for a long time. Flower buds are laid in the axils of healthy leaves, on which the harvest of inflorescences of the next year depends.
In the USA, the cultivar Mauna Loa was obtained from spathiphyllum profusely flowering. Plant with pure white broadly lanceolate or broadly elliptic, gracefully concave veil 10-12,5 cm long and up to 5-6 cm wide. A creeping stem with extremely short internodes, most often underground. Petioles 10-15 cm long., Leaf blade 15-20 cm long., 5-6 cm wide, bright green, oblong-lanceolate or oblong-elliptical, long-pointed at the top (tip up to 1,5 cm). Peduncle up to 25 cm long, flowers are collected on the cob 3-5 cm long. on a very short stem. ‘Mauna Loa’ is an excellent cut and pot plant (blooms throughout the year), the inflorescence has been cut for more than a month.
Spathiphyllum adorable (Spathiphyllum blandum). Homeland – tropical America. A plant with dark green, elongated-lanceolate leaves with a drawn-off tip. Petioles are long, strong. Inflorescence-cob, surrounded by a greenish-white blanket, which resembles a small flag in shape. Therefore, the popular name for this flower is flagolite. Blooms from April to June, has a large number of inflorescences.
Wallis Spathiphyllum (Spathiphyllum wallisii). Homeland – rainforests of Colombia. The plant is from 20 to 30 cm high with a short rhizome and a rosette of dark green oblong-lanceolate graceful leaves. The cob is white, the cover is narrow, three times as long as the cob, at first pure white, then green. The flowering is profuse and long lasting. The plant is unpretentious and shade-tolerant. Grows well in indoor conditions.
Diseases and pests of spathiphyllum
If the air around the plant is dry, and watering is insufficient, spathiphyllum can be affected by pests – aphids, scale insects and spider mites.
Shield or the shield aphid got its name from the waxy shield that covers the body of an adult pest. At first, at a young age, the scale insect is hardly noticeable, but it quickly multiplies, covering the stems and leaves with dark spots. Adults are motionless and sit under shields, from under which larvae crawl out and crawl throughout the plant.
At this time, they are destroyed by spraying with a soap-tobacco solution, to which you can add a little kerosene or denatured alcohol. Adult pests, along with shields, are removed with a damp swab, but you still need to treat the entire plant with insecticide or soapy water to remove the larvae.
aphid – a small insect can be green, gray or black in color. It settles on the underside of the leaf and feeds on plant sap, which leads to drying and folding of the leaves. It multiplies rapidly. It is destroyed by ready-made preparations that are sold in stores or solutions of nicotine – sulfate in water and soap in a ratio of 1 g. nicotine – sulfate per 1 liter of soapy water.
After processing the plant in a day, the spathiphyllum must be washed well, covering the soil with polyethylene. If necessary, the processing is repeated.
To prevent spathiphyllum from being affected by pests (scale insects and aphids), it is enough to regularly wash or wipe the leaves with a sponge and water. When “bathing” the spathiphyllum, do not forget to cover the soil in the pot with plastic.
spider mite – a very small red spider. It appears on the underside of the leaves and envelops them with thin white cobwebs. They are destroyed by spraying and washing the leaves, especially from the underside, with water, a weak tobacco infusion with soap, pollination (in the fresh air, outside the rooms) with ground sulfur, or the plant is treated with ready-made systemic insecticides. After processing the plant, after 2-3 hours, the leaves must be washed with warm water.
Spathiphyllum leaves tips drythough regular flower spraying and watering. In addition, some leaves develop dry brownish-yellow spots that look like burns, although direct sunlight does not fall on the flower.
Cause… If these spots are on the tips of the leaves, then this is a sign of overflow. The tips of the leaves will somehow dry out slightly – after all, not a greenhouse. If your spathiphyllum was bought recently, do not worry. The new leaves will be more resilient. By the way, spathiphyllum is very fond of a weekly shower (not spraying, but bathing). When the spots are in the center of the leaf – maybe a tick, check for parasites.
Spathiphyllum does not bloom
Cause. Spathiphyllium blooms when the roots fill the entire pot. That is, he loves cramped and low pots. And for abundant flowering, spathiphyllum must be kept in the cold for 2 weeks at a temperature of + 9 ° … + 12 ° C, so that it “rested”.
At spathiphyllum, the leaves turn black and dry at the edges., then they completely die, sometimes young, not yet untwisted leaves dry out
Cause. Either you flood the plant, or you do not add dry air, or it does not have enough nitrogen or phosphorus. In the latter case, feed with nitrogen-potassium-phosphorus fertilizer.
Spathiphyllum does not grow
Cause. Poor growth can be caused by excessive light and overflow.
Several spathiphyllums are growing in our house – an extraordinary beauty! Indeed, the plant is quite unpretentious. The main thing, probably, that you need to remember is abundant watering and frequent spraying of the leaves! We wish you success and look forward to your advice!