Duck broilers are hybrid birds that gain weight very quickly. They have tender and juicy meat with a wonderful aroma and varying degrees of fat content. The maintenance of ducks is simple and inexpensive, as they quickly go to the slaughter. To achieve good food performance, broilers must be properly fed. Many crosses are fruitless, therefore breeding requires parental breeds, for example, Peking and Musk.
- Broiler duck breeds
- Content of broiler ducks
- Feeding of broiler ducks
- Breeding of broiler ducks
- Diseases of broiler ducks
- Advantages and disadvantages of broiler ducks
Breeding duck breeds
All breeds of broiler ducks are hybrid. odes have their own shortcomings. The Peking duck is too fat. In addition, these birds are voracious and loud. Indoor women have a specific taste of meat, like game, they do not like everyone. They also do not tolerate low temperatures. Hybrids of these breeds are partially or completely devoid of parental flaws .
The main purpose of the selection of these birds was the meat direction, because broilers gain weight very quickly. Here are the most common breeds, their brief description and description:
- French muleards. The musk drake and the Peking duck were crossed to breed this breed. Birds differ in fast weight gain, while they can eat any food. Mularda are sterile, therefore, indochi and Beijing are necessary for their breeding.These broilers are very popular in France, here the liver of birds is valued no less than the goose’s liver.
- Cherry Valley. One of the most common breeds, especially in private farms. Birds quickly gain weight, weighing 3 kg by three months. In addition, they rush well (up to 150 eggs per year) and give offspring, rather than barren like muleards. Ripen in half a year, a productive duck can be kept up to 3 years.
- Medeo. The domestic breed of broilers, which in 2 months is gaining weight 3 kg. In addition, this meat bird gives about 150 eggs per year, breeds independently.
- Blagovarsky ducks. Cross broilers appeared recently, in 1998. It is highly productive with minimal feeding costs.
- Super M. The breed quickly gains weight, in addition, its meat has excellent meat characteristics.
- Black and white-breasted broilers. The breed was bred in Ukraine, its ancestor was the Peking duck, the local Ukrainian and khaki kembel. This species is unpretentious, its content does not cause trouble, birds perfectly adapt to any climate. In addition, this duck is very beautiful: a bright white chest stands out against the black body.
- Agidel. Ducks are adapted for keeping in cages on industrial farms, but at the same time they recover very well on free grazing. Their meat is very valuable, it contains a lot of useful substances.
As you can see, there are a lot of breeds of broiler ducks. Some of them, like the white mullards, do not produce offspring.Others can be used to produce not only meat, but also eggs, and reproduction is possible even at home. How different breeds of broilers look, you can look in more detail at the photo and video. Growing all broilers has similar rules, we will talk about them below.
Content of broiler ducks
Growing broiler ducklings at home is not a very difficult process, if you follow the recommendations. In order for the birds to quickly gain weight, so that they are not affected by diseases, it is necessary to equip the house correctly. The main requirement for a house for ducks is a sufficient area (if the breed is not intended for cage). On 1 m² you can plant:
- ducklings from birth to two weeks – 18-20 pieces;
- from 15 to 29 weeks – 10-12 ducklings;
- adult birds – 8-10 pieces.
Before populating the duck, the premises are disinfected to prevent illness. The house should be dry (humidity not more than 75%), with a good ventilation system (6 m³ / kg of bird weight in summer and 1 m³ / kg of weight in winter). The floor is raised above the ground by 15-20 cm, this improves hygiene, prevents dampness. The floor is sprinkled with canon-lime (0.5 kg per head), which protects against germs, reduces moisture, then lay a layer of peat, and on top – a layer of straw. About 10 kg of litter will be needed per bird per year.
It is very important to maintain a normal temperature in the duck room from the first days.In the first 2 weeks of life, chicks need a temperature of 26-28 degrees, then it is reduced to 18-20 degrees. Lighting in the house with ducklings of the first week of life should be around the clock. They are afraid of the dark and can terrify each other. In the second week, daylight hours are gradually reduced to 16-18 hours, from the third week to 10 hours.
Feeding broiler ducks
Proper feeding of broilers allows for short time to grow from them full-fledged birds for slaughter. On average, it is cost-effective to keep a duck for up to 3 months. Further, the cost of feed increases sharply, and the weight is added much more slowly. At home, grain and other natural foods are most often used. On industrial farms they prefer compound feeds.
Ducklings in the first week are given boiled eggs, cottage cheese, cereals, chopped greens are gradually added. Then, grain and legumes are gradually added to the diet in order to completely transfer to wheat, barley and corn with the addition of greens by three weeks. Proteins should prevail in the diet of ducklings of the first days (up to 20%), then their amount is reduced to 10-11% of the total amount of feed. Proper feeding of adult birds at home includes:
- cereals, bran – 45%;
- peas and other legumes – 10%;
- greens – 40 %;
- seashells with chalk – 2.5%;
- fish oil – 1.5%.
Gravel can be added to food mixtures so that the grain is better frayed.You can also feed the duck with fresh food waste, vegetables from the garden (zucchini, pumpkin, cabbage).
If the birds are raised on compound feed, then in the first 3 weeks they are given a start, then transferred to the finish. Feeding provides the following daily allowances:
- The first week – 93 g of food (st.).
- The second week – 106 g (st.).
- The third week is 154 g (st.).
- The fourth week is 206 g (fin.).
- The fifth week is 215 g (fin.).
- The sixth week – 240 g (Fin.).
- The seventh week – 252 g (Fin.).
- The eighth week and before the slaughter – 256 g (Fin.).
When breeding a large number of ducks, feeding with compound feeds is more profitable than grain with additives, although in the summer, when there is a garden and a reservoir, partially food can be replaced with greens and vegetables, and in broilers can find an excellent duckweed near or near the river, only in this situation the weight gain will not be so fast, and the meat quality may drop.
Breeding of broiler ducks
How and with all hybrids, broiler duck breeding can be a problem. For example, meat mulards are generally sterile: for 100 eggs they can have 2 fertilized, but healthy chicks are unlikely to hatch from them. To obtain this breed, you need a white Peking duck and musky drake. Many poultry farmers create just such a broodstock at home, in which there are 4-5 Peking and 1 musky drake.
There may be problems with breeding other breeds. Broiler ducks do not always retain maternal instinct. Hatching and caring for ducklings is difficult for them, therefore it is better to breed young animals in an incubator. Sometimes they lay eggs under another duck, which has well preserved maternal qualities. Cherry Valley eggs, Peking and Musk ducks hatch well.
The hatchability of ducklings in these breeds ranges from 60% to 80%. In the early days it is very important to maintain a normal temperature in the house, at a level of 26-28 ° C. Lighting in the first week is installed around the clock, then gradually reduce the duration of daylight hours to 10-12 hours. It is important to start feeding ducklings in the first 18 hours, sometimes they have to be taught to eat. To do this, feed the chicks on the backs, as they better see moving objects. The feeding regimen in the first week is every 2 hours, then they are gradually transferred to 6 times and 4 times feeding. Starting from the third week, food is given three times a day. The food standards for ducklings were given above.
Diseases of broiler ducks
Many broiler ducks are susceptible to diseases, which makes it difficult to grow them, because it is so important to keep them in a clean, spacious house with good ventilation, feed properly. The most common pathologies that occur in these breeds:
- Conjunctivitis and sores on the mucous membranes. Pathology may be associated with a lack of vitamin A, if the feeding is monotonous, includes little greens and root crops.
- Cramps, slow heart rate. This condition is characteristic of a deficiency of vitamin E, a large amount of which is contained in sprouted grains.
- Level disease. It is associated with a lack of minerals in the diet. Ducks begin to pluck their feathers, trying to eat pebbles, sawdust and other inedible things.
- Cuticulitis. The disease characteristic of little ducklings is accompanied by diarrhea, a lack of appetite, and gradual exhaustion, which can lead to death. For prevention, the diet is enriched with vitamins A and PP.
- Intestinal infections. They can affect both small ducklings and adult ducks. Most often associated with violation of the conditions of detention, dirty and moldy feed, stale water. Ducklings for prevention are given water slightly tinted with potassium permanganate.
- Colds and SARS. Duck broilers can catch a cold if the house is cold, draft, from time to time among the birds there are epidemics of viral diseases. The most common are catarrh and omphalitis.
For any infectious disease of ducks (intestinal or respiratory), it is necessary to immediately separate the sick individuals and carry out disinfection in the house. Sometimes a sick duck is simply sent for slaughter. In some cases, it is necessary to destroy the whole herd. When diseases are associated with a lack of vitamins and minerals, feeding should be reviewed and adjusted, vitamin-mineral complexes should be added to the diet.
Advantages and disadvantages of broiler ducks
Any bird has its advantages and disadvantages, broiler ducks are no exception. They receive good reviews from poultry farmers, but experienced farmers also note the disadvantages of breeding.The advantages of these breeds include:
- fast weight gain;
- the ability to send the birds to the slaughter in 60-90 days;
- good taste of the meat;
- easy care and maintenance;
- no need to keep ducks near a pond;
- the possibility of cell keeping and breeding on large farms.
The disadvantages include difficulties in breeding and a weakened maternal instinct, sensitivity to disease. Some farmers complain that the feed consumption for some varieties is too high. Nevertheless, the popularity of these breeds is growing every year. When keeping a large herd, broiler rearing always remains profitable.
You can specify the rules for keeping, feeding, slaughtering by photo and video. Such materials are especially useful for beginners. Also on the video you can see how to properly build a house, equip it with feeders and drinking bowls. Before you start broilers, you should carefully weigh the pros and cons, choose the breed so that the investment pays for itself.