No other nut is so popular among the people.
and love, like walnut, as evidenced by numerous folk
and literary variants of its name: voloshsky, bolotsky, foreign,
christ, stone, royal acorn.
The walnut is most often spoken of as either a means capable of
activate higher mental functions, or as a natural
analogue of Viagra. But this product also has many useful pharmacological
and medicinal properties.
The famous breeder Ivan Michurin believed that the walnut would become
“The bread of the future”. And in a study by Dr. Wilson, representing
American Chemical Society, it is claimed that the walnut
is ahead of all other types of nuts in quality and quantity of contained
they have antioxidants,
and all this is presented in an almost perfect composition with a number of
other useful ingredients. But some people do not include the nut in the permanent
diet, because they are afraid of high calorie content and allergic
reactions, and others – because they simply do not know about all the benefits of this
Useful properties of walnuts
Composition and calorie content
Raw walnuts contain (in 100 g):
Calories 654 Kcal
B4 39,2 Potassium, K 441 Vitamin
B3 1,125 Phosphorus,
P 346 Vitamin C, 1,3 Magnesium, Mg 158 Vitamin E 0.7 Calcium, Ca 98 Vitamin B5 0,57 Manganese,
The high vitamin C content is especially noticeable when compared to
other vitamin-containing products of plant origin,
considered by the people to be leaders in this indicator: in immature
(green) walnut about 40-50 times more vitamin C,
and 8-10 times more than in black
In terms of zinc content, walnuts are included in the top 10 vegetable products
origin, characterized by a high content of this mineral.
Among nuts, it is second only to pine nuts in this indicator.
In addition to the vitamins and minerals listed in the table, the kernels
nut contains fatty oil, the main components of which
includes glycerides of various acids (stearic, palmitic,
linolenic, oleic), such amino acids
as asparagine, valine, histidine, glutamine, serine, cystine, phenylalanine,
as well as essential oil, tannins and protein substances.
The leaves also contain essential oil and tannins (for example,
caffeic and ellagic acids). In addition, it contains flavonoids,
naphthoquinones, vitamins (C and B group), carotenoids. Such a variety
makes it possible to use different parts of the nut
tree in folk and official medicine.
Useful properties of a walnut due to its chemical
composition, are now being studied in the context of the fight against cancer
diseases, Alzheimer’s disease, oxidative stress, is being studied
the possibility of improving with its help the work of blood vessels and the heart, normalization
reproductive function. Examine the walnut and for its
use in various nutritional programs, for the prevention
type 2 diabetes.
Researchers from around the world believe that some of the
walnut kernels are capable of exhibiting under certain conditions
antitumor activity and become key components in
the creation of new anti-cancer drugs. For example, they say about this
research by a group of Chinese scientists..
Spanish experts come to similar conclusions, who believe that
that the nut in the early stages helps to inhibit the development of cancer, cardiovascular
and neurodegenerative diseases.… Among the various useful components
scientists isolated the polyphenol ellagitannin, finding that after all
chemical transformations provoked by interaction with microflora
intestines, ellagitannin has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory
impact. Optimistic forecast for the use of nut components
in the fight against breast, prostate and rectal cancer gave
also independent research by Mexican and Iranian scientists.
Experts recommend including walnuts in everyday
diet and to maintain heart health. The reasons for the development of cardiovascular
there are many diseases, but proper nutrition is one of the most important ways
reducing risks. Walnut in the diet lowers the level of bad
cholesterol (by about 9-16%), lowers blood pressure (by 2-3 mm
mercury column), improve the functioning of the endothelium..
Reducing the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases is associated
with a lot of alpha-linolenic acid in walnuts.
One study showed that the higher the level of this acid,
the more chances of avoiding illness..
Indirectly, eating walnuts helps prevent
development of diabetes
2 types associated with obesity.
This is due to the fact that the nut menu helps to control
appetite and, accordingly, the weight of patients..
The ability of nut polyunsaturated
fatty acids, polyphenols and vitamin E remove oxidative
stress and thereby prevent the emergence of neurodegenerative
diseases and age-related mental disorders. Experiments
in vitro and in laboratory animals have shown that antioxidants,
and polyunsaturated fatty acids, not only hinder the development
oxy-stress and inflammation in brain cells, but also improve interneuronal
connections, promote neurogenesis.… High concentration
tannins with a strong antioxidant effect have been found
not only in the kernels, but also in the nut film..
Thanks to regular consumption of walnuts, it improves
reproductive function and sperm quality in men. Due to imbalance
“Typical Western diet” high in fat and fast
carbohydrate fertility declines, but animal studies
demonstrated that the walnut can partially correct
the consequences of even such an unhealthy diet..
In official medicine, the walnut has been used since the time of Avicenna,
who cured tuberculosis with crushed kernels with honey,
squeezed juice of the leaves – “suppuration from the ear”, and oil – eye
and erysipelas. Hippocrates used a decoction of green shells
to stop bleeding, as well as to remove parasitic
in the human body of roundworms – ascaris, subsequently
switching to nut butter mixed with wine. Already today (before
discovery of more effective means) for the treatment of tuberculosis was used
a drug based on the fruit of nuts, and for the treatment of lupus
– a medicine based on walnut leaves.
Now for the production of pharmacological agents and phytocomplexes
also used various parts of the nut fruits collected in
varying degrees of maturity. So, unripe nuts are harvested
raw materials for creating fortified products and vitamin concentrates,
and the green peel becomes the raw material for the production of juglone.
Juglone is a crystalline toxic compound of red-yellow
color isolated from walnut in 1851. Back at the beginning
In the .th century, doctors in America prescribed juglone to treat skin diseases.
Today, juglone is also part of the ointments and solutions prescribed
to get rid of cutaneous tuberculosis, epidermophytosis, staphylococcal
and streptococcal infection, eczema,
In some cases, dentists will prescribe juglone-containing drugs.
Today there is a drug of the same name – “Yuglon”, which is registered
as a dietary supplement. It is made from pericarp
and leaf extract and is recommended not only for the treatment of diseases
skin, but also to improve the digestive tract, get rid of parasites,
therapeutic effects for gynecological disorders.
Claimed as a potent bactericidal, antioxidant, anticancer
means with adaptogenic properties.
In addition to Juglon, various companies on an industrial scale
produce other drugs based on black (American)
- Black walnut syrup with pericarp juice. Contains 50% juice
and sucrose. Manufacturers recommend it as a hemostatic
and a healing agent that improves the functions of the gastrointestinal tract, increases appetite,
- Oil (extract) of black walnut. Declared as a drug over
broad action, used not only to normalize work
Gastrointestinal tract, lowering pressure and eliminating an allergic reaction, but
also as a remedy in the fight against anemia
and diabetes. Iodine in the composition helps to maintain thyroid function
glands. It is used as a massage oil and in cosmetology
- Alcohol tincture. The list of diseases in which the manufacturer
this tincture is recommended, includes multiple sclerosis,
- Ugor-2. This juice from the kernels of the leaves of a walnut
by cold pressing, in addition to juglone, contains vitamins, organic
acids and tannins. Recommended by the manufacturer as
antifungal and bactericidal agent to combat parasites.
Walnut-based preparations and dietary supplements with a similar spectrum
actions are widely released by almost all domestic and
foreign companies specializing in the production of products
from natural ingredients. Walnut and
creators of homeopathic remedies.
In folk medicine
The practice of using different parts of the walnut tree in
traditional medicine spread from the Far East to the British
- In the countries of Southeast Asia, walnut leaves are used to make
- In China, the liver and kidneys are treated with walnuts.
- In the Nanai healing practice, the local variety of walnut bast is used
as a wound healing and pain reliever.
- In Tajikistan, crushed walnut kernels are mixed with grapes
with diseases of the stomach.
- In Georgia, green nut juice is added to honey, which is rinsed
throat with angina.
- In the Caucasus, eating 2-3 nuts a day is recommended for improvement.
- In Bulgaria, healers include nut ingredients in remedies
against inflammation of the lymph nodes and gums.
- In England, ripe kernels are used as an ingredient in preparations
in the fight against atherosclerosis
In Slavic folk medicine, walnuts, as well as decoctions
and infusions of leaves, shells and partitions heal wounds,
improve digestion and metabolism, cleanse the body of toxins,
heavy metals, radionuclides, parasitic organisms, relieve
from psychological and physical fatigue.
The astringent properties of walnut leaves make them suitable for
diarrhea. They are also part of the fees prescribed for diseases.
liver and gallbladder. Infusion of partitions is used to treat varicose veins.
dilated leg veins and joint pain. With gout,
and skin diseases (eczema, abscesses, rashes) wiping infusions
and walnut-based ointments are applied externally. Nut
formulations relieve inflammation of the oral cavity, fight scurvy
and eye diseases. Green (unripe) walnut fruits are used
as a multivitamin remedy for vitamin deficiency,
and also used as a diaphoretic.
In the second half of the .th century, among fans of treatment with folk
means, the drug became popular, which later received the name
“Todikamp” (on behalf of its creator Mikhail Petrovich Todik).
There are several ways to make this tool, but
one of the simplest is the following.
A three-liter jar is filled with green walnuts in an amount
80-100 pieces and filled with refined kerosene, which does not need
add about 7-10 cm.Then the can is rolled up and lowered
into the basement or buried 60-70 cm. Above, to hold the lid,
a 10-12 kg weight or other weight is installed. In such
the form of the product is aged for 3 months.
The author argued that despite the toxicity of kerosene, its combination
with a nut, it ceases to be a poison and becomes a medicine. Via
the drug, the patients of M. Todik sought to cure sciatica, prostatitis,
sclerosis, thrombophlebitis, pyelonephritis, hypertension, schizophrenia, cirrhosis,
and even oncology. In recent history, some followers of M. Todik
replaced kerosene with an alcohol solution, while others began to lay
instead of European varieties of walnut, American black.
But although the basic idea has undergone a number of changes lately,
it remains quite popular today.
For decoctions in traditional medicine, non-kernels are most often used.
walnut, and leaves, green shell, partitions and shells.
Useful substances in the shell are stored for years without being destroyed,
even in the light. However, after hot water releases them,
it is recommended to consume the broth within 2-3 days after preparation.
Often additional ingredients are added to such decoctions,
determining their medical purpose.
- Crushed shells of 10 walnuts combined with 100
grams of dried leaves of a nut is poured into a pre-brought
until boiling water and cook over low heat with loosely covered
lid for 30-40 minutes. The broth cools naturally around
3-4 hours, after which it is used to treat skin diseases
twice a day before meals for 10 days.
- Crushed walnut shells washed in cold water
(2 handfuls), dry bean pods
(1 handful) and dried white mulberry leaves
(1 handful) in decoctions, some traditional healers recommend
use to treat diabetes. Boiling water first
(3,5 l) shells are poured for half an hour, then added to the same
beans, and after five minutes, silk leaves. The whole mix
kept on fire for another 10 minutes, after which it cools naturally
method, filtered and placed in a refrigerator in a glass
container. For therapeutic purposes, the broth is consumed daily.
a glass before bedtime.
- Dried walnut leaves, depending on the concentration of raw materials,
used for menstrual irregularities. For this they take
one and a half tablespoons of chopped walnut leaves, infused for 3 hours
0,5 liters of boiling water. For inflammation in the oral cavity 2 spoons
raw materials are poured into 200 ml of water and brought to a boil, after which they insist
for another hour.
In a similar way, decoctions are prepared from the partitions extracted from them.
nutshells. With their help, for example, they restore work.
thyroid gland, problems of which were caused by a lack of iodine
in organism. To do this, the partitions are boiled over low heat of the order
10 minutes. Raw materials per serving are taken in the ratio: 1 glass
water (200 ml) in a quarter glass of partitions.
In folk medicine, tinctures on green walnuts are used
for various purposes: from the fight against tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus,
to protect the thyroid gland, blood vessels and digestive organs. More often
in total, the product is infused in a dark place for 1 to 2 weeks.
But there are recipes in which the infusion during cooking is needed
keep in the light.
- For the manufacture of funds for nodes in the thyroid gland three dozen
green walnuts are cut and filled with 1 liter of alcohol
(70%). The mixture is allowed to stand in direct sunlight for 2 weeks.
After straining, sugar is added to the mixture, with which it is infused
- With gastritis
use a tincture of walnuts, including 0,5 kg of chopped
green fruits, a liter of alcohol, 0,5 liters of water and 100 g of sugar.
The composition of these ingredients is infused for 3 months.
It is consumed in a tablespoon twice a day for
one and a half months. Between courses, you need to do a 2-week
break. (In the instant recipe, there are 2 dozen green
nuts are poured into 0,5 liters of vodka and aged for 24 days).
- For problems with the urinary tract and gastrointestinal disorders
traditional medicine recommends honey and nut infusion. Kernels
crushed (for example, using a meat grinder) and mixed with
the same share of honey
(for mixing, use enamel or glass
dishes). The jars into which the mixture is poured in sterilization
dont need. The infusion is closed with a lid and sent to the dark
cool place for a month.
Alcoholic infusions are also made from walnut shells. Despite
on its hardness, the shell gives coumarin relatively easily,
with which you can carry out antibacterial treatment,
as well as other useful substances. Moreover, unlike decoctions,
useful substances are stored in infusions longer, and healing agents
are made easier.
In oriental medicine
In traditional Tibetan medicine, the vital functions of the body
(health and disease) are governed by three energies: Wind, Bile and
Slime. A person can be dominated by one energy, but they can be combined
and two (very rarely, three) energies. Depending on this combination
(constitution) a person and determines his diet, taking into account
and food criteria: 6 tastes, 5 elements, 17 properties.
These properties include, for example, the “cold-warm” parameter.
Thus, “warm” food enhances vital “warmth” and weakens “cold”.
According to this parameter, walnuts are considered a warm food, which
enhances the energy of “Bile”, weakening “Wind” and “Slime”. And into the cold
seasons, people with a predominance of “Wind” and “Slime” in the constitution,
as well as the elderly, leading a sedentary lifestyle, should use
Walnut. Moreover, there is it, according to daily biorhythms, it should
from 16 pm to 20 pm and, in most cases, preferably separately
from other products. But this rule does not apply to people with a constitution.
Such an intricate arrangement of the diet, a European might think
unnecessarily complicated. But it must be borne in mind that Tibetan medicine is not
the share of competent nutrition in health issues is 30% (for another
30% is responsible for the mental state and 40% for the spine), therefore
in this science, every little thing is important.
In scientific research
Even if about the benefits of the chemical elements that make up the nut
scientists already know a lot, they still need an experimental
confirmation that these beneficial substances when consumed
nuts are absorbed by the body and really have a positive
Researchers from the USA tested the bioavailability of antioxidants,
contained in the nut, on the experimental group. Walnut
has been selected as one of the richest sources of ellagitannin and
tocopherol in the plant world. As a result, the increased number of
y-tocopherols (but not a-tocopherols) and catechins scientists came
conclude that walnuts do soften oxidative
stress, but it’s too early to call it an antioxidant panacea..
Scientists from the University of California (Los Angeles, USA) at
practice tested the widespread belief that regular
eating walnuts improves sperm quality. Experiment
conducted on 117 healthy volunteers aged 21 to 35
years. For 3 months, men consumed 75 grams daily
walnuts, without changing anything in the rest of the diet,
representing the so-called. “The typical Western diet.” Results compared
with the indicators of the control group, whose representatives are walnuts
they did not diversify their menu with nuts. The men of the first group have improved
both viability and sperm mobility..
Improved digestion with walnut consumption has been demonstrated
an experiment involving 194 healthy adults who ate
43 grams of this product every day for 8 weeks. IN
comparison with the period when these same people did not use walnuts,
they had an increase in the number of beneficial bacteria
The healing effect of walnut in the prevention of breast cancer
and rectum, scientists tried to confirm in the statistical
a study involving 104 healthy women and 97 patients suffering from
breast cancer. Scientists have come to the conclusion that those women who
regularly consumed at least a little nuts, decreased 2-3 times
the risk of developing cancer. At the same time, an increase in the number of eaten
walnuts were not as significant as the total
abandoning them.… These statistics are experimentally
test tube “was confirmed by another group of scientists who tested the” nutty “
a drug that stopped the growth of cancer cells taken from
breast and rectum..
Walnut Potential in Fighting Disease
Alzheimer’s 10-month experiment in laboratory
rodents, which were added 6-9% walnuts to their food (this corresponds to
about 28-45 grams of the same product per day for a person).
In mice, according to the results of test tasks, memory improved, decreased
anxiety, they responded better to learning, in comparison with those
by rodents who did not receive the walnut. The researchers came
to the conclusion that a dietary nut supplement can help reduce
danger of development, delay or slow down the progression of the disease
For losing weight
Walnut is a high-calorie product. 100 grams contains
about 650 kcal. And, nevertheless, with its help you can control
weight and keep fit.
- First, according to a joint research team
USDA and Beltsville Center
nutritional studies, a person metabolizes 21% fewer calories
and, accordingly, gain weight more slowly than one would expect
from such a high-calorie product..
- Secondly, when eating nuts, the feeling of hunger decreases, and
with faster satiety, the person overeats less. In a joint
experiment of the Israeli, Boston and Massachusetts research
groups of 10 obese people drank a serving daily for 8 days
a smoothie containing 48 grams of ground walnuts. As a result
they had a decrease in hunger in comparison
with those who drank a placebo with the same amount of nutrients and calories
Similar experiments were carried out by other centers with a large
the number of participants. For example, scientists from San Diego invited almost
three hundred women of different ages (from 25 to 72 years old) who have lost weight,
reducing the amount of calories consumed. Menu of the first group of women
was formulated to include 40 grams of nuts per day. As a result
representatives of the first group by the end of the experiment on average
lost 10% of weight, and the representatives of the second group – only 5%.
The reason scientists see is that thanks to nuts, women from
of the first group, they were satiated faster and did not want to eat longer.
As a product, the walnut is universal – it can be used and
in baked goods, and in meat or fish dishes, and in salads, and in sauces.
Therefore, recipes with its inclusion are numerous and varied.
One of the record holders for the use of walnuts in cooking is considered
Caucasian kitchen. There, the nutty component may even be in
soups that are thickened with ground kernels. In particular,
this is how, for example, Georgian chicken soup is prepared
Frying the kernels reveals their flavor and adds nicotine bitterness.
However, in addition to fried, you can find pickled
and candied kernels. So, in sugar syrup, walnuts can
meet, for example, in liqueurs
“Vin de Noi” and “Nocino”.
Walnuts are often combined in Turkish, Georgian and Russian cuisines
In Georgia, small eggplants are divided by a longitudinal cut into two
halves, fry them and season with a mixture of ground walnuts
nuts with the addition of garlic,
onions, coriander, tarragon, paprika, celery.
Sometimes the dish is sprinkled with pomegranate seeds.
Similarly, almost cut eggplants are stuffed with nuts.
In Mexico, there is a special national dish in the colors of the state
flag: “Chiles en nogada”. This is stuffed green chili
color with white sauce of ground walnuts, garnished
red pomegranate seeds. The character of one of the Mexican novels
author Laura Esquivel died after eating this dish, served at the climactic
the moment of the wedding, because he, without waiting for the allotted 20 minutes,
immediately went to the marriage bed and did not let Chiles en nogada go down
into the stomach.
Even in Ancient Greece, the fruit of a nut (more precisely – a solution of ash from a shell)
women used to remove body hair. Modern women
various nut components are widely used in cosmetology
procedures. For example, walnut shells are included in scrubs.
for face. However, the most widely used oil nut
walnut is used as an emollient, moisturizer,
anti-inflammatory, anti-aging agent that prevents
the formation of wrinkles. Its effect helps to strengthen microvessels,
than eliminates the formation of a red capillary network. In summer
the oil is applied to the skin to even out the tan. Baths for nails,
including nut and lemon oils, “take” for the purpose of strengthening
nail plate. And adding a few drops of oil to the shampoo
helps to strengthen hair. For their shine, structure improvement
and coloring in chestnut color, and a special “nutty”
Supercritical CO2 extract is produced on an industrial scale,
crafted from walnut leaves. It is an oily
a mass of yellowish-brown tint with a specific weak odor.
The extract is included in the composition of bactericidal and fungicidal preparations,
shampoos, lotions and creams for skin and hair care. His
the share in the finished composition is small (from 0,01 to 0,1%), but the role is significant.
There is one more non-standard way of using tanning
substances contained in the walnut to protect the skin. In the Far East
there was a practice when harvesting hay
rub your palms with nut leaves to prevent the formation of
corns. Although the skin of the hands became brownish and coarse,
the calluses were no longer scary to her.
Dangerous properties of walnuts and contraindications
Walnut is one of the most potent allergens that
in itself makes it dangerous for people with severe allergic
reaction to this product. There are known cases of distribution
swelling in close contact with a person who has eaten shortly before
several nucleoli. If the child’s allergy manifests itself precisely
on this nut (and not several other types of nuts), then the chances are high
the fact that in the process of growing up the immune system will begin to perceive
the product is normal, and after 12 years the allergic manifestations will go away
Another, but already smaller, threat can arise with intolerance
nut kernel protein. In this case, the absence of enzymes in the body,
able to digest protein, leads to varying degrees of discomfort
in the gastrointestinal tract with extreme manifestations in the form of diarrhea
Should be used with caution and after consulting a doctor.
A separate serious threat is posed by the use of old rancid
nuts, as well as moldy fruits. With long-term storage
without a natural shell, fat is oxidized from contact
with oxygen (rancidity). Oxidation secondary products are extremely
dangerous because of their mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. The first
turn, the liver, pancreas, duodenal
intestine. In addition, the liver can become a target and life-threatening
aflatoxin – an organic compound produced by several
types of mushrooms. Such molds also often develop.
in nut fruits.
We have collected the most important points about the benefits and possible dangers of walnuts.
in this illustration and we will be very grateful if you share
a picture on social networks, with a link to our page:
For the fruits of the Juglans regia tree, the name is walnut, or Greek
nut we got stuck after the monks traveling around
The Balkan Peninsula, they introduced him to compatriots. It is believed
that it was the ancient Greeks who began to cultivate this plant, trying
bring out the same large fruits that those who traded with
by the Greeks, the Persians. From the Persian lands, probably, they began to spread
worldwide walnut trees, although traces of relict walnut forests of the Tertiary
period paleobotany are found in China, Turkey, Transcaucasia, in the south
Hungary, and Bukovina (Ukraine). In Central Asia, such relict
the groves have survived to this day.
Although the fruits of these trees are found during archaeological excavations
from the Himalayas to Switzerland, the oldest nuts dated to the 8th
millennium BC e, were discovered in the Shanidar caves (territory
modern Iraq). Later in Mesopotamia, which was also located
on the lands of modern Iraq, the earliest written
evidence of eating a walnut, which is also in Babylon,
and in Persia it was called “royal”, since only representatives
the highest nobility were allowed to eat it. Commoners were forbidden to use
this product for food, as it was believed that nuts greatly enhance
intellectual abilities of a person, and this should not be allowed
The ancient name – “acorn of the gods” – directly indicates sacredness
walnut tree. In one of the Greek myths, the god Dionysus turned
into the walnut plant for his beloved after her death. According to
to another ancient Greek myth, the hanging
on the branches of the girl, hiding in this way from the approaching
In Roman tradition, nuts were associated with the goddess of marriage and motherhood.
Juno. From there, the tradition began to shower the bride and groom with nucleoli.
In the same ancient Rome, there was another wedding custom: on the eve
marriage and maturity, the groom would go out and hand out
to your friends a stock of walnut fruits, as if passing them on as an inheritance
The expansion of the Roman Empire into the lands of the Germanic peoples led to
the emergence of another “pseudonym” of the nut. The Germans called the Romans
“Valhami” (Walh), which in a number of Slavic languages was transformed
into the word “wlohi / volokhi”. And after they began to call
representatives of all romanized localities, in turnover
which the nut was a popular product, to it forever “stuck”
the name “Voloshsky”.
Walnut fruits, even in our latitudes, can reach the size of a chicken
eggs. Such, for example, were grown in the Cherkasy region by the Ukrainian
gardener Leonid Boyko, who bred a variety called “Bomb” with thin
nuts, 30-40 grams each. There is evidence that more
under favorable conditions, some trees can bear fruit for 70-80
But, oddly enough, it is not the creators who are more often included in the book of records,
and destroyers are people who, in a limited amount of time,
are able to crack more nuts in different ways. So to Pakistani
Mohammed Rashid holds the record for cracking nuts and head
(254 pieces per minute) and palm (284 pieces / min.). Working only
elbow, he was almost caught up by the Indian Prabhakar Reddy P (229 pcs / min.).
And another Pakistani Mujaba Hassan Mogal uses for his
achievements unusual for this country weapons – nunchucks.
Walnut wood is prized for its decorative and technical
characteristics, and for relative scarcity, as it grows
the tree is slow, but they cut it down reluctantly (a fruit-bearing nut is a source
constant income). In some countries, its harvesting is now prohibited.
But during the existence of the procurement industry, they used
not only the trunks of healthy trees, but also growths appreciated by carpenters,
which could reach enormous sizes (1,2-2 meters weighing more
1,5 thousand kg).
Walnut veneer is used for sheathing the interiors of expensive cars, made of solid
wood makes furniture, musical instruments, dishes,
parquet. Since the color of wood depends on climatic and soil
characteristics, there are several especially valuable types of wood:
“Italian”, “Caucasian”, “French”, etc.
Walnut boards served as the basis for many famous paintings
(for example, on such a board was written “The Lady with the Ermine” by Leonardo
da Vinci). By the way, the painters made the bases for their paints from
nut butter. During World War I, walnut
used to make airplane propellers. Actively
used it in creating a solid wooden base for hunting rifles.
The obvious external resemblance of the nucleus to the human brain is somewhat
decades ago provoked the famous science fiction writer Kir Bulychev
to create a literary joke. In a serious popular science magazine
“Science and Life”, but in a frivolous heading “Academy of Fun Sciences”
he published a letter he had invented, which allegedly came from one
a caring pensioner who convincingly argued that everyone
nut is another peculiar form of alien intelligent life.
Not all readers understood the joke. Many of them reported in their letters
to the editors that they refuse to eat nuts to save life
“Brothers in mind”.
The walnut tree itself is not so scrupulous about its
“Brothers”, suppressing the growth of many plants in the neighborhood. Their competitors
the nut is eliminated with the help of juglone. This substance at different times of the year
concentrates in different parts of the tree (in the spring – in the leaves, in the summer
– in the roots), poisoning even small plants sensitive to juglone
concentration. The root system of a dead and cut nut can
release a toxic substance for several more years.
And although juglone does not spread widely in the soil, especially susceptible
plants can be planted no closer than 20-25 meters to the toxin
from the walnut tree. However, less sensitive (e.g. cotton,
cereals) grow well in walnut groves.
At least 2 people were aware of the toxic properties of nuts.
thousands of years ago. In the American South, it was quite widespread
the practice of using sliced husks of unripe fruits for fish
catching. The husks were thrown into the water, and the stunned fish rose to
the surface of the water, where it became an easy prey for fishermen.
Selection and storage
The famous Italian chef Giorgio Locatelli advises purchasing
unpeeled nuts at the maximum flavor intensity and freshness
– from December to February. But how to determine the quality of the core without destroying
shell, especially since the shape, thickness and smoothness of the protective shell
can be more varietal traits? Experts advise
reject “bad” fruits according to the following indicators:
- 1 The weight… Empty walnut with dried kernel
it will be easier than expected. In a batch where a significant portion of the nuts
– “dummies” the skill of distinguishing a full nut from a hollow one comes very
quickly and stays for life. But even without this skill, a nut with a dried
the kernel is relatively easy to guess.
- 2 Sound… Before buying, the fruit should
shake and listen to the sound: if the nut rattles, then it,
most likely old.
- 3 Color and stains… Shell color
should be even, without dark spots that may indicate
about damage to the core inside. But in general, this is not the most reliable way.
evaluate the quality, since a trace on the outside of the shell can
remain from the green shell. But the color of the core clearly indicates
about quality – from the purchase of dark yellow, shriveled kernels with dark
interspersed should be discarded.
- 4 Smell… Rancid or sour
smell is a very strong sign of a spoiled nut. But usually
the shell (if its integrity is not violated) does not allow odors to pass through,
and therefore this criterion is more concerned with the assessment of already purified
Although the quality of shelled nuts is much easier to assess,
they should be purchased with great care. Firstly, in such
in the form of a kernel, they lose a significant part of their useful properties. Secondly,
this increases the risk of contact of the unprotected core with harmful substances
(the buyer usually does not know where and under what conditions the kernels were stored).
If for some reason it is possible to purchase only already cleaned
kernels, it is better to buy a little “for trial” first.
In any case, if in doubt, it is better not to risk it.
and refuse to buy, since moldy kernels form
deadly aflatoxins that are not destroyed even when
heat treatment, so you should not fry such nuts either –
this will not help to avoid the threat of intoxication.
GOST allows storing nuts in shell for no more than a year, and in peeled
form – no more than six months, and then – subject to the requirements for the conditions
storage. Nut fruits do not like air or light. Nut fat
relatively easy to oxidize, become rancid, so store
peeled kernels should be tightly sealed in a glass jar in a dark
closet or refrigerator. Nuts can be sent for several months
for storage in the freezer. In-shell nuts can be stored
up to a year in a dry, ventilated and preferably cool place.
Varieties and cultivation
Walnuts are seed bred. At the same time, the most powerful potential
have grafted seedlings grown in nurseries. Although to the soils
this tree is undemanding, if possible, the nut is planted in the sandy-stony
loose soil rich in lime. So that afterwards the tree
does not shade other plants, they usually “settle” it at the edge of the garden. Crown
plants are extensive, easily reaching 20 meters in diameter or more.
The plant bears fruit, as a rule, from the age of 7-8 (sometimes
from 4-5 years old) and until the end of life – up to about 200-300 years. However, there are
and much older fruiting specimens. So, in China (county
Khotan), there is a tree almost 1400 years old, which gives up to 6,5-7
thousands of nuts a year. Especially active fruiting is observed in
a freestanding tree (not in plantations) at a century and a half.
The average yield of such trees is about 120-150 kg per year. But in literature
describes the record holders capable of producing up to one and a half tons annually
Walnut varieties (excluding botanical characteristics and care conditions)
differ in yield, fruit size, shell thickness and weight
grains. Experts recommend picking up grafted planting material
with lateral (lateral) type of fruiting, choosing varieties according to strength
growth, taking into account agroclimatic zoning, and not to abuse
the number of pollinators and varietal mixing in the garden. Most interesting
for growing varieties are presented in our rating of nuts.
- 1 INTR… This super-lateral
the variety is Ukrainian selection. The walnut is intended for
industrial cultivation and is capable of producing up to 25 buds per shoot.
The fruits are large (up to 60 g) and this means that you can collect
about a kilogram of fruits, and from a tree – about 5 bags.
- 2 Pierral Lara (LARA)… One of
leaders of French breeding, which gives very large spherical
nuts with a flat base and a light kernel. In the harvest, up to 75% are
fruits with a caliber of 34-35 mm and more. The shell, though strong, is thin,
which makes it possible to obtain at the output up to 50% of the total mass. The core has
- 3 Kazaku… An even higher percentage
kernels from the total mass (up to 60%) demonstrates a classic tall
a variety that represents Moldovan selection in the rating. Popularity
he added resistance to diseases, low temperatures
combined with high productivity (about 3,5-4 t / ha). Middle
caliber fruits have a cylindrical shape.
- 4 Chandler… American
breeders (from the University of California) have developed a highly productive,
but a capricious variety to temperature changes. The tree is characterized by
a gradual increase in the percentage of lateral fruiting, which
with an increase in growing seasons, it reaches 90%. Small
the fruits are oval.
- 5 Shebin… This variety, representing
Turkish selection, characterized by abundant fruiting and wide
settlement zone (except for coastal areas). Fruit caliber
40 mm are collected in bunches and give about 50% of the total mass of the product
at the exit. They have a thin shell and a dense kernel of light yellow
Regular consumption of any type of nut, even in small quantities
improves the functioning of cerebral vessels, increases mental
and physical performance, normalizes heart function and reproductive performance,
which, combined with its recognizable taste, explains the unrelenting
the popularity of this product.