In culinary and household terms, sugar is called sucrose.
– common food sweetener obtained during processing
sugarcane or sugar beet. Sugar production in our
country, as in Europe, is almost entirely based on the use
Europeans knew about sugar in wild-growing sugar beets back in
16th century, but it was only in 1747 that sucrose crystals could be obtained
year thanks to the research of the German chemist Marggraf. After that,
how further experiments carried out in Achard’s laboratory substantiated
economic feasibility of beet processing, in Silesia there were
factories for the production of sugar. Then the technology was adopted by the French
and the Americans.
The white color of the sugar is achieved during the refining process, but when
however, some of its crystals remain colorless. Many varieties
sugars contain different amounts of vegetable juice – molasses,
which gives the crystals different shades of white.
Sugar production technology
The process of making sugar from sugar beet involves several
technological stages: extraction, purification, evaporation and crystallization.
Beets are washed, cut into shavings, which are placed in a diffuser for
extraction of sugar with hot water. Beet waste
go to feed livestock.
Then the resulting diffusion juice, which contains
about 15% sucrose, mixed with milk of lime for cleaning
from heavy impurities and passed through a solution of carbon dioxide,
which binds non-sugar substances. After filtration
at the exit, they receive already purified juice – a whitening procedure awaits it
sulfur dioxide and filtration through activated carbon. After
evaporation of excess moisture, a liquid with sugar content remains
already in 50-65%.
The crystallization procedure is aimed at obtaining the next intermediate
processed product – massecuite (mixture of crystals of sucrose and molasses).
Further, a centrifuge is used to separate the sucrose. Received
at this stage, the sugar needs to be dried. It can already be consumed
for food (as opposed to cane – a production process that
is not completed at this stage).
Sugar is an indispensable ingredient in many drinks, dishes,
confectionery and bakery products. He’s a habitual addition to coffee
cocoa and tea; confectionery creams, ice cream cannot do without it,
glaze and candy. As a good preservative, white sugar is used
when making jam, making jelly and other products from fruits
and berries. Today white sugar can be found almost everywhere, even
where he is not expected to be met. For example, it may turn out to be
in low fat diet yogurt or sausages. And also, sugar
used in tobacco production, in the leather industry
or in the manufacture of canned meat.
Forms of sugar release and features of its storage
White sugar on sale comes in the form of granulated sugar and refined sugar
in pieces. Granulated sugar is packed in bags and bags of different capacities,
usually from one to fifty kilograms. The bags are applied tight
polyethylene, inside which the film is additionally spread,
to protect the contents from moisture and spillage of crystals. Refined sugar
packed in cardboard boxes.
The high hygroscopicity of white sugar determines certain
storage requirements. The room where the product is located must
be dry, protected from temperature extremes. Storing it at
high humidity will lead to the formation of lumps. Sugar has
the ability to absorb foreign odors, so it should not be kept
it next to foods with strong flavors.
White sugar is very high in calories – one hundred grams of the product accounts for
almost 400 kcal, and its composition consists entirely of
carbohydrates. Therefore, when dieting, it is recommended to limit the use of
of this product as it is (for sweetening coffee or tea)
and in the form of various sugar-containing drinks, cakes, cookies,
Nutritional value in one hundred grams (white granulated sugar):
Proteins, g Fats, g Carbohydrates, g Ash, g Water, g Caloric value, kcal – – 99.8 0.1 0.1 399
Refined sugar, due to a higher degree of purification, is deprived in its
The beneficial properties of white sugar
Composition and presence of nutrients
There are no additional micronutrients in refined sugar, this is the result
the actual refining technology to obtain the most purified
from any impurities of the product. White granulated sugar contains negligible
the amount of calcium, potassium, sodium and iron.
The main feature of white sugar is its rapid absorption by the body.
person. When ingested, sucrose breaks down into fructose
which, entering the bloodstream, replace most of the energy
losses. The energy of glucose provides metabolic processes like
humans and animals. In the liver, with the participation of glucose,
special acids – glucoronic and paired gray acids, which provide
neutralization of toxic substances by the body, therefore, in case of poisoning
or liver disease, sugar is ingested or glucose is injected into the bloodstream.
The functioning of our brain is also completely dependent on metabolism.
glucose. If the food you eat doesn’t give your body the right amount
carbohydrates, he is forced to receive them, using protein for their synthesis
human muscles, or proteins of other organs.
With a lack of sugar (glucose), the tone of the central nervous system
worsens, ability to concentrate decreases, worsens
resistance to low temperatures. White sugar, being very pure
product, does not affect the microflora of the stomach and intestines, does not
negative effects on metabolism. With moderate use
will not cause obesity,
therefore, it is even safer than fructose or artificial sweeteners.
Sugar puts less stress on the pancreas than rice
porridge, wheat bread, beer, mashed potatoes. Sugar is good
preservative and filler; milk will not work without it
dessert, cake, ice cream, spread, jam, jelly and preserves. White
when heated, sugar forms caramel, which is used in brewing,
The product has antidepressant properties – a piece eaten
cake, or just a piece of refined sugar can relieve irritation, stress,
depressive state. When sugar is ingested, the pancreas
produces insulin, and it stimulates the appearance of the hormone of happiness –
serotonin. White sugar is not only a finished product, it is also a base
for a range of sweet foods – flavored sugars, brown,
instant and soft sugar, syrups, liquid and fondant
Dangerous properties of white sugar
With excessive consumption of sugar in its pure form, also in the composition
sweets and soda, the body cannot cope with its complete processing
and is forced to distribute it to the cells, which manifests itself in the form of fat.
At the same time, after the “distribution”, the sugar level naturally decreases,
the body again sends a signal that it is hungry.
Overweight is a common problem for sweet food lovers in large
quantities. Regularly high blood sugar can cause
to the emergence of sugar
diabetes, as the pancreas stops producing
the right amount of insulin. If the diabetic stops following strict
diet, will consume sweets uncontrollably, the consequences can
When assimilating refined sugar, the body actively spends
calcium. The rapid breakdown of sugar begins in the mouth of a person, which
provokes the appearance of caries. Modern soda is especially dangerous
where the amount of sugar is huge. To avoid consumption
sugar in excessive quantities, it is advisable to study product labels
in stores, refuse sugary soda and add to tea
or coffee with large portions of white granulated sugar or refined sugar.
A short video about the production of white sugar.