It is a fruit plant with thousands of years of cultivation history,
who has been fighting almost all this time for the right to be no worse than his own
a close relative – an apple. And the pear is really no worse. Potassium,
coarse dietary fiber, less fruit acids associated
with fiber, “light” sugars and other nutrients make this
fruit is both tasty and healthy at the same time, and in some cases
– medicinal. Experimentally proven, for example, the ability
pears reduce the risk of diabetes
Type 2 and prevent strokes.
Useful properties of pears
Composition and calorie content
Fresh pear contains (in 100 g): .
Calories 57 Kcal
B4 5,1 Potassium, K 116 Vitamin C 4,3 Phosphorus,
P 12 Vitamin
B3 0,161 Calcium, Ca 9 Vitamin E 0,12 Magnesium, Mg 7 Vitamin B5 0,049 Sodium,
It should be borne in mind that the concentration of all minerals and some
vitamins increases (often 4-5 times) in dried pears.
However, at the same time, the calorie content of the fruit also grows by the same 4-5 times.
due to a noticeable increase in the amount of sugar, therefore, people,
building their diet should take into account that fresh and dried
pears in the diet should not be considered interchangeable foods.
The medicinal properties of pear pulp are due to non-vitamin composition.
(there are relatively few vitamins in this fruit), but, first of all,
- dietary fiber (pectin) improving performance
intestines responsible for the elimination of harmful substances and toxins,
lowering cholesterol levels;
- potassium, a healthy mineral for the heart, thanks to
to which the pear demonstrates a slight diuretic effect;
- folic acid (up to 0,2 mg / 100 g, which is more
than apples and plums) and cobalt – hematopoietic elements,
participating in the formation of new cells;
- arbutin (up to 60 mg / 100 g in some varieties),
able to prevent the development of kidney and urinary
One fruit of a moderately ripe pear contains up to 15-18% of the daily value
fiber. These coarse, indigestible fibers are essential for
vital activity in the stomach of beneficial bacteria, the activity of which
largely determines the state of the body as a whole. Also rude
fiber in the intestines acts as a cleansing sponge, stimulates
shrinking intestinal walls, lowers cholesterol levels by
binding of its precursors (fatty acids), can reduce
activity of absorption of sugars. However, the more ripe (and, accordingly,
softer) the fruit, the less coarse fibers remain in it.
Pear skin contains bioflavonoids, tannins,
Arbutin, which has antiseptic properties. They provoke
protein coagulation of bacterial cells, promote healing
damage to the mucous membrane of the alimentary tract. Since the fruits
exhibit both antimicrobial and diuretic effects,
pear is useful in case of infectious diseases
In terms of the quantity and quality of sugars, a pear is generally similar to an apple.
However, the content of sorbitol (sweet glucite that replaces sugar)
the pear is noticeably superior to the fruit competitor. In the juice of the unripe
there are especially a lot of sorbitol pear fruits, which is important for patients
diabetes mellitus who use this food as
sweetener. The pear is also ahead of the apple in terms of chlorogenic content.
acid (30-80 mg / 100g), which gives the fetus a diuretic and capillary-strengthening
The contradictory ability of the pear is widely discussed on the Internet.
cause both laxative and fastening effect at the same time. The reason
this is called different ways of processing the fetus – it is believed that
fresh pear in large quantities provokes diarrhea,
and pear broth, on the contrary, normalizes emptying. Representatives
Nutrition and Biotechnology Research Center Clinics Explain
this paradox with a different composition (and, accordingly, action) of the pulp
fruit and its rind.
Pear pulp really has a laxative effect, therefore
it can be eaten with constipation.
But the peel of the fruit containing tannins, on the contrary,
demonstrates a bonding function and is able to stop diarrhea
and diarrhea. But since tannins manifest themselves brighter
in broths, then such a “medicine” from the peel of a pear will act
more effective than raw fruit. At the same time, the pulp from a decoction or compote
with diarrhea, you still should not eat – it can provoke
In pharmacology, components obtained from various
parts of fruits and plants. So, the skin of this fruit is biologically rich
active substances that have antiseptic properties,
contains tannins, bioflavonoids. Arbutin (glycoside,
which is contained in the peel of a pear and in even greater quantities –
in the leaves of the tree) is part of the medicines used
for the treatment of the urinary tract and kidneys.
Numerous food products are produced on the basis of pear components.
additives. A Ukrainian manufacturer as a base element
for its balsam “Forest Pear” uses a concentrate of shoots
tree Pyrus pyraster – a wild-growing pear that has received
popular name “Soletrus”. The balm is claimed to be a powerful anticancer,
wound healing, antirheumatic, antifungal and bactericidal
means. One bottle (20 ml) is enough for a course of treatment with the recommended
taking 3-4 times a day, 1-2 drops of balm in a glass of water.
In folk medicine
Even the ancient Greeks, creating the traditions of European folk medicine, actively
used pear fruits for the prevention and treatment of various diseases and
states. They even escaped seasickness by continuously absorbing pieces
these fruits, due to which the characteristic signs of motion sickness disappeared – nausea
and dizziness. The pear was also used as a medicine for mushroom poisoning.
And pear seeds were used as an antihelminthic agent.
Modern adherents of naturopathy actively use both the fruits themselves and pear juice:
- treatment of urolithiasis
disease and removal of inflammatory processes in the bladder;
- therapy for inflammatory lesions of the prostate gland;
- restoration of pancreatic function;
- normalization of the action of the heart muscle;
- activation of hematopoiesis processes;
- stimulating the kidneys and liver.
Some of these diseases and conditions present with symptoms that can
become the basis for the appointment of traditional pear therapy. For example,
fatigue, muscle pain, heart palpitations, sensitivity
cold, dizziness and loss of appetite may be signs of pathology
hemopoiesis, problems with blood vessels and capillaries or disorders of the heart,
what becomes an indication for treatment with the use of decoctions and infusions of pears
as a therapeutic agent.
Pear, as one of the main medicinal ingredients, is used by traditional healers
and in the diagnosis of urological inflammation and bowel dysfunction.
In addition to the fact that dietary fiber activates intestinal peristalsis, tanning
substances deprive pathogenic bacteria of mobility. In general, we must remember
that the pulp in large quantities will help weaken the digestive
system, and the skin and a decoction of the leaves, on the contrary – to its fastening.
For decoctions, a wild pear is more often used, the fruits of which are rarely consumed
for food, but often, together with the plant part of the tree, is used in various
folk healing practices.
- Shoots from osteochondrosis.
1-2 young pear branches should be cut into pieces (5-10
cm long) and boil in a liter of water (if necessary, the amount
raw materials proportionally increases). After boiling, the shoots
kept for another 20-30 minutes over low heat, after which
the broth should cool and infuse for two hours. Then
the raw material is extracted, the liquid is filtered and taken within
months daily. Before the second course, do a two-week
- Dried pears for prostatitis.
Dried pear fruits in the recipe are taken at the rate of 100 g
half a liter of water. Dried fruits are first filled with water
(about 30 C), infused for about half a day and only then
go to the fire before boiling. After cooling, the broth is taken
half a glass three times a day until symptoms are relieved.
- Dried pear peel from gastrointestinal upset. Half a glass of chopped dry
the peel is mixed with 3 tablespoons of oatmeal and poured with 0,5 liters of boiling water.
The mixture is cooked for 15-20 minutes, and then it cools down and infused for about
hours. The filtered liquid is taken before meals, half a glass until recovery
normal functioning of the gastrointestinal tract.
Similarly, using dried pears with pulp and
decoctions are being prepared, which traditional healers recommend taking
with allergies. Only in this case, usually porridge in a larger volume
(100 g / 1,5 l) boil separately and mix with pear broth
(100 g / 1 L) after cooling. Drink the product one glass at a time
twice a day.
In folk medicine, infusions from the pulp of fresh and dried pears, leaves and flowers
plants are used by healers to treat a wide range of diseases from prostatitis
- Infusion of dried fruits for adenoma.
Modern healers for the treatment of benign glandular tumors
it is recommended to pour 250 grams of dried fruits with a liter of boiling water
and leave for 8-9 hours in a thermos. After keeping in hot
water, the fruits are ground and filtered. Take remedy
follows 4 times a day for a quarter of a glass.
- Infusion of leaves for rheumatism.
2 tablespoons of dry leaves are poured into a glass of hot water
and kept for 2 hours. “Medicine” is taken three times
2 spoons per day.
- Infusion of leaves for dermatitis
and rashes. The remedy for external use is recommended as an anti-inflammatory
in the treatment of oily skin with seborrhea,
and also with dermatitis. The astringent properties of the infusion help to reduce
timing of adolescent acne treatment. To prepare the infusion
usually use dried leaves collected during the flowering period
plants. They are poured with boiling water at the rate of 25-30 g per 100 ml
and let it brew for 5-8 hours.
- Infusion of leaves for prostatitis.
For insisting, you need about 1/3 cup of dry leaves,
which are filled with boiled water for 5 hours. After straining
the infusion is recommended to be taken daily until cured.
- Infusion of flowers for prostatitis. Flowers are taken at the rate of 30 g per 250 ml
a glass of boiling water. Flowers filled with hot water are infused for 10 minutes.
The infusion is then divided into 3 servings and consumed throughout the day.
In oriental medicine
Pear fruits came to the attention of ancient Chinese healers at least
2 thousand years ago. However, in those days, all medical treatises said,
first of all, about the possible dangers of pears. In particular, a collection of the III century under
the title “Herbalism Wu Pu” warns that pears should not be eaten by pregnant women,
women after childbirth, the sick, as well as all people with stab and cut wounds.
Even healthy people, according to the author, risked excessive consumption of pears.
get sick. The .th century book “The Expanded Meaning of Herbal Science” clarified that
if these fruits are consumed in excess, damage will occur
spleen. And only drunkards can love pears, since these fruits satisfy
thirst for them.
This attitude is largely provoked by the pear’s place on the famous scale.
Yin Yang. The closer the food product is to the value of equality of two principles – to zero
on a scale from -3 (Yin) to +3 (Yang), the more useful it is. However, the pear matters
-3, concentrating the maximum Yin (feminine), so people with
good balance started this fruit is contraindicated.
In the later medical writings of Chinese physicians, the relationship to the pear
begins to be gradually revised. Progressive specialists for their time
one by one, they begin to admit the possibility of using pears in certain
conditions in the treatment of specific diseases. In the book of 1409, “Recipes
all kinds of help “there is such a recipe for” Drink for the treatment of diabetes “: from the fruits
one of three varieties (e-li, yang-shui-li or jiang-nan-xue-li) juice is squeezed out,
boiled with honey, bottled and taken from time to time
after dissolving in cold or hot water. After recovery, taking the drug
should have stopped.
A detailed description of the use of pears left in his herbalist 1590
the famous physician Li Shizhen. He collected several described in various
sources of cases of almost magic cure for diabetes, after which it is reasonable
doubted that the influence of pears is as harmful as claimed in the ancients
medical treatises. In particular, the stories cited tell
about people who were considered hopelessly sick, but healed by a horse veterinarian,
now a monk, now a doctor. In these stories, the patients were advised whenever possible
eat fresh pears, but if it doesn’t work out, then at least drink pear juice or
soak dried fruits in boiling water.
The cumulative experience of using pears in traditional Chinese medicine can be
submit in the following guidelines:
- Pears can and should be eaten with the syndrome, which in Chinese and Tibetan medicine
called fever syndrome. This syndrome also includes the manifestations of diabetes,
and besides them, such signs as a desire for coolness, dry mouth (which
want to calm down with cold water), redness of the face and tongue (up to raspberry color).
- Pears are acceptable (but in moderation) to get rid of a hangover
and thirst in the summer heat.
- These fruits are contraindicated in the “cold syndrome”, which is manifested by chills,
freezing of hands and feet, pale tongue, desire to warm up with hot drinks.
- It is undesirable to include pear fruits in the diet after childbirth and with significant
loss of blood, accompanied by pallor, dry skin, dizziness,
Cough syrup made from pears is still very popular in China. But
its use also depends on the nature of the cough and the underlying syndrome. So, for
“Fever syndrome”, which is characterized by a viscous and difficult cough
sputum of a dark yellow color, syrup is indicated. And with the “cold syndrome” with a cough,
accompanied by abundant discharge of rare pale sputum, such a syrup
drinking is prohibited.
Ancient Arab healers also used boiled or baked pears.
for diseases of the lungs to relieve the cough reflex. For this, we also used
pear tree resin, washed down with a few grams of gum with water.
In scientific research
In recent years, in scientific research of pears, scientists were interested in the main
way, the effect of the fruit on the cardiovascular system, antidiabetic,
anti-inflammatory, antioxidant properties, as well as the ability of the fruit
reduce the risk of developing certain cancers.
- Extensive statistical survey conducted by members of the European Prospective
Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) for 8 years with study
food habits of almost half a million people, made it possible to identify some dependencies
diet and the occurrence of lung cancer. So it was found that in a group of nonsmokers
people eating fruits (and especially pears and apples) reduced the risk of
this disease, despite the fact that no such dependence was found for vegetables
It was. (In the group of smokers, however, the incidence of lung cancer
was lower in people actively introducing vegetables into the diet)..
- More recently, in 2019, American scientists studied the effect of daily
consumption of fresh pears for the heart condition of middle-aged and older people.
In a placebo-controlled clinical study conducted during
3 months, there was a tendency for a slight decrease in blood pressure
at the moment of contraction of the heart muscle, and a significant decrease in pulse pressure
(this is the difference between the pressure at the time of contraction and relaxation of the heart
muscles). In addition, a qualitative reduction in the waist was recorded.
in the group of subjects who received two fresh medium-sized pears daily for meals
- The ability of biologically active components derived from pears to exhibit
antidiabetic properties have been tested in laboratory mice. During the experiment
the ability of pear extracts has been established to stabilize the development of diabetes
2nd type. Moreover, when comparing the concentration of active components in the pulp
and the peel of the pear, a significant predominance of these components was recorded
in the peel (2-18 times, depending on the variety)..
- In vitro laboratory research conducted by Chinese scientists
revealed which varieties popular in this country exhibit the greatest antioxidant
activity, and which show the most striking anti-inflammatory effect.
Experts have established a direct correlation between a high concentration of triterpenoids
in the Dangshansu variety and the fruit’s anti-inflammatory properties. Was also
noted a very high content of phenols, flavonoids and various anthocyanins
in Xuehua and Nanguo varieties, which determined their special antioxidant capabilities..
Scientists are generally quite often interested in the antioxidant potential of pears.
and products based on it (for example, chips), which indirectly indicates a high
potential of this fruit in the fight against free radicals that provoke
lipid oxidation hazardous to health, membrane damage (on the cellular
level) and the walls of blood vessels.
For losing weight
Pear seems too sweet to be considered effective.
for weight loss with so many sugars. Meanwhile, in fresh pear fruits
only 40-60 kcal (depending on the variety), and no more sugar than apples,
which just seem less sweet because of the acids they contain.
There is a popular 7-day diet that uses pears as one
from the main ingredients. It is believed that with its help without harm to health
you can “drop” up to 5 kg.
- Breakfast: 250 ml of yogurt with rye bread, 2 pears.
- Lunch: boiled chicken breast (100 g), 3 tablespoons of boiled rice.
- Dinner: 2 pears.
- A cup of green tea without sugar before bed.
- Breakfast: 2-3 rice cakes, 1 pear.
- Lunch: 50 grams of hard cheese with rye bread.
- Dinner: 2 pears.
- Before going to bed 150 g of cottage cheese.
- Breakfast: 150 grams of boiled beef with 50 grams of buckwheat porridge.
- Lunch: salad of 2 pears and grated carrots.
- Dinner: 2 pears.
- Before bed, a salad of 2 eggs with vegetables, seasoned with olive oil.
Brazilian researchers in an experiment tried to estimate how low-energy
a diet with added pears helps women 30-50 years old to lose weight. In practical
the study for 2,5 months in the diet of the three groups were added the same
by the number of calories in a serving of pears, apples and oatmeal cookies. Despite
equal calories, fruit supplements helped to lose weight more effectively..
On the dining table, the pear goes well with the mass of products that
at first glance, they seem incompatible with a sweet juicy fruit: with cheeses,
pork, beef, chicken, nuts and seasonings (spices) that
primarily associated with meat dishes.
- Pear and cheese. An old French proverb says: “Never have the Lord
did not enter into a more ideal marriage than the union of pear and cheese. ” Especially harmonious
are considered to be combinations of dense, meaty Bosc and mature cheddar, as well as
Comice varieties with brie cheese. Blue cheeses can outshine tender pears, but sweet ones
furme d’ambert with “milky” shades and a fading musty aroma is suitable
the pear is very good. The description of the Spanish Grazalema cheese mentions
“Notes of ripe pears”, which in itself testifies to the compatibility of this
goat cheese with pear. Brine Norman is considered an excellent partner for pears.
livaro cream cheese with its “aroma”, in which strong spicy
- Pear and pork.
The culinary experts call the perfect pair of pear and prosciutto – Italian
salted ham. They can be combined without additional ingredients,
but they are often combined in salads, pizzas, paninis (hot
sandwiches). Unlike an apple, a pear goes well without
with fatty meat, and with well-done small pieces.
- Pear and beef.
Pear fruits are combined with beef in at least two popular
Asian dishes. Yukhe is made from finely chopped raw
beef fillet marinated in soy sauce with spicy
seasoning, and then served with nashi (Asian pear) slices.
Beef sliced into thin strips in pulkogi before frying
already marinated in grated pear, rice wine, sesame oil
and lemon juice with spices.
“Pear honey”, which is strongly thickened to a viscous (honey)
states the Tylers pear juice. This variety was included in the classic recipe, because
which was very common in the canton of Lucerne and was perfect for cooking.
But for making honey at home, you can replace this pear with a similar
according to the characteristics of the variety. The main thing is that the concentrate is sweet and juicy,
use the still hard, not overripe fruits, which, nevertheless, have already begun
darken and fall off.
After squeezing, the pear juice is filtered through a coarse sieve to separate
large pieces of pulp, poured into a copper basin and sent to the basement overnight.
During this time, coarse fibers (“noise”) have time to rise to the surface, which
it is necessary to collect, and put the juice purified from “noise” in a basin on the fire on
6 hours, collecting foam before boiling. So dark brown honey with milk
in the middle of the last century, during the war, coffee with milk was replaced.
But for lovers of such sweets and candies with pear taste and aroma, there is
one caveat: the fruit ester isoamyl acetate present in candies,
called “bee attack pheromone”, because it is with its help that insects
convey information about the threat and the need to defend themselves. Therefore, the bees, having caught
the smell of pear candy can be aggressive.
Pear fruit extract often appears as an ingredient in cosmetic
products in creams and serums of anti-aging series and care products
problem skin of the face. There it helps to reduce pore size, normalizes
secretion of sebaceous glands, improves metabolic processes, enriches the skin with organic
The ability of the pear ingredients to fight inflammatory
processes are used in home cosmetology.
- Healing elixir. The tool is manufactured
from pear peel (50 g per liter of water). The skin is cut off
fresh fruit and boiled over the fire for about 30 minutes, after which
still infused for about 2 hours. Before applying to sores
and the mixture is filtered.
- Rejuvenating mask. The pear is peeled,
and the pulp is crushed to a mushy state. Into this mass
add one teaspoon of orange juice, honey and
cream. After mixing, the composition is applied to the face by a quarter
hours. The mask is washed off with warm tea leaves (usually green
tea). To restore tone and open pores, you can additionally
rub the skin with an ice cube.
- Purifying mask. The pulp of one ripe pear
mixed with oat flour. The amount of flour depends on the juiciness
fruit. The main goal after stirring is to get a thick gruel.
After 15 minutes of holding on the face, the mask is washed off with a cool
Dangerous properties of pears and contraindications
The pear has several properties, which to one degree or another
make these fruits undesirable for inclusion in the diet. So,
for example, it is prohibited to eat pears in case of acute
and chronic pancreatitis
(inflammation of the pancreas). This is due to the presence
in the pulp of even the ripe fruits of sclereids – stony cells
– dead tissues with lignified thick shells. Their walls
sometimes soaked in lime, an indigestible variety
wax (cutin) or silicon dioxide (silica).
Due to stony cells, excess pears are considered “heavy” food even for humans
with a healthy gastrointestinal tract. But people suffering from exacerbations
all the more should they refrain from diversifying their diet for
account of these fruits. Moreover, the prohibition applies to baked fruits, and
on mashed pear pulp – stony cells are still preserved there.
Aggravate the aggravating effect of the pear (if there are already problems with
health) potentially can be its “neighborhood” in a plate with meat products.
In addition, it is not recommended to wash down the pulp of a raw pear with water, so as not to provoke
diarrhea, do not eat it on an empty stomach and / or immediately after eating.
The abundance of fiber in foods is usually beneficial.
on the state of the body. However, the abuse of products containing
a lot of indigestible fibers, can provoke intense
gas formation, accompanied by painful spasms.
The abundance of sugars in pear pulp is also considered a potentially dangerous property.
this fruit. However, it is not entirely correct to compare fruit sugars with sugars.
in sweets or cakes, since they are associated with dietary fiber in the pear
and are absorbed less actively.
We have collected the most important points about the benefits and possible dangers of pears
in this illustration and we will be very grateful if you share
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For a long time, the pear has competed in popularity with the apple, but, despite
the fact that a lot of people prefer exactly pear tart sweetness to apple
sweet and sour taste, this fruit has always remained “in the shade” of the more common
competitor. The ancient Greek poet Homer assumed that this was due to the “property
pears fall in love with only people with intelligence. ” In the days of Homer, the most
beautiful and large fruits were brought as a gift to the inhabitants of Olympus – the wife of the Supreme
god Hera and goddess of beauty Aphrodite.
Pear fruits can grow to gigantic sizes. Moreover, breeding
successes and special specific growing conditions make it possible to regularly
conquer previous records. So, for example, if in 1979 the world record holder
was considered a fruit from South Wales weighing 1,4 kg, then in 2013 a gardener from Ingushetia
Abas Matiev without growth stimulants, using only organic fertilizers,
raised a fetus already weighing 1,7 kg.
But the real record holder of the beginning of the XXI century was the pear grown in Japan.
(Okayama Prefecture) and exhibited in 2011 at the main office
JA Aichi Toyota. She weighed 6 pounds and 8 ounces (2,948 kg). And thanks to
Japan’s reputation as an exotic country where anything is possible, these achievements
are not perceived as fiction. After all, the famous Japanese pear “nihonnashi”
(or simply “nasi”) with hundreds of varietal varieties at the first meeting
really surprising. True, not in size (the largest fruits do not exceed
400-450 g), and its spherical-flattened shape. But even more surprising
the attitude of the Japanese towards the pear tree and its fruits.
In the city of Kurayoshi, Tottori Prefecture, there is a unique pear museum (“Nasikko-kan”).
The building itself is made in the form of a spherical fruit of the prefecture’s brand variety.
– “XX century”, and inside there is a “mausoleum” of one famous tree, which
bore 60 years, bore up to 2000 fruits per season and became a legend among
local gardeners. In gratitude for such a productive life, the tree after
death was placed under the dome, fully preserving and spreading crown (20 meters
in diameter), and the root system exposed under glass for viewing.
In addition to the central hall with a tree, the museum’s exposition includes:
- a theatrical robotic story about the formation of the pear cultivation tradition;
- a fruit museum showing separately the evolution of Western and Eastern selection;
- a tasting room with a cafe offering a variety of pear desserts;
- pear orchard, in which absolutely every fruit is packed in bags of rice
papers that protect not only from birds and insects, but also from the sun, therefore
that the fruits, according to the Japanese, should remain green, and not brown under
An individual approach to each fruit is widely practiced today,
also because it is commercially viable. So, in China, for example, they started
grow pears in the form of a Buddha figurine. Young fruits packed in transparent
plastic form, as they grow, they acquire recognizable outlines and face.
The cost of one such pear reaches $ 10, and to justify the price,
sellers claim that a person who eats a Buddhist pear will gain immortality.
The Chinese generally consider the pear to be a symbol of immortality. Break the pear (or even
just seeing a broken tree) is considered bad luck. Undesirable
also share the fetus with loved ones, because this can cause
The Chinese pear orchard (Gansu province), which fell
in the Guinness Book of Records as the oldest fruit garden on the planet. More
2/3 of the trees in the garden were planted in the .th century, and the age of the oldest
its trees reach 430 years. However, most of them continue to bear fruit.
But real immortality does not have to be sought in distant lands. One
a 300-year-old pear tree grows from private Krivoy Rog estates.
It is believed that even before the official date of the founding of the city, it was planted
the first settlers in these Ukrainian territories. The exact age of the plant
dendrologists will be allowed to establish an examination, but indirectly it is confirmed
the fact that at the beginning of the .th century, the Don Cossacks visited this estate
specially to celebrate the 200th anniversary of the tree.
Now the girth of its trunk is 3,65 meters, but the plant is still regularly
bears fruit, although it survived a direct hit in the 20s of the last century
lightning, which broke off part of the trunk (this part was then sent to the barn – on
firewood). However, the incident only strengthened the confidence in emergency
the vitality of the plant. When the remaining part bloomed next spring
trees, and at the same time the branches lying in the barn blossomed.
It is generally wasteful to send pear wood for firewood, since in dried
form, it can become a fairly valuable decorative material, replacing
beech or even ebony. Due to the presence of “stone
cells “in the structure, it can be cut in different directions without fear
splits. Small interior crafts, musical instruments,
furniture, architectural rulers, cookie and gingerbread printed boards, plates
and dishwasher-safe bowls. After hot processing
with steam, the pear wood darkens, acquiring a noble reddish tint.
And having aged naturally, it becomes a beautiful dark amber
Pear leaves are also surprising. It is widely believed that they grow on a branch
in a manner that maximizes light and moisture.
They even call the angle of one sheet in relation to another (135
degrees). It should be understood that the same pear type of leaf
does not exist. Depending on the variety, they can be ovoid, oblong,
round, ellipsoidal with solid, serrated, serrated and other edges.
The relief (straight, twisted, wavy, etc.) will also be very different.
It is no less remarkable that in Europe, pear leaves may have been smoked more.
before the appearance of tobacco, although no artifacts directly confirming this have survived.
Selection and storage
When buying pears in a store or in the market, you should focus on the appearance,
the smell and density of the fruit. There should be no external damage, dents on the skin
and wormholes (worms from time to time are found in domestic pears, although
and less often than apples). To appreciate the quality and ripeness, you need to slightly press
on the fruit and sniff. Too hard pulp without aroma suggests that it is
unripe fruit. And excessive looseness may indicate the beginning of the process
putrefaction. However, in the case of a pear, it is better to purchase immature than overripe
Hard fruits ripen relatively easily, even if you just hold them for a few
days at room temperature (you do not need to wash them beforehand). But this one
the process can be accelerated by packing the pears with apples and / or bananas
in one paper bag. “Neighbors”, releasing ethylene (gas, which is also called “natural
ripening hormone “), will share it with pears.
Soft ripe fruits at room temperature can, on the contrary, begin to rot.
In order to slow down this process, the fruits are placed in the refrigerator, prolonging
their shelf life is 4-5 days. One more day can be won if the beginning
darken the pear pour lemon juice. But in general, pears are stored relatively poorly,
and even low temperatures do not save these fruits from quality loss.
China, which has long been considered the undisputed world leader in the production and
exporting pears, sponsors numerous studies of this product,
aimed, among other things, at the issues of better preservation of value characteristics.
For example, a recent study conducted on frozen pears is one of the most active
exported variety, showed a qualitative loss of fruit aroma with prolonged
freezing (hexylhexanoate disappeared completely, and the content of 5 more aromatic
elements decreased significantly). The same study found an increase in saturated
and reduction of unsaturated fatty acids after prolonged freezing..
Recently, the efforts of Chinese scientists have led to the discovery of another, more careful
and already a chemical, a way to extend the life of fruits removed from the tree. If you process
fruits of 0,1 mM melatonin, then storage at a temperature of +4 ° C and growth
slows down microorganisms, and increases the general antioxidant capacity of pears,
and inhibits the loss of ascorbic acid..
If the need arises as long as possible (within several months)
save pears at home, then you can resort to the following proven
techniques of experienced gardeners:
- Choose only autumn and winter varieties for bookmarking.
- Remove pears from a tree at the stage of technical maturity – still greenish,
without waiting for them to fall off themselves. When harvested by hand, it is possible to protect the fruits from
mechanical shocks and keep the stalk intact.
- Store in well-ventilated dry rooms at a temperature of about 0-2
° C. If the humidity is very high (above 80-85%), get rid of it, as well as excess
odors will be allowed by a bucket of quicklime left in the storage (basement, cellar)
- Separate pears from other vegetables and fruits. But the pear fruits themselves should not
touch each other tightly. Therefore, they are placed in boxes or boxes.
with holes for ventilation and sprinkle each layer with sawdust or sand.
- From time to time, sort through the folded fruits to reject spoiled pears.
Before putting fruits in boxes, they are often laid out directly on the floor.
for 0,5-1 weeks, covering the crop with newspapers. And only then each fruit is rubbed dry
and sent to the box. Sometimes pears are stored on wooden shelves, the bottom layer
which are raised from the floor by 15 cm and more. At the same time, they are laid out with stalks.
Varieties and cultivation
Pear loves light and warmth. In shaded areas, the tree grows and bears fruit
bad, so it is more often planted in the southern, western or southwestern parts
garden. Thermophilicity of pears until recently presented certain problems.
for its cultivation in the northern regions, but the work of breeders who have created sustainable
to low temperatures, the hybrids allowed to grow this plant in Western Siberia,
in the Urals, as well as in the cold northeastern part of China.
Unlike more unpretentious, cold-resistant plants, southern pears have
a developed root system capable of penetrating into the deep layers of the soil, which leads to
both the large size of the planting holes and the quality of the non-swampy soil.
To date, breeders have bred about 3000 pear varieties. Some
of these emerged as a side effect of other research activities.
So, for example, the French gardener Luis Bosca, bred a variety named after him,
by accident, just fighting the weeds. Only one botanical species of this plant
there are 69, although most cultivars represent only one
of which Pyrus communis. The following varieties also belong to it, which made
top 5 of our “pear” rating:
- Bartlett. Pear was brought out by the pious and generous English farmer Williams Bon Chretien,
who spent the proceeds from the sale of seeds for charity and construction
churches. But overseas, this variety is better known by the name of the merchant Bartlett.
This variety is considered the sweetest and juiciest in the world. Since the .th century, there has been a rule
table etiquette, according to which this pear was served only in sliced
form, because it was almost impossible to bite off a whole fruit without staining yourself with juice.
In restaurants, a large number of napkins were always served with the Bartlett pear.
Over time, this particular variety became the most popular in North America. Color
its fruit can vary from pale yellow to reddish, depending on
on growing conditions. But since most Americans think they are real
pears are exceptionally yellow and green fruits, red varieties of fruits are more common
in restaurants where you can charge a higher price for the “exotic” color.
- “Starkrimson”. It is also a very juicy, sweet and aromatic pear. Meet
fruits from bright red to dark crimson shades. The variety appeared back in the 50s.
of the last century, but has not yet received wide distribution, having taken on the market
place of an expensive delicacy. It is usually ordered in limited quantities.
in order to sell for 10-15 dollars for one such organic fruit.
- Williams. One of the most famous and popular varieties, first mentioned
which refers to the 1770th year. Then its name was a little different
– “Williams Christ”. But this pear was made famous by another person with the same
surname – Richard Williams, who introduced her to the London organization in 1816
gardeners. A few years later, the variety began to spread throughout Europe.
and the world and not without reason: its sweet pulp melts in the mouth, and the taste is different
shade, which is called “Williams note”.
- Duchess. This word is translated from French as “duchess”. In the world
“Duchess” has been known among gardeners since 1845, and on the territory of the post-Soviet
space, the name of this variety flaunted on the label of a popular soda
with a pear flavor and was known to every child. For sweet juicy pulp
“Duchess” is still in the top of the most popular cell phones in the world today.
- “Forelle”. Rounding out the rating, “in contrast”, is a very tough pear with a hard
pulp and low in sugars. It is used most often in pastry shops.
products with low calorie content. And the laws of some states still
it is forbidden to use the fruits of this variety as throwing equipment. Local
farmers call it a “combat grenade”. Forelle has excellent ballistic
characteristics: it flies far, and because of its hardness, when hit, it can
cause serious damage.
It is even difficult to list all the interesting pears. There are, for example, fruits
without seeds inside. As a rule, this is a crop of single-varietal pear plantations of those
pears that are prone to seedless fruiting (for example, the Conference variety).
In addition, even at the flowering stage, such trees are sprayed with biostimulants.
fruit formation, which ultimately allows you to grow a “shop” pear without pits.
Chemical stimulants involved in this stage at the time of maturation
the fetus completely and without a trace disappear.