The content of the article
There are many legends about the beneficial properties of orange, some of
which, however, are not confirmed by anything. For example, some believe
that the orange breaks all records for the content of vitamin C, although in
fact it does not stand out in this parameter from other citrus fruits.
Others believe that orange fruits (or freshly squeezed juice) can
effectively burn fat and provide weight
loss in diets. This is also not entirely true.
Nevertheless, orange is a really useful product that can
treat asthma and neurodegenerative diseases, suppress the activity of a
number of bacteria, improve diabetes and
liver diseases , lower blood pressure and have a positive effect on the cardiovascular
system. But when introducing an orange into the diet, you must always
take into account the dangerous properties of the product, which, in combination with medications,
can provoke an unpredictable effect.
Useful properties of orange
Composition and calorie content
Fresh orange contains (per 100 g) .
Calories 47 Kcal
P 14 Vitamin E 0.18 Magnesium, Mg 10 Vitamin
B1 0.087 Iron,
Use in medicine
Speaking about the use of pulp and juice of oranges in medicine, they usually
mean the mild laxative, diuretic
and choleretic effect produced by the product , anti-sclerotic effect, accompanied by a
decrease in the permeability of the vascular walls and their strengthening. In addition
, numerous medical studies have established a
number of other useful properties of the product.
- Antioxidant action.
Anthocyanins contained in oranges, acting as antioxidants,
reduce the risk of a number of age-related diseases . ,
including – cardiovascular and cataracts . …
Among all the studied plants of the Rutaceae family, it is in the
orange that the antioxidant properties are most pronounced . …
Among other things, this during physical exertion also prevents the
development of hypoxia in the cells . … Similar antioxidant
properties are characteristic not only of the pulp, but also of the peel of this
fruit . …
- Suppression of the activity of a number of bacteria. The antibacterial
function occurs due to the fact that orange juice is able to
stimulate the activity of macrophages . …
- Treating neurodegenerative diseases.
Hot infusion of orange peels has been shown to inhibit
biturylcholinesterase and MAO. And this, in turn, opens up
prospects for its use in the treatment of neurodegenerative
diseases . …
- Improvement in diabetes mellitus.
diabetes mellitus alcoholic extract of crusts can prevent the
development of nephropathies
. and also improve
skin regeneration in diabetics . …
- Effects on the cardiovascular system.
of orange juice are useful in preventing diseases of the heart and blood vessels , since they have antioxidant, hypoglycemic
and hypolipidemic effects . … The juice also “stops” the
inflammatory reaction in the vascular system caused by the
consumption of fatty foods . … The likely reason for
this is a decrease in lipid peroxidation caused by
juice antioxidants . …
- Lowering blood pressure. Orange
juice, additionally enriched with a vitamin complex, is able to
pressure . …
- Also, the pulp of orange fruits is recommended in
dietary nutrition programs for vitamin deficiencies
and anemia . …
In folk medicine
Ancient folk medicine used orange juice mixed
with sugar to “expel bile” and “calm the pungency of the blood.”
The standard of medicine prescribed juice for “hot cough” and for
accumulation of “phlegm” in the lungs. To improve mood, get rid
of vomiting and nausea, it was necessary to mix 5 grams of ground
orange peels with water and drink . …
Modern traditional medicine of different peoples is distinguished by
regional specificity. For example, in Bulgaria, an
infusion of orange tree leaves is used as a sedative
at the rate of 3-4 grams of leaves per glass of water. In Italy, orange
water is advised both as a styptic and as
a diaphoretic. A decoction of unripe fruits, women who prefer traditional
methods, at their own peril and risk, can be used for uterine
bleeding . …
In the East, the dried peel of the fruit is also traditionally used
with abundant discharge during menstruation, and also prescribed
infusions were made on the orange blossom and bark , which were considered a good sedative. These same infusions,
according to tradition, helped to improve appetite . that
partly overlaps with the modern views of nutritionists.
In scientific research
Scientists are actively researching orange fruits because they have a
lot of beneficial elements. For example, these citrus
improve liver health. Studies have shown the ability of
orange juice to prevent and inhibit fatty
liver disease . …
Researchers believe that oranges are also helpful in treating asthma.
Anti-asthmatic effect was demonstrated in an experimental
study contained in the juice hesperidin and naringenin . …
In addition, alcoholic extracts of orange peels have experimentally
demonstrated a suppressive effect on the famous bacterium
Helicobacter pylori . … Apart from it, the bactericidal action of an extract of
crusts exerts on microorganisms, such as pneumonia Klebsiella,
Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella flexneri, etc..
. … This number also includes pathogenic microbes of the oral cavity
Aqueous orange extracts are capable of inhibiting acetylcholinesterase,
which makes it possible for their therapeutic use in
Alzheimer’s disease . … Placebo-controlled
and randomized trials have demonstrated improvements in
cognitive function in older adults with long-term
orange juice intake . …
There is a popular belief that the orange “burns fat”, so
with its help you can quickly lose weight. In fact, this mechanism
is mediated and manifests itself through the action of a substance
called “naringin”. As nutritionists explain, when
naringin enters the liver of a well-fed person, a signal is triggered telling the
body that he is hungry and to replenish energy he needs
to start burning fat. However, the same nutritionists warn that
this “orange weight loss” can lead to tangible results
only if you eat several dozen fruits at once, which is both difficult
and unsafe, like any abuse.
Nevertheless, some nutritionists are developing
their own signature diets based on oranges . So, for example, Margarita Koroleva, known
in the media as a nutritionist of the “stars” (since
Valeria, Anita Tsoi, Nikolai Baskov are seen among her clients ), created a short-term “Orange
Diet” that allows you to reduce weight by up to 5% of the original. The
weight loss program is designed for 2 (maximum 3) days. During this time
, you can only eat oranges and the white of boiled eggs, and
food should be taken every hour. In this rhythm, the idea of
activating metabolic processes is laid , which helps to lose weight.
It is important that when talking about orange juice in dietetics and medicine,
it always means freshly squeezed juice. If for comparison we
take fresh juice, a store product in the form of reconstituted juice
and nectar, then 100 grams of vitamin C most of all will be in
freshly squeezed juice (70.9 mg), and reconstituted juice
(57.3 mg) will take second place . Nectar will be in third place with 53.2 mg of vitamin,
but the gap from second place will be insignificant.
The term “reconstituted” refers to orange juice
for a product made from concentrated juice by
dilution. Sometimes the juice is just pasteurized and in this form (without
dilution from the concentrate) is delivered to the shelves. In this case,
the packaging will be marked: abbreviation: “NfC” and / or the full
inscription “Not from Concentrate”. But even such
juice is always heat-treated.
For the industrial production of juices, both
expensive varieties rejected due to their size and appearance are used, as well as special
varieties with reduced consumer properties – those that are
poorly cleaned, have a small size and an unsightly appearance (for example, the
very juicy variety Salustian, which is actively cultivated in Valencia).
In other words, the juice itself is often made from the same oranges
that lie next to it in the form of a whole fruit. And dietary
restrictions arise not so much because of the raw materials themselves, but because of the
method of making store juice, in which a
lot of sugar is always added . According to this parameter, orange nectar is the most harmful
of the juice options. It contains about 11.8 mg of sugar, in the recovered
– about 11 mg, and in freshly squeezed – 8.9 mg of sugar per 100 grams.
In the regular (non-diet) diet, the orange is included in numerous
dishes of various cuisines of the world. This fruit traditionally goes well
with vegetables, fish, poultry. For example, when cooking duck
with orange sauce, finely chopped
pinch of sugar and salt are added to the freshly squeezed juice . Then this composition is brought to a boil.
And to complete the preparation of the sauce of the preferred consistency
and density, a thin stream of
starch diluted with water is poured into the mixture in a thin stream .
Both pulp and
citrus zest are often used in salad recipes . But the range of uses for oranges is much wider. Of them
– more precisely, from orange peels – they even make mustard, which is
known in Italy as a traditional seasoning for meat. The crusts are brought
to the factory in salt water (preservative), and after washing, they are boiled
in syrup. To preserve the aroma and taste of the zest, a
little sugar is added – just so that the sweetness is absorbed.
pears and peaches help to diversify the taste .
Fragrant orange oil is obtained from the zest. Even wild bitter
oranges are not thrown away. A specific jam with
spicy taste is prepared from them .
There are two basic cooking techniques to make it easier
to make oranges yourself:
- 1 To make it easier to separate the peel from the pulp, chefs make special
cuts. If we draw an analogy with the globe and the
terminology adopted by geographers , then the “caps” at both “poles” of the fruit are cut off, and
then 5-6 cuts are made along the “meridians”.
- 2 To make it easier to squeeze the juice out of the pulp, cut the fruit in half
and put it in the microwave for half a minute (power about 500 W).
This destroys the separating membranes and makes it easier for the
juice to flow out .
The benefits of home use of face masks made from ground
peel have been indirectly confirmed in the research work of
cosmetologists. According to scientists, orange peel can prevent
oxidative stress and prevent inflammatory reactions
in skin cells triggered by exposure to ultraviolet radiation . …
Only for this, the selected substances must be correctly combined
with other ingredients in the cream.
Cosmetic benefits have also been found in orange
juice. It turned out that yeast fermentation processes in it not only
do not reduce the content of biologically active substances . But on the
contrary – they increase the content of flavonones, carotenoids and melatonin
. … Hesperidin in orange juice can inhibit trypsin
and the enzyme tyrosinase, and also promotes the formation of melanin
in the skin. Due to the abundance of vitamins and carotenoids, drinking
orange juice reduces the harmful effects that
alcohol has on skin cells .
The notion that oranges can chew up fats is reflected
in an unconventional way of using them: in Jamaica, oranges are used to
clean the floors, cutting the fruit into slices, and in Afghanistan, housewives
rinse fats from dishes with juice.
The effectiveness of these techniques can be easily checked on your own,
for example, by squeezing juice onto a greasy plate. This
method of washing clearly loses to store-bought detergents , but in the absence of “chemistry”
or with a deliberate refusal of it, it can be considered an acceptable
Dried oranges, thanks to their natural aesthetics, can be used
to make an original decoration for the New Year tree, especially if you
illuminate thinly sliced slices with garland bulbs.
Dangerous properties of orange and contraindications
People appreciate the benefits of the orange for the economies of countries
and for the health or pleasure of each individual. However
, this fruit also has dangerous properties that
nutritionists and hygienists pay attention to .
The danger of eating orange fruit pulp and juices
based on it is associated mainly with three factors:
- Factor No. 1. The effect of an acidic environment on tooth enamel.
Even with just one orange slice or a few
sips of juice, the pH value changes, which leads to an increase in the
level of acidity in the mouth and the threat of destruction of tooth
enamel. Store juices in this sense are even more dangerous due to the high
sugar content in the composition. Therefore, hygienists recommend
drinking orange juice through a straw to reduce contact with the teeth.
In addition, it is better to rinse your mouth with water after eating. This
will lower the acid concentration.
- Factor No. 2. The body’s reaction to a large amount
of juice drunk (eaten oranges) with a potential threat of
Much depends on individual portability. But if
one person without harm to himself can drink
freshly squeezed juice from a dozen fruits every morning on an empty stomach , then another with a high probability will
soon “work” gastritis, which is what nutritionists warn about.
Overuse of this fruit does more harm than good.
- Factor # 3. Unpredictable reaction to the combination of naringin
Naringin, a substance in oranges, reacts
with human liver enzymes. As a result of the interaction, a
distortion of the supposed effect of medications arises – it is difficult to
predict how the drug will work. And when
alcohol is added to the medicinal orange “cocktail”, cirrhosis of the
liver can develop literally within a few weeks.
Even regular paracetamol can be dangerous when taken with
orange juice. Similar warnings apply to juice and other
We have collected the most important points about the benefits and possible dangers of an orange
in this illustration and we will be very grateful if you share
a picture on social networks, with a link to our page:
- 1 The most delicious and expensive oranges are Dekopon
fruits . 6 pieces of these fruits cost 75 euros (12.5 euros each).
- 2 The first man to swim across Niagara Falls in a barrel died
of gangrene, injuring his leg after slipping on an orange
- 3 To increase sales of orange juice, the advertising agency
came up with a comic book hero – Captain “Citrus”, who finds his super-power
in the morning juice.
- 4 Orange scent ranks third on the list of
favorite scents, behind only chocolate and vanilla.
- 5 In post-war Argentina, deprived of a developed transport infrastructure,
but actively growing oranges, the question of how to
deliver the crop to consumers became acute . Without his decision, part of the crop was simply
buried from the ground. To avoid this, the aviators of the Institute of
Aeronautical Engineering of Cordoba, headed by the German engineer Reimar
Horten, designed a special transport
aircraft in 1953, named “after” the potential cargo – “Orange”
(Spanish Naranjero), or FMA I.Ae.38 … The second, unofficial, name
was “The Orange Dealer”.
Unfortunately, only one copy was built – a prototype that made
only a test, not a commercial flight. To launch the transporter
in mass production, it was necessary to replace the engines with more
powerful ones, which the manufacturer could not provide. The further development of the
project was hampered by the political situation and the development of the transport
The monument to the orange, erected in Odessa, tells an episode
from the history of the city, and the monument in Tel Aviv tells about the history of an
- 1 Ukraine. In 2004,
a monument to the orange, the legendary savior of the city from
decline, was created in Odessa . The sculpture is a
12.5-meter (in diameter) bronze fruit mounted on a pedestal , carried by three
horses. Several slices were “taken out” and replaced with the figure of Paul I.
The presence of the figure of the emperor and the horses illustrates the story of
how in the winter of 1800 the city magistrate sent
3,000 selected oranges to Paul , hoping to get a loan of 250,000
rubles to resume the construction of the port. The idea worked
and the city received funding.
- 2 Israel. The Soaring Orange
Tree in Old Jaffa was created in 1993. According to one version,
it symbolizes the fate of a nation that has existed for a long time “in
limbo”, without roots embedded in its land –
without its own state. The composition represents a living orange
tree growing in a large egg-shaped
pot suspended from cables .
- 3 Turkey. In this “orange”
country, there are many sculptural compositions and fountains playing
on the theme of the orange fruit.
Many Soviet children first learned about such a fruit as the orange
of the cartoon about Cheburashka . The main character was an
unknown animal that lived in tropical forests, but got
into a big city due to the fact that he climbed into a box with oranges,
where he fell asleep.
The name of the fruit also appears in the title of the famous “adult”
book by Anthony Burgess ” Clockwork Orange “, which was later
screened by Stanley Kubrick. This name appeared due to the
consonance of the Malaysian word “orang”, which translates as “man”,
and the English word “orange”, in translation – “orange”. In giving the title to
his book, Burgess played
around with an idiomatic expression used by London workers, who
called unusual, bizarre and strange things without clearly defined purpose “crooked like a clockwork
In Kira Muratova’s film ” Brief Encounters “, an orange is presented
as a symbol of the meeting of the invisible world of deep experiences and the world of higher
Oranges in Russian are the fruits of the family of rue
trees , orange subfamilies , kind citrus .
The common word for the name of the fruit came from the Dutch
language, together with the first deliveries of these fruits (more precisely, berry-like
fruits) to Russia.
Origin of the name
Today, in the literary Dutch language, the
use of the name ” orange ” is considered correct , and the word ” orange ”
is marked by Dutch etymological dictionaries as a regional tracing paper
from the French phrase ” pomme de Sine “, which translates
as ” Chinese apple . ” This reference to
China directly indicates the country , from which the history of the
orange originates .
The homeland of oranges is Southeast Asia and China, where these
trees were cultivated for two and a half thousand years BC. e.
It is believed that the first fruit trees of this species were the result of
The orange came to Europe through Spain around 1100
and then, with the beginning of the conquest of the New World, was “resettled” (introduced)
to America. It is known that by 1579 orange trees were bearing fruit
in St. Augustine – on the Atlantic coast of northeastern Florida.
Since about the 1870s in the United States, oranges, which were previously propagated
by growing seeds, began to be cultivated by means of budding
( peephole grafting). This made it possible to reduce the degree of variability of the offspring,
to achieve a more stable varietal identity, and with the purposeful
expansion of species diversity, this made it possible to use
as rootstock those types of citrus that were better adapted
to local conditions: climate, soil, diseases.
The United States still ranks second after Brazil in terms of
orange harvest and first in terms of juice production . … China, Mexico, Egypt, Turkey, Pakistan, India, Spain, Italy, Iran
play a significant role in the cultivation and export of oranges . The fruits are also industrially harvested in Greece and South Africa.
Today, the location of orange plantations depends
primarily on the suitable climatic conditions. However, at the end of the 16th
century, with the appearance of a fashion for oranges in the high society of France, a structure was constructed
to preserve and grow thermophilic oranges “for beauty”
, which got its name from the French
word “orange”, which in French means “orange”. – greenhouse.
Greenhouses gained popularity and began to decorate wealthy homes not
only in southern Europe, but also in more northern countries.
In the Soviet Union, oranges began to appear relatively widely
on the shelves during the reign of Nikita Khrushchev. And
then mainly one was exported , the Israeli variety Jaffa, named
after the old name of the port city, from which Tel Aviv later “grew”.
The popular variety has taken root in other countries, but in the USSR it was brought
exclusively from Israel, thanks to the “orange
deal” under N. Khrushchev . Its essence was that the property located on the territory of
Israel, which once belonged to the Russian Empire and
subsequently passed to the USSR, was decided to be sold under Khrushchev. The transaction amount
was about $ 4 million, a significant part of which
The Soviet Union received it in the form of orange trenches.
Today, some varieties, while retaining their taste, have lost their
economic importance for the economies of the producing countries. This happened
with the Jaffa variety, which was no longer exported due to its high cost.
But it was replaced by many other varieties of orange, the total
number of which in various sources varies from several dozen
to several hundred.
Peculiarities of growing
Depending on the variety, orange trees can reach different
heights: from meter-long indoor “bushes” to 12-meter plants.
Some trees live up to 150 years, bringing
about 35-38 thousand fruits during the harvest seasons . The average age of orange trees
is about 75 years.
The crown of this citrus can be either pyramidal or round in
shape. The oval leaf of the plant with a sharp end and sometimes wavy
edges contains aromatic oils in special glands near the surface.
The life span of such a leaf is on average 2 years. On the shoots of
plants of a number of varieties, there are 8-10 cm thorns.
Flowers up to 5 cm in diameter can be pink and white and
grow both in inflorescences of 6 pieces, or as single flowers. For about a
month they are in the bud stage, and then, having blossomed, they bloom
in 2-3 days. It takes about two weeks for the entire tree to bloom.
During this time, the surrounding beekeepers try to pump pure and transparent
orange honey, which has a characteristic light texture.
At home, an orange can be grown from a seed in a pot
with one part of peat and one part of flower soil. Such trees are
characterized by intensive growth, beautiful and dense crown, unpretentiousness
and disease resistance. But the plant begins
to bear fruit only by the age of 8-10, while all the genetic traits of the “parent” are
not inherited by its fruits . To preserve genetics, it is more advisable to make
cuttings or buy a ready-made seedling.
The plant loves bright diffused light and an air temperature of about
17-28 C. At the same time, flowering occurs at 15-17 C. Under plantation conditions
, harvesting begins in mid-autumn and ends only in
Among the numerous varieties of oranges, some stand out for their special
juiciness, others for their sweetness or bitterness, and others for their unusual appearance
. For example, the wild-type orange, whose trees
grow on the streets throughout the Mediterranean, has a very
bitter taste. For this reason, its fruits lie under the trees right
on the sidewalks, attracting tourists from the northern countries, but leaving the
locals indifferent. Sometimes they are used to make
jam or used as decorations. Among the
oranges massively cultivated by humans, however, one can single out “special” varieties
with their own unique specifics.
The most popular varietal group in the world is the Navel group .
The English word ” navel ” translates as ” navel “,
which indicates a characteristic feature of the representatives of these varieties: a
mastoid rounded outgrowth on the “crown”, which is a reduced
second fruit. The larger the navel, the sweeter the pulp will be.
The trees of the Navel varieties do not have thorns, which makes them easier to collect. The fruits themselves are
distinguished by widely demanded consumer qualities: sweetness
with a slight sourness, strong citrus aroma, juiciness and a
relatively easily peeled peel. Some members of the group
– for example, the early variety Navelina– have a thin skin.
And another representative of the group – Cara Cara navel orange ,
is distinguished by the pulp of a ruby hue.
The Blood Orange group of varieties is united by the presence of
pigments in the pulp , which make it a blood red color. The pigment appeared
in the course of natural mutation and was first found in Sicily, for
which the fruits of this group were given the alternative name ” Sicilian
oranges “. The color depends not only on the variety, but also on the
growing conditions . The pulp of bloody oranges with a sweet and sour taste. The peel is
relatively poorly peeled off. Depending on the specific variety,
it can be brown, reddish or orange in color. The most
famous varieties of the group: Moor with flavors of
wild berries and raspberries,
Sanguinello, Tarocco and some others.
As for ordinary oranges, among other groups, these
fruits stand out for their attractive industrial characteristics:
they give very large yields, they are well tolerated by the road and are stored for a long time.
The most famous varieties of ordinary oranges are Verna, Hamlin,
In addition to the groups described, there are numerous orange hybrids,
from which a separate rating could be made: citrange, clementine,
tangor, agli-fruit, etc. The Thomasville hybrid looks the most bizarre,
which, in addition to the orange, was formed by kumquat
and ponzirus. In shape, it looks more like a fleshy pear.
Selection and storage
Oranges most often reach the consumer in good condition,
because producers and suppliers of citrus are financially interested
in ensuring that their products are presented as profitably as possible
on the counter. Therefore, oranges for transportation are removed a little unripe,
washed and covered with wax, which contains fungicides that suppress the
activity of fungi. The concentration of the pesticide in the wax is very low and
safe for humans, even if accidentally ingested
with food. After processing, each fruit, if it is an expensive variety, is wrapped
in non-glued paper and packaged in boxes of several hundred
The selection of oranges for sale involves the rejection of small, damaged
and scratched fruits. However, before buying, it is best to
visually inspect the integrity of the peel yourself. The fact is
that there are a lot of flies on citrus plantations, which, using
microdamage to the peel of the fruit, lay eggs in the peel of the fruit.
In this case, micro-holes with darkening
around them are visible on the surface . The
harvesting of such fruits is usually handled by the pickers , but additional control is not placed either.
Most often, fruits are attacked by insects on those plantations
where chemical treatment is used to a minimum. As a rule, this
method of cultivation is typical for “organic farming” and the cultivation of
organic products. These fruits are more expensive than those grown with
pesticide protection, but they are guaranteed to be nitrate-free. On
such plantations, a bacterial composition can also be sprayed locally,
destroying the most dangerous pests for oranges, but harmless
to humans. Often,
conditionally beneficial insects (for example, beetles that eat aphids) are used to combat conditionally harmful insects .
Despite the ongoing research, it was not possible to identify differences
in composition and usefulness parameters between the
products that reach the consumer , grown using organic farming, and the products, the
harvest of which was obtained after processing with normalized doses of
various drugs. However, demand here not only dictates supply,
but also helps some countries to support the industry and not lose
competition to cheaper suppliers of oranges to the market.
The shelf life of citrus fruits depends mainly on
their ripeness at the time of purchase, temperature and humidity.
Ripe oranges can be stored for
about a week without any special conditions . To increase the storage time up to 1.5-2 weeks, it is better to
put the fruits in the compartment of the refrigerator intended for fruits.
If we are talking about long periods of storage, then you can focus
on the following temperature-humidity ratios:
- For unripe oranges, the period can be increased to 5 months by
creating conditions for them with a temperature of 5 ° C and a humidity of about 80-85%.
- Fruits with yellowed skin are stored for up to 3 months at a temperature
of 3-4 ° C at a humidity level of 85-90%.
- Ripe fruits can be preserved for up to 2 months if the temperature is lowered
to 2 ° C and the humidity is raised to 90%.
- It is better to pack the fruits not in a plastic bag, but in napkins
(each fruit separately).