Cottage cheese, Calories, benefits and harms, Useful properties

In the folk classification, cottage cheese is “ordinary”, soft
and grainy (or cereal), fatty and fat-free, store-bought,
farm and home. Moreover, each species is credited with its own
a set of useful properties: for example, one cottage cheese is more effective
to restore calcium deficiency, and the other to lose weight.
We will understand the specific features of the product and give generalized
recommendations for its use with health benefits.

Useful properties of cottage cheese

Composition and calorie content

Water 81,01 Carbohydrates 6,66 Sugar 1,85 Protein 10,34 Fat 0,29 Calories (Kcal) 72 Potassium 137 Phosphorus 190 Calcium 86 Sodium 372 Magnesium 11 Iron 0,15 Zinc 0,47 Copper 0,03 Vitamin
B6 0,016 Vitamin
PP 0,144 Vitamin
B1 0,023 Vitamin
B2 0,226 Vitamin E 0,01

The data in this table is for a product that, in Europe,
The USA and some countries of the Middle East are called “cottage
cheese “(literal translation -” country cheese “). In our country
this product is most often called granular (or grained) curd,
in rare cases using the name “Lithuanian curd”.

The calorie content of cottage cheese is low – only
72 kcal. But it must be borne in mind that he himself is one
from varieties of low-fat cottage cheese (from 0%). While
how on the shelves of our stores and markets you can find much
a fatty product (up to 23%), which is also called cottage cheese,
but contains 3 times more calories, has a different consistency,
acidity and the ability to “give” useful minerals (for example,
calcium), if consumed as an independent dish. Noticeably
fatty and non-fatty foods differ in the content of vitamins A,
E, B12, as well as the presence of zinc, fluorine, copper, folic acid.

A plate of cottage cheese

Medicinal properties

The cottage cheese exhibits its medicinal properties due to the presence in the composition
amino acids,
among which methionine stands out, minerals (especially calcium
and phosphorus) and a number of vitamins. Thanks to them, this product improves
condition of bone and cartilaginous tissue, provides regenerative
the ability of the nervous system, increases hemoglobin in the blood, helps
in the treatment of diseases of the cardiovascular system, liver. It includes
in dietary food to improve fat metabolism and treatment
obesity.

Cottage cheese is an easily digestible product. After processing
milk protein in curd becomes even more available for enzyme
splitting than whole and fermented milk. Also for processing it
the body needs less hydrochloric acid.

For medicinal purposes, the diuretic properties of cottage cheese are also used,
thanks to which the condition of people with high blood pressure improves,
kidney problems, heart and vascular diseases.

methionine

The large amount of this essential amino acid explains
the benefits of cottage cheese for the liver. Thanks to methionine, it resolves immediately
several tasks:

  • Help dissolve fats. methionine
    prevents body fat, ensures normal production
    bile and excretion of excess cholesterol. For a healthy liver
    a product with 5% fat is better.
  • Fight free radicals. Antioxidant
    the acid effect protects cells from destruction.
  • Strengthening intestinal peristalsis. Curd
    protein creates a favorable environment for intestinal microflora and
    enhances its peristalsis, which helps with
    constipation (although this rule does not apply to fat-free
    cottage cheese, which can only aggravate the problem).

Ca lettering from calcium tablets

Calcium

One of the main beneficial properties of cottage cheese is called a high content
it contains calcium.
Depending on the type of product of this mineral, the curd contains
from 70 to 170 mg / 100 g. Calcium is necessary for normal formation
bone tissue, work of the cardiovascular system, exercise
hormonal metabolism, ensuring the transmission of nerve impulses.
Without calcium, it is impossible to assimilate other trace elements (phosphorus,
magnesium, vitamins K and D).

The reputation of cottage cheese (without dividing into types of product) in question
the calcium content has remained flawless for a long time. But in the last
years, cottage cheese has ceased to be talked about as the main source of calcium
in the diet. Firstly, the leadership in this parameter is now unambiguous
given to hard cheeses, some types of cabbage, seeds
poppy, sesame, chia (Spanish sage). Even among the closely related
products, cottage cheese has stronger competitors (whey,
milk). BUT,
secondly, no less important than the amount of the mineral is
factor of its bioavailability. In fermented milk products it is absorbed
up to 80% calcium, but not in all, since assimilation depends
from the accompanying amount of fat.

When taken with food, 1 gram of fat assimilates 10
mg of calcium. If we take into account the calcium content at the level
85-95 mg / 100 g of product, it turns out that for its assimilation you need
about 8,5-9,5 g of fat. This balance is achieved in the classic
cottage cheese with an average 9% fat content. Potentially calcium in
the same volume can be obtained from fat-free cottage cheese, but then
the fat necessary for assimilation will need to be added independently.
In this case, you have to take into account that excess fat also disrupts digestibility.
mineral.

If the percentage of calcium in 100 grams of the product is higher, then the fat content
should be higher for better assimilation. The paradox is that in low-fat
calcium cottage cheese is even slightly more than in fatty, which is why
the natural mineral and fat balance begins to be disrupted.

Vitamin D in food

The situation can be corrected by eliminating the vitamin deficiency.
D, paired with which both calcium and magnesium are well absorbed.
There are several forms of vitamin D in total, but the most cited
Is cholecalciferol (D3, which is synthesized under the influence of
ultraviolet light) and ergocalciferol (D2, which we get from food).
D2 is abundant in fish oil, portobello mushrooms (champignon varieties)
and shiitake. However, to a healthy person living in the middle lane,
usually enough D3 formed during the natural way of life
(that is, for this it is not necessary to specially increase the number of
time spent in the sun). And here is an overdose of D2 received
with food additives is dangerous and can lead to hypercalcemia
with a lot of negative consequences. Therefore fortified changes
in an already balanced 9% product should be added with a large
caution.

The total amount of calcium in the curd increases with the use of
for curdling calcium chloride. However, such
calcium is bad, and in production it is used not so much to improve
useful properties, how much to increase product yield and accelerate
protein coagulation.

Almost all the same medicinal properties as cottage cheese have
in curd whey. It consists of 93-94% water, and the remaining
6-7% include lactose,
whey proteins, a small amount of easily digestible milk
fat, thanks to which the benefits of whey are manifested. Calorie content
whey is on average 3 times lower than that of milk, therefore it is
it often becomes a staple in the diet.

If there is no lactose intolerance, whey helps in the work
Gastrointestinal tract. But given the fact that the Eastern Slavs have a percentage of intolerance
is in the range of 16-18% of the total adult population, better
pay special attention to this before using whey.

In medicine

In classical medicine for the direct treatment of curd
not used. But in some cases, doctors recommend including
in diets, cottage cheese of different types, depending on the patient’s illness.
So often a fat-free product is introduced into the diet of diabetics,
fatty product – in the diet of constipation sufferers, 5% product is recommended
to improve liver function. Let’s admit low-fat cottage cheese at
cholecystitis (in the non-acute phase) and with pancreatitis
(after consulting a doctor).

Healthy teeth

In folk medicine

The general therapeutic properties of cottage cheese are also used in folk
medicine. It is eaten to strengthen bones, cartilage and teeth, for
improving the condition in atherosclerosis,
hypertension,
problems with the gastrointestinal tract and excretory systems (assigned to relieve
edema).

But traditional healers are expanding the range of uses of cottage cheese.
With its help, cough is treated
of different nature, bronchitis
and inflammation
lungs. There is a recipe for a compress that replaces
mustard plaster. To make a compress, 200 g of cottage cheese (usually
sour) take 2 tablespoons of honey
and the mixture is heated in a water bath or in a microwave oven. Then
the composition is laid out in one layer on a fabric or folded in 2-3 layers
gauze, covered with the same cloth and fixed on the back and / or upper
parts of the breast, fixing on the body first with cling film, and then
a scarf.

In oriental medicine

Despite the fact that curd is considered a traditional product,
primarily for the countries of Eastern, Northern and Central
Europe, there are also eastern traditions of using this fermented milk
food in the treatment of patients. So, in the textbook of Tibetan medicine, cottage cheese
(there it is called “sho”) from the milk of a cow and a goat as sour cold
and a heavy product is recommended for diseases of Bile. In preventive
a diet prescribed to healthy people with imbalanced digestion
(with the 1st and 2nd degrees of gastric fire), cottage cheese is recommended
consume between 11 and 16 o’clock in the afternoon.

In the reference books of oriental medicine, there is also a recipe from
baldness with sour cottage cheese and coarse salt (grinding No. 2) in equal
proportions. The cottage cheese in this pair should soften the old coarse
epidermis, and salt – to stimulate the formation of new hair
bulbs. This mixture must be applied with a cotton swab, rubbing into the roots.
hair and cover for 40 minutes with a plastic bag-cap with
a warming scarf or towel. True, the authors warn
that the chances of hair restoration in choleric people are higher
and sanguine people, as well as people with high hemoglobin levels.

Cottage cheese and other protein-rich foods

In scientific research

In their research, scientists most often do not study the curd itself,
and its components (for example, amino acids) and their effect on
organism. But sometimes it is the curd cheese that is in the center of interest.
a protein that is compared to both a similarly distinct component
from dietary supplements, and with proteins of other food products.

The effect of curd protein on glucose regulation in comparison
with the influence of cod proteins
and soy..

Exploring the Potential Uses of Various Protein Products
in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (due to the effect of protein on the level
plasma glucose), scientists conducted a comparative experiment
with proteins of cod, soy and cottage cheese. The experiment was attended by
17 healthy adults. As a result, it was found that
eating cottage cheese along with a regular meal led to
enhanced insulin response after 4 hours and a better ratio
insulin / glucose after 2 hours, compared to cod and soy proteins
(although cod protein elicited a stronger glucose response at 1,5
hours, compared to cottage cheese and soy). It is noteworthy that through
40 minutes after eating, there was the same insulin peak when taken
of all types of protein, but the level remained the same high over
for a long time only in the case of using cottage cheese.

In the described experiment, scientists could not say for sure whether it became
is this a consequence of the fact that in response to the use of cottage cheese,
more insulin, or because the liver clears out faster
insulin produced by cod and soy proteins. Also, scientists could not
ensure that the effect obtained in the experiment with healthy
people repeat themselves in the experiment with diabetes patients. but
they accurately determined that the difference between the effect on the body of the studied
proteins exist that these proteins can act in different ways
(stimulate the production of insulin or directly regulate the level
glucose) and that the topic should be considered in the context of
promising therapeutic programs for the treatment of diabetes 2nd
type

Comparison of the effect on the metabolism of dietary supplements protein as a separate
component with curd protein in the product..

This study compared the effects of protein supplementation and protein
as part of cottage cheese, since sometimes the effect of the whole product
differs from the impact of its individual component. The experience was carried out
with granular cottage cheese. Active young girls (on average about
20 years) consumed from 30 to 60 g of granular cottage cheese for 30-60
minutes before bedtime – 2 hours after the last meal. Total
the experiment involved 10 girls who came
to the laboratory by 18:00 and stayed there until the morning.

In the morning, from 5 to 8 in the morning, 2 parameters were measured in the participants of the experiment:
RER (Respiratory Exchange Ratio) – respiratory exchange rate
(ratio of O2 consumed to CO2 production) and REE (Resting Energy
Expenditure) – energy consumption at rest. Scientists noted
improved metabolism and positive effects on muscle health
all girls, however, the difference between protein supplement and cottage cheese
not found. The participants also expressed their subjective opinion about
increase / decrease in morning appetite after different proteins. Here
no difference was found either.

Cottage cheese with strawberries

For losing weight

Slimming cottage cheese is used in almost all programs,
allowing you to lose weight. The calorie content of cottage cheese depends
from its fat content, and can be roughly described by the following table:

  • Low fat – 70 kcal / 100 g.
  • Low-fat – 85-90 kcal / 100 g.
  • Classic – an average of 150 kcal / 100 g.
  • Fatty – more than 220 kcal / 100 g.

The data are approximate, since the definition of “classic
cottage cheese “products fall in the range from 4 to 18%. But it’s clear
that the nutritional value is lower, the lower the percentage of fat
indicated on the package.

In extreme cases, losing weight people switch to fat-free
cottage cheese with 0-1,8% fat, but this approach is out of fashion
due to the dietary imbalance of this product. To effectively
to lose weight, it is enough to choose a curd diet based on 5-9%
cottage cheese, but do not abuse the amount (frequency of meals, volume
portions, sweet and high-calorie dressings).

In the classic form, with a curd diet, half a kilogram is eaten per day
product. This volume is divided into 5 meals including
a small amount of banana,
flax seed
or honey. The cottage cheese is washed down with a glass of low-fat kefir
in the morning and a glass in the evening. By the way, in addition to reducing energy
values, such a diet also helps to dry out thanks to diuretic
properties of cottage cheese.

A curd diet (more precisely, a mono diet) is not suitable for everyone,
because it’s hard to stick to one product for a week.
It has a different effect for different people, but usually we are talking about discarded
1,5-2,5 kg in 7 days with an uneven decrease in volume in the area
waist, hips and chest.

One of the popular dietitian advice says that protein foods
saturates better if it has a solid (not liquid) form. And although
not every dietary advice works equally well, this advice
some volunteers tested it on themselves, recognizing its effectiveness.
So, in the above reports, after drinking yogurt for breakfast
had to return to the table after half an hour, and after eaten
cottage cheese could wait relatively calmly for dinner.

Some nutritionists pay attention to what should not be
losing weight eat cottage cheese at night. This is explained by the fact that with a small
glycemic index (30) insulin index of cottage cheese is much
higher (120) – that is, the pancreas reacts to curd
the release of insulin, which blocks the work of lipase as a key fat burning
enzyme and “slimness hormone” somatotropin responsible for
combustion of fat. And since the peak in the production of this hormone occurs
at night, evening curd begins to interfere with his work.

Cottage cheese dumplings

In cooking

In cooking, cottage cheese is eaten raw, fried, baked, boiled
types. At the same time, for preparing a dish, cottage cheese is usually preliminary
grind (rub) – pass through a sieve with a spoon
or “crush”. In modern equipped kitchens for this
use blenders. When grated, cottage cheese turns out to be more
delicate, airy and uniform.

In the list of the most famous curd dishes:

  • curd cakes (curds) – they are most often fried in vegetable oil
    or baked in the oven, less often – steamed,
  • Paski (Easter) – An Easter dish that can be made as
    from boiled and raw cottage cheese,
  • casseroles,
  • Vareniks,
  • cheesecakes.

Since cottage cheese goes well with dried fruits
(raisins, dried apricots, prunes), berries and fresh fruits (strawberries,
raspberries,
an Apple,
pear), nuts,
then and curd dishes often include the same additives. Besides
Moreover, cheesecakes are often made with the addition of herbs (dill,
feathers of green onions) and vegetables (carrots,
potatoes).

Curd dishes are traditionally served with honey, sour cream,
condensed milk. But there are also unexpected combinations. So,
for example, the 37th President of the United States, Richard Nixon, according to the testimony
biographers, he loved to eat cottage cheese with ketchup. Now in our country
the combination of cottage cheese with flaxseed is rapidly gaining popularity
oil.

Cottage cheese with berries and linseed oil

The pair “low-fat cottage cheese + linseed oil” became famous thanks to
the works of the German nutritionist and pharmacologist Johanna Budwig, who
back in the middle of the .th century, she presented a healing “nutrition protocol”,
designed to change the ratio of fatty acids (reduce the excess
saturated and make up for the lack of polyunsaturated) in the body
person. A hearty morning breakfast based on low-fat cottage cheese,
seasoned with linseed oil with the addition of honey, fruits, nuts,
flaxseed, with a parallel rejection of a number of other products
considered by a nutritionist as a way to treat many diseases,
including cancer. However, the scientific community of Johanna’s ideas
Budwig did not support.

The answer to the question “when is it better to eat cottage cheese – for breakfast, lunch
or dinner? “, depends on the purpose of using cottage cheese. As already stated
above, it is believed that for weight loss it is better to give up eating
cottage cheese at night due to blockage of the fat-burning enzyme
and the “slimness hormone”. If the goal is better calcium absorption, then
it is more advisable to eat cottage cheese before bedtime. This is explained by the activation
work of the parathyroid glands at night and the accelerated release of mineral
salts at this time.

In addition, there is a lot of tryptophan in cottage cheese.
18% cottage cheese contains approximately 210-215 mg / 100g, which is
about 85% of the daily requirement, and in non-fatty – about 180 mg / 100
d. This amino acid causes drowsiness and, accordingly, helps
get rid of insomnia.

Sometimes, to prevent calcium leaching out, nutritionists do not
recommend drinking cottage cheese with drinks high in caffeine
(Tea coffee). The relationship between caffeine and the rate of excretion
there really is calcium, but the amount of calcium that
the body loses after a cup of coffee, it is easily compensated by one or two
spoons of cottage cheese. Therefore, it is not necessary to limit yourself too strictly.

Natural face mask made from cottage cheese and honey

In cosmetology

The composition of the cottage cheese makes it possible to solve several
cosmetological tasks:

  • vitamin A helps relieve inflammation,
  • vitamin B2 stimulates the metabolism in the skin,
  • vitamin PP protects against the effects of solar radiation,
  • calcium and magnesium make the skin smooth, firm and elastic.

In cosmetology, cottage cheese is usually used in the form of masks, the basis
for which they are selected based on the oil and skin parameter, and
product: for the care of oily skin, use fat-free cottage cheese,
for dry care – oily. Cottage cheese with 5-18% is suitable for combined
and normal skin type. As in any other case, before applying
the composition should be checked for the possibility of an allergic
reaction.

Here are some examples of popular masks that are enough to apply.
once a week:

  • Nourishing mask. Cottage cheese (1 tbsp. L.) And in
    equal proportions of honey and lemon
    juice (1 tsp each) are mixed and applied for 15-20 minutes
    on cleansed skin of the face, excluding the areas of the eyes and lips.
  • Rejuvenating mask. Cottage cheese (1 tablespoon) is mixed
    with honey (2 tsp), banana, strawberry and pumpkin pulp
    (all ingredients are 1 teaspoon each) and applied to the face for 15-20
    minutes. The composition is washed off with warm water.
  • Mask for dry skin. Curd 9-18% (2 tbsp.
    l.) is mixed with warm milk (2 tbsp. l.), banana and persimmon
    (half of each fruit). Like the previous masks, this one is applied
    for 15-20 minutes on clean skin.

Dangerous properties of cottage cheese and contraindications

Any cottage cheese is a rather sour product, therefore, with gastritis
with high acidity and gastrointestinal ulcers, it is either completely excluded
from the diet, or consumed after heat treatment and in desalinated
form. In acute phases of colitis,
pancreatitis
cottage cheese is also usually excluded from the diet for several days, returning
after 3-5 days and on the recommendation of a doctor.

Overeating cottage cheese can provoke an exacerbation of diseases
kidney (due to the abundance of protein components) or increase the level
cholesterol (with abuse of a fatty product). Excluded
fatty cottage cheese for obesity.

Expired cottage cheese is also a potential hazard.
or a product manufactured in violation of sanitary standards. In the nutritious
in a curd environment, pathogenic bacteria easily multiply (for example,
salmonella).
Moreover, in cottage cheese with a lower presence of lactic acid bacteria,
in the absence of natural “competition for resources”, E. coli
can settle even more easily and reproduce faster.

We have collected the most important points about the benefits and possible dangers of cottage cheese.
in this illustration and we will be very grateful if you share
a picture on social networks, with a link to our page:

Useful properties of cottage cheese

Selection and storage

When choosing loose cottage cheese, first of all, you should pay
attention to color, smell and structure. The product must be white,
although a slight creamy shade is allowed, evenly coloring
all curd mass. No extraneous odors (except fermented milk)
should not be.

Experts advise to give preference to a homogeneous product
either crumbly or pasty consistency. In the latter case
the mass should be tender and soft. The harder the product, the higher
the likelihood that it was made from a “milk construct” that
sometimes also called recombined milk. The composition of such a “construct”
includes fat-free dry milk base, whey, cream, milk
fats. In addition, the hardness of the curd and the presence in the mass of grains and
hard grains indirectly indicates the use in production
calcium chloride. Application of high temperatures for protein coagulation
allows to increase the shelf life, but makes the product dense and “rubbery”.

Cottage cheese with herbs and radish

In any case, when buying loose cottage cheese “from hand”, you should
take into account the risks associated with the ingestion of pathogenic
microorganisms that could settle there as in the manufacturing process,
and during the period of improper pre-sale storage. However, this
does not mean that the store-bought prepackaged and sealed cottage cheese is completely
insured against the danger of being spoiled. It is useful for the consumer to draw
attention to the temperature in the refrigerator (it should not be higher
6 C) and packaging. In polyethylene, polymer packaging and laminated
in foil, cottage cheese can be stored for no more than a week, and in parchment –
no more than 3 days.

The information on the packaging can tell the buyer a lot.

  1. 1 The best cottage cheese is the one that contains only milk,
    starter culture and rennet. Calcium chloride is also acceptable, although
    with its use, homogeneity can be disturbed.
  2. 2 Stabilizers, preservatives (most often it is E201-203),
    flavors, flavor enhancers, starch,
    palm or lanolin oils indicate that the package contains
    there is a curd product created “based on” high-quality
    sample.
  3. 3 Mentioned next to milk, leaven and vegetable enzymes
    fat may indicate an attempt by the manufacturer to reduce acidity.
  4. 4 Quite rarely, in the list of components, you can find only
    milk and sourdough (no mention of enzymes). This indicates,
    that protein folding was carried out by heating (“cooking”).
    Such cottage cheese is poorly suited for casseroles and cheesecakes, since
    with repeated heat treatment, the cottage cheese is overdried. For
    casseroles are better to buy acid rennet cheese.

Cottage cheese in a plate

Since cottage cheese is sometimes bought not just for a change in the diet,
but for a specific purpose, we will repeat a few rules:

  • If you buy cottage cheese for the sake of calcium, then in the average version it is better
    in total, take a grained species with a 9% fat content (based on the content
    calcium within 90 mg / 100 g). On the packaging, most likely, not
    it will indicate how much calcium is contained in this product,
    but you can try to find out about this on the manufacturer’s website.
  • Lovers of not very sour cottage cheese should choose a more fatty one.
    the type or use of a “cooked” product in which, when heated
    killed lactic acid bacteria. Can also be used at home
    preparation of kefir starter culture that reduces acidity or choose
    manufacturers who have worked out the technology for the production of grain
    cottage cheese with low acidity.

Store any cottage cheese in the refrigerator in a glass or enamel
sealed dishes at a temperature not higher than 6 ° C and until the expiration date,
indicated on the package. All other things being equal, granular cottage cheese is capable of
stored longer than soft, but still it belongs to readily perishable
products. Its shelf life in a sealed form usually does not exceed
7 days. Fresh “today’s” homemade cottage cheese, hand spread
in packages, you can keep in the refrigerator for up to three days. But, with
special need, it can be frozen in the freezer for about
for a month.

In the past, cottage cheese was “canned” for future use in order to preserve it for a long time.
excess milk. For this, the “boiled” cottage cheese was sent again after pressing.
into the oven and spin, bringing it to complete dryness. Then this mass
poured into a disinfected clay pot and filled with melted
oil. In a cold cellar, the stock could lie for several months.

Grain curd

How to cook cottage cheese at home

In home practice, there are quick (with the addition of lemon),
medium (heated) and slow (using enzymes)
methods of making cottage cheese. We describe here the heating method,
in which in a day and a half you can get an excellent result.

A saucepan mixes 5 liters of 3% milk and 350-370
ml of 3% kefir for starter culture. This “blank” is left
for a day at room temperature. In a day, a part (also approximately
300-350 ml) of the resulting fermented product can be set aside to
next time for cooking, use not kefir, but your own
sourdough. The saucepan with the rest of the fermented milk is placed on
the smallest fire, where it is kept for about 20 minutes until the moment
folding of proteins (curdling).

It is important not to let the mixture boil during heating, so it is better
monitor the state of the preparing cottage cheese, stirring it regularly.
The moment the curd curd rises to the surface
pots, and the whey is separated and lowered down, the fire can be
turn off.

In this form (right in the pan), the product is aged until full
cooling, after which the curd is thrown onto a sieve, or collected
into cheesecloth. Since this curd mass is still saturated with whey,
it is necessary to allow the excess whey to drain. For this curd
the lump is suspended directly in the gauze (usually over the same pan)
and aged until tender.

Interesting Facts

Despite the fact that cottage cheese was popular back in the days
Ancient Rome, where it was fermented with a clot of “milk” extracted
from the stomach of lambs or calves, worldwide recognition, oddly enough,
not received. Today, cottage cheese is rapidly gaining popularity in
USA, famous in Japan, but still almost impossible to buy in
China, and in southern Europe, it is being replaced by a more traditional
region soft cheese. Unlike the East Slavic tradition, in
Anglo-Saxon culture, curd is generally often described as a variety
young cheese. Although the connection between cottage cheese and cheese is fixed in some
Slavic languages. So, for example, in the Ukrainian language the word “cheese”
(Ukrainian “sir”) is also called cottage cheese and all hard cheeses.

In some early Christian church canons, there were restrictions
for the summer use of cottage cheese for food. But the buttons that turned out
from the product pressed for the winter and hardened, no one interfered
do.

Cottage cheese and other types of cheese

And one more curious fact about cottage cheese: in a favorite in our country
the film “The Diamond Arm” in the scene where Gesha (A. Mironov) meets
with the Gorbunkov family (Yu. Nikulin), the son of the protagonist shoots in the story
in the face of a family friend with ice cream. But in fact, they used
not ice cream, but a mixture of cottage cheese and milk, which adhered better
to the face and slid more slowly down the cheek.

Types of cottage cheese: general and distinctive characteristics

Any cottage cheese is a non-liquid product that is obtained by fermentation
milk. Cultures of lactic acid bacteria are responsible for this. During
the cooking process is sometimes used (and sometimes not) rennet
enzyme and calcium chloride, and finally, part of the whey is removed.
But since both the raw materials and the characteristics of the production of cottage cheese are different,
the final product will also have a different structure, consistency,
acidity and fat content.

The generally accepted and official division of cottage cheese occurs according to the parameter
fat content. Physicochemical indicators make it possible to distinguish 4 main
product groups:

  • Low fat (dietary) – 0%. Low percentage of fat in it
    is still preserved, but it is usually less than one.
  • Low-fat -1,8%.
  • Medium fat (classic) – 4-18%.
  • Bold – 19-23%.

At the same time, the folk tradition introduces numerous additional
gradations, among which one of the most common is division
cottage cheese for store and home.

Cooking cottage cheese in production

Comparison of homemade and store cottage cheese

It is customary among the people to contrast home and store cottage cheese,
Moreover, in this competitive struggle, for some reason, the advantage is immediately given to
home cooking method, as more correct and healthy.
But is it? Let’s compare homemade and factory cottage cheese, considering in
outline the process of their production.

Standardization

In production, all processes are standardized, and the used
raw materials are checked for compliance with the requirements. The result is
the same product with predictable taste, physical and chemical
properties.

At home, it is difficult to achieve the same high stability.
The home product will change as the skill of the “author” grows,
even if the “author” is very attentive to the cooking procedure
and does not make mistakes or negligence.

Milk

Factory cottage cheese is made exclusively from pasteurized milk,
which is due to the requirements of GOST. With such a gentle method of temperature
the impact is destroyed by non-spore-bearing vegetative bacteria. BUT
in order to get a product with the planned fat content at the exit,
the initial raw material is also usually taken as normalized in terms of fat content.
Moreover, in any case, a mixture of milk is used in production.
the whole herd of cows (or collected from cows of various farm
farms).

In urban home conditions for making cottage cheese, too, sometimes
pasteurized milk is used. But more often it is taken as a raw material
fresh whole milk from one cow, which is not pasteurized and almost
always subject to uncontrolled bacterial action in
during milking and transfusion. This does not necessarily “worsen” the curd (lactic acid
bacteria are essential for fermenting milk), but the risks of infection
pathogenic microbes increase.

Cottage cheese with whey and other milk

yeast

At production in pasteurized milk, as in refined nutritional
medium, cultures of bacteria are introduced that need
proteins, fats, sugars (lactose). The result of eating lactose bacteria
becomes lactic acid, thanks to which the fresh product and
turns into fermented milk. Therefore, the purity of the bacterial
culture significantly affects the taste of the resulting curd.
Often, technologists use combinations of 3-4 strains of different
bacteria in experimentally verified ratios.

In homemade cottage cheese, fermentation occurs as thanks to those bacteria
who already hold back in milk, and those “accidental” who
enter the milk from the outside. Sourdough can be kvass, kefir, sour cream
etc. But it is difficult to talk about the purity of the bacterial colony here, since
even in store-bought pasteurized milk after a certain period
storage, various microorganisms begin to multiply uncontrollably.
As a result, the taste of ripe homemade cottage cheese will be more likely
all, at least a little, but different.

Clotting (coagulation) of milk proteins

To obtain a curd curd in a fermented raw material, the protein must
curl up. This is achieved by heating (acidic method) or fermentation
(acid-rennet method). Chloride is often added to the raw material
calcium, which accelerates clotting and separation from serum,
and also gives a greater product yield.

In production, curling is carried out in different ways, indicating
the choice of technology on the packaging. So, if the label says that
contains only milk and sourdough (no mention of enzymes),
then this means that the product was simply heated (“boiled” with an acidic
way).

It is believed that since heating causes the death of dairy
bacteria, there is less potential benefit from such cottage cheese. therefore
information on the introduction of rennet (or pepsin) to obtain
curd curd is taken out for packaging, rather, as an advantage
product. In this case, it is necessary to monitor the presence of a mixture of vegetable
fat, with the help of which manufacturers sometimes reduce excess
acidity of the product.

In home production, the choice of technology primarily depends on
from family and regional traditions. Classical Slavic
to the recipe, the curd curd was obtained from yogurt – it was either left
in a cooling furnace, or heated to 85-90 C. That is, used
the method, which has received the name “acidic” in our time. Southern tradition,
on the contrary, it implied widespread fermentation. For example, on
For processing with rennet in the Caucasus, milk was poured into washed
goat’s (sheep’s) stomach and exposed to the sun. People were left
only from time to time to tap on the wineskin with a stick – the rest
made bacteria and stomach rennet.

Serum separation

In production, part of the whey is separated from the curd mass or
on special machines using centrifugal forces during rotation,
either on perforated molds or by self-pressing.
At home, they use different methods of filtration and spinning,
which sometimes leads to “dehydration” and drying out of the curd. Excess
discharge of serum can also be a sign of a violation of temperature
storage conditions.

Close up of curd

Structure and consistency: the differences between “regular”, grained,
soft cottage cheese

The principal factor affecting the consistency of cottage cheese is
method of coagulation of milk proteins. At the same humidity (equal to
mass fraction of moisture) with a softer, pasty product at the exit
there will be cottage cheese cooked with enzymes. After this
cooking, a stronger curd is obtained, which, if necessary,
easier to smear because the effective viscosity of such a product
twice the viscosity of acidic curd.

When the proteins are curdled by heating, the curd will be more
crumbly and dryish. Structurally, it can already be correlated with grain
(grain) cottage cheese. But in modern factories in the manufacture
branded grain cottage cheese (“cottage cheese”) pepsin or rennet
the powder is usually added after all. And besides, there are
additional technological tricks that allow you to cook for
“Cottage cheese” delicate curd grain:

  • compliance with the required concentration of dry substances in fat-free
    milk (sometimes protein is added to the composition to adjust),
  • selection of starter culture and ratio of strains (including such strains
    bacteria that do not emit large amounts of carbon dioxide),
  • specific processing of the curd (to maintain the balance of acidity).

Hardly the biggest confusion arises when people say
about “ordinary” cottage cheese. Here the word “ordinary” usually becomes
synonymous with the word “familiar” (for the speaker). And so in one
cottage cheese can be considered “common” in a context, but in another
context – soft, pasty. As a result, in two similar questions
– “How does ordinary cottage cheese differ from granular?” and “Than soft curd
different from the usual? ” – “usual” will be called completely different
the consistency and structure of the product.

Sometimes “ordinary” is also called cottage cheese prepared by traditional
acidic or acid-rennet method as opposed to separate
production method. This method is called “separate” because
that from milk by separation, firstly, skim raw materials are obtained and 50 percent
cream. Then, milk is prepared using enzymatic coagulation of proteins
skim cheese. And then it is mixed with cream.

Sour and unleavened cottage cheese

Homemade cottage cheese head

The acidity of the curd is closely related to the vital activity of bacteria.
If the product was not heat-treated during manufacture,
it means that the bacteria were not destroyed by heating, therefore the acid-rennet
cottage cheese will turn out, all other things being equal, more acidic than acidic
(heated). In addition, its acidity will increase as
reproduction and activation of the vital activity of lactic acid bacteria,
which always happens during storage.

However, it must be borne in mind that the activity of bacteria in the product inhibits
milk fats, becoming a so-called stop factor for microorganisms.
Therefore, the fatter the cottage cheese, the less sour (more “bland”) it
it turns out and vice versa – fat-free cottage cheese will turn out to be the most sour,
if its taste is not artificially “corrected”. Acidity dependence
from the fat content of the curd can be expressed in the table, where the acidity is indicated
in Turner’s degrees (оТ):

  • Up to 240 ° C – fat-free cottage cheese (0%).
  • 170-230 OT – medium-fat cottage cheese (5-9%).
  • Less than 200 OT – fatty cottage cheese (19-23%).

But cottage cheese is, in any case, a rather sour product. In that
can be seen by comparing its performance with that of other fermented milk
products where sour cream
and fermented baked milk usually fit into the range of 65-90 ° T, kefir – 80-120
from. However, since not everyone likes the sour taste, at home
conditions, raw materials are fermented with kefir, which, as a result, makes
the product is more bland.

Video

See also properties of other dairy products:

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Anna Evans

Author ✓ Farmer

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