Lemon, Calories, benefits and harms, Benefits

Although lemon is popularly considered the record holder for the amount of vitamin
C, in fact, according to the content of ascorbic acid, it is not excreted
among other citrus fruits and even lags behind some of its “brethren”.
But that doesn’t make it a worthless product.

Traditional medicine includes
lemon in recipes for drugs from “a thousand diseases”: from seborrhea and arthritis,
to constipation and tuberculosis. And scientific research is aimed at using
lemon potential in therapy to restore liver function,
lowering “bad” cholesterol and blood pressure.

Useful properties of lemon

Composition and calorie content

Fresh lemon contains (in 100 g): .

Calories 29 Kcal

Lemon fruit pulp contains lemon
and ascorbic acids, sugars, vitamins A, B1 and B2, flavonoids,
coumarin derivatives, sesquiterpenes, pectins, potassium and copper salts.
Lemon peel contains essential oil and flavonoids. To the main
the constituents of the essential oil are terpene limonene and aldehyde

Lemons contain 7,1% carbohydrates in the form of sugars.
The latter are dominated by fructose
and glucose,
which are easy to digest. The amount of pectins in the peel is
16% dry matter, and in the pulp – 11%. Prevailing among fruit
acid is citric. Acidity of fruits harvested at the end
autumn increases to 8%, the acidity of fruits plucked in spring
(April) – ranges from 4% to 5%. Essential oils contained
in the peel, have a powerful bactericidal effect. High content
mineral salts (especially potassium) in lemons. Vitamin
C is found in lemon fruits in a stable form, i.e. citric
juice that is heated for 5 minutes to boiling point,
practically does not lose the initial amount of vitamin C (therefore
the benefits of lemon in combination, even with very hot tea, do not diminish).

Tea with lemon

In medicine

The increased content of vitamins in fruits determines therapeutic
properties of lemon. Lemons (in natural form, with tea, in the form of juice,
diluted with water) is prescribed for a lack of vitamins A and B,
fever, disorders of mineral metabolism, kidney stones,
and rheumatism.
Outwardly, lemon juice diluted with water is used for rinsing
with inflammatory processes in the oral cavity and pharynx. With nausea
and vomiting accompanying toxicosis
pregnant women, freshly cut lemon is applied to the cavity between
mammary glands, using it as a sedative. When
comedones rub their face with a slice of fresh lemon (before this they do
steam bath for the face). Lemon essential oil is used
to improve the taste and smell of many medicines.[3,8]

In folk medicine

  • With seborrhea
    apply a face mask: whisk one egg white with a tea
    spoon of lemon juice and apply evenly on the skin. Wash away
    warm water after half an hour. The frequency of use of such a tool
    – once or twice a week.
  • With hypoacid gastritis
    (which is characterized by low acidity) the recipe is useful:
    250 g of curdled milk is mixed with one grated lemon
    and egg yolk. Take 3 tablespoons three times a day
    before eating. The course of treatment is no more than 5 days.
  • For constipation
    combine the juice of one lemon with 400 ml of water and add honey
    taste. Drink the drug daily on an empty stomach, about an hour before the first
    food intake.
  • To improve intestinal motility and eliminate constipation also
    decoction is advised: boil 300 g of figs in 4 liters of water until the amount
    water will not decrease to 3 liters. Add slightly to the boiled composition
    boiled and mashed zest of one lemon. Take the composition in
    an amount of about 200 ml several times a day, with a break
    in 3-4 hours.
  • In case of exacerbation of gallstone disease, a “cocktail” helps: juice
    dilute one lemon with 200 ml of water and add half a tea
    tablespoons of soda. Drink everything in one go after meals.
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Lemon Zest

  • With cholecystitis
    recommend the next course of treatment. Melt 0,3 kg of honey on
    water bath and mix with two crushed lemons, of which
    previously removed the “bones”. Leave the mixture in a dark place
    for 3 days. Take the composition on an empty stomach for 10 days, 3 each
    tablespoons, diluting them in a glass of cold water.
  • For gout, chop 3 large, seeded lemons
    in a meat grinder and mix with finely chopped garlic (2 small heads)
    and pour all 1,5 liters of boiling water. Boil the mixture for about 10 minutes and then
    insist for 3 days. Strain and take in the dining room
    spoon twice a day, after meals. The course of treatment is from one
    up to two months.
  • For hypertension, the composition is used: half a lemon and an orange
    (together with the peel and seeds) mince with a meat grinder
    and mixed with a teaspoon of granulated sugar. Keep refrigerated
    and take 0,5 teaspoon four times a day after ingestion
  • Arthritis
    prescribe a course of treatment for a month: shells from 7
    peel the cooked eggs from the films and boil for 5 minutes,
    then crush. Combine eggshells with 7 lemons juice
    and withstand the infusion for a week. Strain and add to
    a mixture of 400 mg of honey and chopped garlic (5 heads). Structure
    insist in a dark place for 7 days. Accept times
    per day, in the middle of the day, after meals, dividing one meal at 4
    teaspoons in 4 stages, each with a break of 10 minutes.
  • With tuberculosis
    a proven folk remedy helps: put in a glass jar
    4 whole raw eggs and pour over the juice of one large lemon.
    The jar is closed, wrapped in paper and kept for a week until
    the eggshell will not completely dissolve. Then egg and lemon
    the mixture is poured with vodka (the jar is filled to the top). Take infusion
    within a month, a tablespoon three times at knocks after each
    food intake.
  • With bronchitis
    the following recipe is used as an expectorant: 4 lemons
    bake in the oven at medium temperature until softened,
    let cool. Mash the lemons with a spoon, squeeze the juice and mix the juice
    with pulp with 400 ml of boiling water, 3 tablespoons of red wine
    and 4 tablespoons of honey. Composition to drink at one time.
  • Useful for hoarseness, debilitating cough, and loss of voice
    decoction: juice from 0,5 kg of carrots
    mix with a tablespoon of sugar and the zest of one lemon, bring
    until boiling and cook over low heat for an hour, boiling,
    until the volume is halved. Take 0,5 dining room
    spoons every 2 hours throughout the day.
  • Angina
    are treated with a drink: 250 ml of hot milk is mixed with the juice of one
    lemon and 2 tablespoons of honey. Drink hot, small
  • A general tonic based on lemons, especially useful
    after suffering a debilitating flu:
    Grate 10 large lemons with the zest on a coarse grater,
    lightly knead the grated lemon mixture with a spoon, add 5 cups
    liquid honey and 10 small heads of minced garlic.
    Mix all the ingredients, leave in a warm place for
    7 days. Take 4 teaspoons daily.
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lemon oil


  • For sweating hands, use the following composition: glycerin, lemon juice and
    vodka is mixed in a ratio of 0,5: 0,25: 0,25. This mixture is abundant
    grease hands after each wash. Lemon juice is also recommended
    wipe your feet with increased sweating.
  • Brittle nails are strengthened by systematic rubbing using
    lemon slice.
  • Rough skin on the heels is treated with compresses from the rind of the squeezed
  • Calluses on the feet (pre-steamed in hot water)
    apply the top of a lemon, cut with a small amount
    pulp. The lemon top is pressed tightly against the corn, fixed
    with a bandage and leave overnight.[2,8]

In oriental medicine

Avicenna used freshly squeezed lemon juice in the treatment of patients
with heart disease. Also, the healer practiced the use of
lemon for jaundice,
toxicosis in pregnant women.

Ancient Chinese medicine used lemons to heal wounds,
with inflammation
lungs and scurvy.

In the countries of Asia Minor and the Middle East, lemon was indispensable
an ingredient in many dishes: this is how they prevented

In scientific research

The medicinal properties of lemon were described in his scientific works by the Armenian
scientist, naturalist and physician Amirdovlat Amasiatsi (15th century).

At the beginning of the 20th century, two large studies on treatment simultaneously
lemon juice were published by L. Gdansky and K. Drexler.
The books were published in 1910 in Pskov and St. Petersburg, respectively.

Interest in medical potential remains in modern science
famous citrus. Effects of daily consumption of lemons
(in the direction of improving indicators) on blood pressure is illuminated
in the work of Japanese researchers Y. Kato, T. Domoto, M. Hiramitsu
and etc.

European Nutrition Gazette published research results
Dutch scientists on the chemical composition of the peel of lemons and the use of
it in means of cholesterol lowering (2002).

Indian researchers have proposed data on the substance hesperidin
(extracted from lemons), restoring liver function (2005

Lemon ginger tea

In dietetics

How to use lemon for weight loss? Nutritionists
offer a lot of recipes aimed at cleansing the body
from toxins and toxins, accelerating metabolism: systematic use
water with lemon juice, honey-lemon diet, aromatic effect
essential lemon oil (according to Alan Hirsch’s system). Back in the 19th
century Johann Schroth proposed a scheme for detoxification of the body
lemons (using fresh lemon juice).

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In cooking

The pronounced taste and aroma of lemons are appreciated by chefs and gourmets.
Lemon zest is added to baked goods, puddings, pastry cream;
make marmalade, jam, ice cream, candied fruits from lemons. Citric
juice is used as a marinade in the preparation of meat and fish; add
juice in dressings for vegetable and fruit salads. Lemon based
prepare sauces, salted lemons are one of the traditional national
dishes of Moroccan cuisine. Fresh sliced ​​lemon served as
appetizer for a number of alcoholic drinks..

In cosmetology

For the preparation of lemon-based cosmetics, use
rind, zest, lemon pulp, lemon juice, or lemon essential oil.

Lemon for face

  • Skin prone to comedones can be helped by rubbing with lemon
    juice. First, you need to steam your face over a steam bath.
  • For oily skin with enlarged pores, rubbing with the following composition is useful:
    combine whipped egg white, 100 ml of vodka and the juice of one lemon.
  • Mask for oily skin prone to acne: 2 tablespoons
    tablespoons of white clay (powder) diluted in 2 tablespoons of alcohol, add
    15 drops of lemon juice. Withstand the mask on the face for a quarter of an hour
    and rinse with cold water.
  • For normal or sensitive skin, prepare a homemade lotion:
    the juice of half a lemon is mixed with a teaspoon of glycerin and a quarter
    glasses of water.
  • Freckle whitening mask for dry skin: mix in equal
    proportions of lemon juice, cream and hydrogen peroxide (5%). To apply
    on the face with a cotton swab and rinse off with warm water after half an hour.
  • Nourishing milk for dry skin: mix 200 ml fresh cream,
    1 beaten egg, 100 ml vodka, juice of one lemon and a teaspoon
    glycerin. Rub everything thoroughly and wipe the face with the composition and
    décolleté area before going to bed.

Lemon and other natural ingredients in cosmetology

  • Nourishing mask for dry skin: from dried lemon peel
    prepare flour by grinding the zest in a coffee grinder. Mix in a tea room
    spoon of such lemon flour, egg yolk and sour cream. Withstand the mask
    20 minutes, applying to face and neck.
  • Mask “Madame Pompadour” for dry skin: rub one lemon on
    plastic grater, pour in 100 ml of alcohol, let stand, then
    strain and combine with a glass of sour cream or cream, one whipped
    egg white and a teaspoon of glycerin. Apply to face by a quarter
    hours, and then gently remove the remnants of the mask with a cotton
  • Toner for all skin types: mix 2 tablespoons of boiled
    water, a teaspoon of honey and the juice of half a lemon. Wipe your face
    before bedtime.
  • Toning face mask: a tablespoon of oatmeal or wheat
    mix flour with a small amount of milk (bring to a mushy
    state) and add the juice of half a lemon. Apply the mixture to the skin
    face and neck and wash off after half an hour with warm water.

Lemon for hair

  • For oily skin and increased greasy hair, it is useful to rub
    before washing into the scalp, a composition of 2 parts lemon and one
    parts of carrot juice. Wrap your head with a towel, withstand the composition
    on hair for at least an hour. Rinse hair after washing with water
    with lemon juice (a tablespoon of juice per 1,5 liters of water).
  • For dandruff, rinse hair after washing with a prepared broth:
    Boil the peel of 4 lemons for a quarter of an hour in a liter of water.
  • Mask for dry and split ends: mix egg yolk with a little
    amount of warm water, add a tablespoon of lemon
    juice and vegetable oil..
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Combination with other products

The sourness of lemon favorably sets off the taste of vegetable and fruit salads,
in which lemon juice is used as a dressing. Okay
combines lemon with fish and seafood: mussels,


Lemon juice is used to make lemonade, alcoholic
and non-alcoholic cocktails, liqueurs, the traditional limoncello drink.
Jelly is made from the zest and juice of lemon, lemon juice is great in drinks
works in tandem with honey, cinnamon, mint,
sweet fruit juices.


How to make lemonade at home? Lemons
peel and seed and squeeze 600 ml of juice. 300 g sugar
Pour powder into lemon juice and stir thoroughly until complete
dissolution. Fill the glasses with crushed ice three quarters
pour over sweet lemon juice and garnish with fresh mint leaves.

Other uses

  • Lemon is a natural stain remover. A mixture of lemon juice and
    salts are rubbed and washed before the main wash stains on white
    linen (after allowing the composition to dry). Lemon slice, generously
    flavored with salt perfectly cleanses copper and gives it a shine. Lemon
    juice cleanses hands from dirt and stains left after work
    on the kitchen.
  • From lemons, pieces of copper wire and galvanized nails
    you can collect a lemon battery, the “power” of which is quite enough
    for standard hours. The principle of operation of such a battery
    consists of a chemical reaction resulting from contact
    the acid found in lemon juice, copper and zinc.
  • You can quickly and easily clean the microwave with lemon.
    bake. The zest of one lemon is poured with 500 ml of water and left in the microwave
    for 2 minutes, turning it on at full power. After that, it remains
    just wipe the inside of the microwave thoroughly with a damp sponge:
    lemon essential oil “dissolves” even the most outdated
  • Get rid of yellowness on the teeth caused by prolonged
    smoking, you can using lemon juice. On a wet toothbrush
    apply a small amount of baking soda and 3 drops of lemon
    juice and massage your teeth with this compound.
  • The following method will serve as a good protection against mosquito bites:
    open areas of the body should be rubbed with lemon juice. This will reduce
    irritation from bites and prevent the appearance of new ones.
  • Lemon essential oil is an effective remedy in aromatherapy,
    characterized by tonic, antiseptic and other properties..

Dangerous properties of lemon and contraindications

Given the significant amount of citric acid contained
in fruits, lemons should be limited or completely excluded from
diet for diseases of the stomach, liver, intestinal tract, bile
bladder, biliary tract, pancreas (acute or
chronic pancreatitis),
with gastroesophageal reflux.

Lemon applications during cosmetic procedures
outdoors in direct sunlight can provoke
the occurrence of a painful burn (to a greater extent this applies
to people with fair and sensitive skin). In some cases
after using lemon-based products, you may experience
acute allergic reaction.[8,14]

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It must be remembered that irrational or excessive use
lemons can harm even a perfectly healthy person.

We have collected the most important points about the benefits and possible dangers of lemon
in this illustration and we will be very grateful if you share
a picture on social networks, with a link to our page:

Useful properties of lemon

Interesting Facts

Every year on the French coast, in Menton, a colorful
and a unique lemon festival. By tradition, the time of the holiday
– the end of winter or early March. During this period, the city, the surroundings
which has long been famous for its lemon and other citrus fruits
plantations, gathers tens of thousands of tourists. For the first time officially
the lemon festival was held in 1934. The theme changes every year
festival: music, Broadway, China, the fairy world of C. Perrault, Italian
cinematography, etc. According to the chosen theme of the holiday,
huge expositions and installations, the material for the creation of which
serve the fruits of lemons and oranges..

“Through the groves of lemon trees – for the Nobel Prize”: Nobel Prize
the 1975 Literature Prize was awarded to the Italian poet
Eugenio Montale. A kind of Montale manifesto, representing
the so-called hermetic poetry, became the poem “Lemons
(lemon trees) “.

Lemon is one of the most popular citrus fruits among artists:
the fruit was incredibly popular in the classic Dutch
still life painting. The bitterness and sour taste of lemons symbolized
the deceptive attraction of earthly beauty. Later contacted
to the “lemon theme” Edouard Manet (“Lemon”, 1880), Vincent Van Gogh
(“Still Life with a Decanter and Lemons on a Plate”, 1887), Henri Matisse
(Lemons and Peltifillum, 1943).

Monuments to lemon in San Diego, Pavlovo, Hamburg

Monuments to lemon

  1. 1One of the most massive monuments to lemon is the monumental
    sculpture installed in the suburb of San Diego, Lemon Grove,
    in the state of California, in 1928. The author of the construction is Alberto Treganza.
    The weight of a giant lemon, located on a concrete base, reaches
    1 ton and 300 kilograms, length – 3 m, width – 1,8 m.
  2. 2Monument to Pavlovsky lemon in the city of Pavlovo (Nizhny Novgorod
    region.) – an elegant and picturesque sculptural composition,
    erected in 2005. The authorship belongs to a team of teachers
    and students of the Pavlovsk Art College. Citrus culture
    refers to one of the official symbols of the city in which lemons
    grown both on a domestic and industrial scale (in the first
    the famous Pavlovsk Lemonarium functioned in the middle of the 20th century).[11,12]
  3. 3Monument to the legendary saleswoman of lemons – a woman named
    Johann Henrietta Maria Müller, who lived in Hamburg in the 19th century.
    Sculpture depicting a middle-aged woman with a basket of lemons
    in the hands, was created by H.J. Wagner and installed in 1986 near
    from the church of St. Michael.

Botanical description

It is the fruit of an evergreen tree plant representing the genus
Citrus, family Root… Among all the variety
citrus lemon is, if not the most popular, then, undoubtedly,
one of the most useful and significant in terms of medicinal properties of fruits,
second only to orange in the vitamin ranking.

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Origin of the name

The word “lemon“According to one of the existing versions borrowed
from Italian (“lemon“), And the Italian name
fruit, in turn, is the result of the assimilation of the Persian
“Limun” (meaning any citrus fruit among the Persians).


It is difficult to reliably determine the homeland of lemons. There are assumptions
that in ancient times they were grown in the north-east of India, in the northern
Burma and China. Lemon genetic code studies indicate
the fact that he is a hybrid of the “earlier” from the historical point
view of citrus: citron and bitter orange. To Europe (south of modern
Italy) lemons first hit in the 2nd century AD. (although broad
spread much later) thanks to foreign trade
activities of Ancient Rome. Parallel to these events, lemon
spread in Persia, Iraq, Egypt. In the Arabic treatise on the 10th
centuries on agriculture there is information about lemon, which was cultivated
not only as a food product, but also as an ornamental plant. IN
9th century as a result of the conquests and conquest policies of the Moors
lemons began to be grown in the south of Spain, Sicily. In this way
the conquest of the Mediterranean and Arab regions with lemon took place.
Large-scale production of lemons began in Genoa in the middle
15th century. The lemon got to America thanks to Columbus, where, later
century, perfectly took root due to optimal climatic conditions
in Florida and California.

Lemon arrived in Russia together with Dutch suppliers and merchants:
in the second half of the 17th century, seedlings were delivered to the royal court
lemon trees. The citrus crop has been recognized as so valuable
and rare, that even a special position was introduced at the court – “caretaker
lemons “. The second wave of popularity of lemons swept the empire
two centuries later, during the delivery of Georgian lemons to Russia.[1,2]

Multicolored citrus


The varietal variety of lemons is extremely large, the most popular
and varieties in demand on the world market:

  • “Novogruzinsky” – remontant variety (the tree blossoms and bears
    all year round). Popular variety with high yields,
    almost complete absence of seeds in the fruit.
  • “Pavlovsky” lemon – the variety is perfectly adapted for growing in
    home conditions. Trees of this variety tolerate shade.
    The fruits are thin-skinned.
  • Eureka, also known as the Four Seasons. Lemons of this
    varieties grow almost all year round and are record holders
    in the market by popularity and quantity.
  • Meyer is a thin-skinned variety. More frost-resistant
    compared to other varieties, but also more demanding on
    transportation conditions. Not a common variety in
    commercial sense. The variety was named after Frank Meyer (1908).
  • “Yen Ben” and “Bush” are Australian varieties. Bush grows wild
    form in the subtropical belt of the mainland. “Bush” is a thick-skinned variety,
    popular in cooking.
  • Sorrento is an Italian variety whose zest is traditionally used
    for making limoncello.
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Other famous varieties: “Lisbon”, “Maikop”, “Verna”.

Lemons are also conventionally subdivided into sour varieties
(real) sweet varieties (the flesh of which is sweet
and juicy) and lemons “ponderosis»(Thick-skinned, with
lots of seeds). Thick-rind lemons are used for
cooking candied fruits.

According to the type of plant, lemons are divided into bushy (bushes
up to 4 m high, fruits are formed at the ends of branches) and tree
(trees up to 6 m tall, with a dense crown, in the depth of which
the formation of fruits occurs.[1,3]

Lemons on the tree

Peculiarities of growing

The area for planting lemon seedlings should be
well lit and sheltered from the winds. Plant trees
standard size recommended in intervals of 3,5 to 7,5 m
(dwarf trees are planted at shorter intervals – up to 2 m). Optimal
soil option – loamy soils.

To grow a lemon from a seed, it is necessary to remove everything from the fruit.
seeds-seeds, soak them in water overnight, then plant in
wet soil in a pot to a depth of 1,2 cm.Wrap the pot with plastic
bag and leave in a warm, sunny place for seeds to germinate.

A few weeks after planting the seedlings, you can start feeding
a mixture of citrus fertilizers. Top dressing is carried out further
during several years. The irrigation schedule is systematic and slightly
more than moderate. When growing citrus fruits, mulching is not

How to grow lemon at home? Better
all lemons of the Meyer and Pavlovsky varieties are suitable for this. Tree
lemon, it is necessary to provide sufficient lighting, heat and high-quality
drainage. You should also protect the plant from drafts, moisturize
the air in the room where the lemon grows, in the summer – expose
a pot with a tree for fresh air. In the cold season, you need
extend daylight hours for a plant with an additional
lighting. In favorable conditions, the lemon tree is capable of blooming
and bear fruit throughout the year..

Girl with lemon

Selection and storage

High-quality fruits are dense, with a smooth skin, they are absent
dents and dark spots. With a short warming in warm
The lemon exudes an intense aroma unique to this citrus.

Lemons keep well in the refrigerator. Extra time to
the shelf life is added by wrapping each fruit in clean paper
and placing lemons wrapped in a plastic bag in a separate
chamber for vegetables and fruits.

Long-term storage reduces the acidity of the fruit, since significant
the volume of citric acid is transformed over time into sugars.

Prolongs the “life time” of lemons by immersing them for seconds in moderately
hot melted paraffin: this creates a protective
the layer covering the fruit. Lemons are well kept in boxes of sand,
which is pre-calcined for the purpose of disinfection..

See also properties of other citrus fruits:

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Anna Evans

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