Cherries, Calories, benefits and harms, Useful properties

It is a fruit plant of the genus plum, of the pink family. Scientists
it is believed that it has been known to man for more than 2000 years, and for the first time
it was domesticated in the territories of present-day China and the Caucasus. Botanical
point of view, cherry is a stone fruit, but in everyday life it is traditionally
are ranked as berries.

Cherries are actively used in cooking and dietetics. However, thanks to
its vitamin and mineral complex, it has great potential
in scientific medicine and cosmetology. What makes cherries stand out from others
fruits are high in antioxidants
and organic
acids. They strengthen the body and promote regeneration processes.

Useful properties of cherries

Composition and calorie content

Fresh cherries contain (in 100 g): .

Calories 50 Kcal

The chemical composition of cherries in
depends a lot on the variety, soil composition and climate in which it grows.
However, in any case, fresh
and dried fruits. Despite the fact that they cannot be identified as champions
by the content of this or that useful element, they contain more or less
a wide range of vitamins and minerals are evenly presented. Interesting,
that when drying cherries nutrients
not only are they not lost, but their number is increasing. Freeze
berries are not so well tolerated – some of the nutrients are still
collapses.

It is better to dry cherries without adding sugar, otherwise they increase
calorie content. High sugar and high calorie content
also different berries canned in syrup and cherry jams.
In addition, they contain significantly less vitamins and minerals,
therefore, the harm and health benefits of cherries are determined by the way
its preparation or preparation.

Medicinal properties

Looking at the above tables, we can conclude that
cherries are rich in vitamins A and C (100 g of these berries will provide
20% of the daily value of retinol and 12% of ascorbic acid).
In addition, they contain B vitamins, as well as vitamin
E and PP. Also, cherries are a source of the essential amino acid tryptophan,
folic acid and pectin substances.… Moreover
berries contain potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper
etc. But their main trump card is the content of antioxidants.

Eating cherries can have a positive effect on functioning
of cardio-vascular system. Vitamin PP, especially when combined
with ascorbic acid, reduces capillary permeability and
promotes the establishment of metabolic processes in the walls of blood vessels..
In addition, coumarins are present in the chemical composition of cherries.
(mainly oxycoumarins), which are involved in the regulation
the process of blood coagulation. Their impact can be compared to the impact
anticoagulants that prevent blood clots.

It is impossible to ignore the fact that cherries contain a vitamin
B9 or folic acid. More importantly, along with it into the body
iron and vitamin C come from berries.This whole complex is extremely
useful at
anemia.

Due to the presence in its composition of a set of organic acids,
namely, ascorbic, lemon,
apple,
– cherries increase the acidity of the stomach and are recommended
with
gastritis (with low acidity). And the presence of salicylic,
formic
and amber
acids, in turn, determine the bactericidal properties of berries.

Cherries with leaves

Cherry fruits are rich in antioxidants, in particular anthocyanins
– glycosides that determine the color of the berry. This vegetable
pigment helps the body fight inflammation
and oxidative stress, which damages healthy
cells.… In addition, anthocyanins are excreted from the body
uric acid and prevent its crystallization with subsequent
subsidence on the joints. Thus, the cherry can become a helper.
in the treatment of gout
or at least help ease her attacks.

The pectin substances in cherries that are considered excellent
natural enterosorbents, help cleanse the body, removing
from it toxic elements. They also help maintain
normal cholesterol levels.

The presence of potassium and magnesium in the berry provides excretion
excess fluid from the body. Eating only cherries
of course, will not help to solve the problem of edema,
but in combination with reduced salt intake and vigorous exercise,
you can count on a noticeable effect.

The significant amount of copper in the fruit makes it possible to speak
that it has sedative properties and contributes
to calm the nervous system. However, this effect is not so pronounced
brightly to count on qualitative changes in the state
people with serious nervous disorders.

Note that together with the fruits of cherries, one
from essential amino acids – tryptophan, from which
hormones serotonin and melatonin. The latter takes an active part
in the regulation of circadian rhythms and has a positive effect on the duration
and sleep quality. Experiments have shown that a daily intake of 240
ml of cherry juice for five days helps to eliminate
sleep problems and helps
people with insomnia to fall asleep..

Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of flavonoids,
included in the berry, provide quick muscle recovery
after active physical activity.… Cherry juice helps
cope with pain and minor muscle inflammation and will be beneficial
with regular sports.

Cherry resin

The use of cherries in medicine

To date, cherry fruits are not very actively used.
in conventional medicine, although the benefits and harms of this fruit
studied by many scientists. But in pharmacology, he already finds
application cherry gum (sticky mass protruding
from a tree trunk in places of bark damage). Due to its properties,
it usually becomes a vaccine adjuvant – a substance
designed to enhance the body’s immune response to the injected antigen.

In addition, it is used in drug delivery systems – for
transporting the drug directly to the target organ or
cells. Sometimes gum also performs a purely technical function of an emulsifier,
preventing the various components of the medicinal products from mixing.
Finally, the “cherry glue”, which has enveloping properties,
sometimes used in the manufacture of drugs aimed at treatment
diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

It is also worth noting that lately, the popularity is gaining
herbal diuretics. Unlike chemical medicinal
means, they help get rid of excess fluid with less
loss of useful elements. These include decoction
cherry stalk
… It comes in the form of biodegradable
active food additives and has a mild effect on the body.
Pharmaceutical companies developing such drugs
claim that, due to the presence of potassium and flavonoids in cherries,
the supplement helps to fight inflammation of the urinary tract.

Finally, given that cherries have a strong pleasant scent,
natural flavoring is widely used to improve
taste and smell of drugs (candies, tablets, mixtures,
syrups, powders, etc.)

Cherry pits

Cherries in folk medicine

Since cherries are a very common and affordable product that has
a mass of useful substances, it is often used in recipes for folk
medicine. From fruits and other parts of the plant (gum, leaves,
stalks, twigs) prepare infusions, decoctions, potions, make
compresses and baths. However, you should not get carried away with self-medication.
and if you have health problems, you must definitely contact
to the doctor. Cherries can be a good supplement with your doctor’s approval.
to drug treatment, but not to replace it.

By themselves, fresh berries are considered a mild laxative. They are
help to solve the problem of constipation arising from low mobility
person. Also, cherries are an effective assistant in the fight against unpleasant
smell from the mouth. It should be clarified that the fruit will not solve the problem.
with health, the result of which is bad breath.
But in cases where you ate a product that, when digested
gives off sulfur compounds (for example, garlic),
cherries will help neutralize the “flavor.”

There are many popular recipes to help combat
hypertension. So, according to one of them, it is necessary to grind in
blender or mince 200 g fresh cherries without
seeds, 2 cloves of garlic and 1 tablespoon of honey. Accept
such a mixture is needed one tablespoon daily before breakfast.

As for fresh cherry juice, folk healers recommend
use it with
epilepsy and some mental illness. The drink has
sedative effect, thanks to the copper contained in it. Also
it has a positive effect on the digestive system, improving appetite.
Moreover, it is believed that the juice is able to fight pathogens
dysentery and will be effective in fever
and bronchi
(as an expectorant). Finally, a combination of cherry and watermelon
juice prevents the formation of kidney stones. Usually they drink
one glass after each meal.

Cherry gum or simply wood “glue” envelops well
and therefore recommended for the treatment of inflammation of the mucous membranes
intestines and stomach. Traditional healers claim that her regular
consumption reduces and normalizes the acidity of the stomach, helping
thereby get rid of heartburn and bouts of pain in the right side.
In addition, the gum promotes rapid healing of still unbroken
corns. After a warm bath, rinse your feet with cool water,
apply fresh “glue” to the sore spot and secure with a plaster.

Finally, cherry tree leaves are considered a good remedy.
to stop nosebleeds and accelerate wound healing.
Traditional healers recommend dipping cotton swabs or bandages
in a gruel of chopped fresh leaves.

Cherry compote

Broths

RџSЂRё
colds accompanied by a sore throat, folk
healers advise putting 500 g of fresh cherries in 500 ml of dry red
wine and boil for 10 minutes. Add some sugar at the end.
You need to take a drink half a glass 3-4 times during the day.
Also cherries can be used as an antipyretic for
colds in children. You should take 100 g of dried fruits, pour
them 500 ml of water and keep on low heat until evaporated about
one third of the volume of liquid. When consumed, the drink should be warm.

In addition to the berries themselves, they often use
leaves. For example, for liver diseases, it is recommended to take 10
g chopped leaves, add 1 glass of milk and boil
over low heat for 30 minutes. Then filter the broth and take
100 ml three times a day. Note that before cooking, the leaves
be sure to rinse thoroughly.

Cherry twigs are considered very useful in folk medicine.
They should also be thoroughly washed, filled with hot water, brought
until boiling and simmer for 5 minutes. The resulting liquid is necessary
strain through cheesecloth and let cool. This broth is usually drunk
with indigestion and colic
a glass 3-4 times a day. You can also add a little to it
milk and wipe your feet with it every morning and evening. By
according to traditional doctors, such a procedure will help relieve fatigue
and makes the skin of the feet soft.

Another commonly used ingredient in traditional medicine
the stalks of cherries have become. They offer to treat inflamed joints
(arthritis,
gout, rheumatism),
and also use them for urolithiasis and edema as
a diuretic. As a rule, the broth is prepared at the rate of 40
g stalks per 1 liter of water. Washed cherry “tails” are poured
boil with water and simmer for 10 minutes. Then the broth
filter and cool. Take half a glass 3 times
a day before meals. Also, this drug can rub the joints on
night.

Cherry tincture

Infusions

Infusions of fruits, leaves, stalks and cherry twigs are recommended
to use for colic, indigestion, high fever,
bronchitis and heart disease. In case of problems with the gastrointestinal tract, usually take
about 10 leaves, wash them and pour 500 ml of boiling water. Liquids
let it brew under the lid for about 30 minutes. Straining through cheesecloth
and having cooled, they drink half a glass of infusions 4 times a day.

In order to bring down the temperature, it is proposed to pour boiling water
300 g seedless fresh berries, let stand, covered
30 minutes and drink an antipyretic drug in a warm state. With chronic
bronchitis 1 teaspoon of chopped stalks is poured with one
a glass of boiling water and let it brew a little. You need to drink 3-4 times
in a day. You can also take about 10 cherry twigs up to
10 cm, pour them 1 liter of water, boil for 5 minutes and let it brew
about half an hour. Drink several times a day, adding honey.

To prepare an infusion for pain in the heart, you should take dried
cherries, add dried hawthorn or rose hips to them,
pour boiling water over and leave to infuse under the lid for 40 minutes.
Take half a glass three times a day before meals.

Cherry blossoms near Fujiyama

Cherries in oriental medicine

Already in ancient times, cherries in the east were used not only
as a food product, but also as a remedy. For example, it was believed
that it lowers blood pressure, treats nausea, soothes boiling
bile, strengthens the liver and stomach. Crushed bones together
with a wick injected into the opening of the penis to cure urinary
ways. And the monks used cherries to crush stones in the urinary
bubble. Cherry juice mixed with wine was considered a good helper
in the fight against cough.

Cherry was also used as a cosmetic product. For example,
it was believed that applying cherry juice on the face would help whiten
skin and smooth out wrinkles. In addition, the berries were used to treat
various female problems, improvement of lactation and heavy menstruation.

In traditional Chinese medicine, this berry is still considered a remedy.
conservation of internal energy “qi”. In addition, it is used by
externally in the treatment of diseases of the skin and wounds. She also
used for rheumatic inflammations.

In order to cleanse the body,
warming the stomach and stopping bleeding Chinese folk
healers use leaves, twigs, and even the roots of the plant. but
they warn against excessive consumption of this fruit, since
it can lead to an imbalance in the yin and yang energies in the body.

Scientists study cherries

Cherries in scientific research

It has long been noticed that, due to its chemical composition
(a rich and varied set of vitamins and a large amount
microelements), cherries and other parts of this plant are beneficial
affects various human systems and organs. However, researchers
strive to obtain more detailed information about the properties of this
berries and its ability to fight certain diseases.

So, American scientists have confirmed the assumption that
cherry juice improves quality and duration
sleep. According to their experience, people with insomnia can get rid of
from this problem, having learned the habit of drinking 2 glasses of fresh cherry
juice a few hours before bedtime. According to them, the duration of sleep
increases by an average of 90 minutes. The mechanism of action is explained
the presence of chemical compounds of proanthocyanidins in cherries,
which slow down the breakdown of tryptophan, which in turn
participates in the synthesis of melatonin – sleep hormone..

Cherry juice has also been found to affect arterial
pressure. In one study on this topic, two hours after
receiving 300 ml of fruit drink from subjects with a tendency
to hypertension decreased markedly as indicators of systolic (upper),
and indicators of diastolic (lower) pressure. In 6 hours
the condition is completely normalized..

Scientists place special emphasis on the fact that in order to achieve the necessary
effect, it is necessary to strictly observe the dose and time. So, if the participants
experiment took the same 300 ml of juice, but in portions of 100 ml
for three hours, then significant changes in indicators
their blood pressure was not observed. Thus, one can
conclude that the necessary processes are started in the body
only after the simultaneous assimilation of a certain dose of juice..

If we are not talking about a local way of dealing with pressure surges,
but about the treatment of hypertension, then in another experiment, the researchers
managed to achieve long-term normalization of pressure indicators
subjects after daily consumption of 480 ml of cherry juice
for 12 weeks. Moreover, they recorded a decrease
cholesterol levels..

Dried cherries

Recent studies by Russian scientists have demonstrated more
one possible use of cherry gum. Besides using
as a vaccine adjuvant and emulsifier, it can find
use and as an independent wound-healing medicine.
So, it was found that, thanks to the polymer of galactose and arabinose
in its composition, cherry “glue” provides antibacterial
Effect. After conducting an experiment on mice, scientists concluded that
gum powder is most effective at the initial stage of the wound
process. It removes germs from cells, does not irritate
influence on adjacent tissues and accelerates the healing process..

According to the results of recent research by scientists from the United States, directly
the cherry fruits themselves are high in antioxidants,
which makes it possible to combat oxidative stress by reducing
the risk of destruction of healthy cells in the body. It also helps
regulate the level of triglycerides (substances that accumulate in
adipose tissue cells) in the blood. It is known that these lipids are energy
resource of the body, but uncontrolled consumption of fatty foods,
in particular fast food, leads to their excess accumulation in
vessels and, as a result, the development of atherosclerosis
and other cardiovascular diseases..

Research has shown that eating cherries in combination with a 30-minute
physical activity shortly before eating fatty foods reduces the risk
excessive accumulation of triglycerides, due to an increase in antioxidant
body activity..

In addition, the beneficial properties of cherries are attracting the attention of scientists,
looking for alternatives to prevent bone damage
with rheumatoid arthritis. Existing drugs have serious
side effects and cannot be used on an ongoing basis.
Studies in mice have shown that cherry preparations
may be beneficial as a prophylaxis for chronic
rheumatoid inflammation..

Finally, several recent studies have demonstrated the benefits of
cherries for athletes. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant
properties allow athletes to train longer and with greater loads,
and also speed up the recovery process. In one of the experiments
professional runners consumed 710 ml of cherry
juice a week before and a few days after participating in the marathon. It was
noted that they experienced less muscle pain, and their recovery
happened at a faster pace compared to the group of runners,
receiving placebo..

Slender woman eating cherries

Cherries for weight loss

Cherries are considered a slimming food. Partly
this is true, because fresh fruits contain low
the number of calories is only 50 kcal per 100 g. Although you should give
to myself, the fact that the use of cherries alone will not lead
to magical results. To get the effect, you also need
introduce other healthy foods into the diet and play sports.

However, cherries can be a good helper in the fight against
overweight, since it is not only low in calories, but also rich
dietary fiber. They slow down digestion and saturate a person
for a longer time. In this way, the berries can become good
an alternative to a snack of sandwiches or sweets.

In addition, cherries have a low glycemic index and do not
provoke a sharp increase in sugar levels in the body. By the way,
according to a study conducted by American scientists in 2014
year, diets that include foods with a low glycemic index,
lead to more weight loss than diets that include foods
low Fat..

By the way, nutritionists especially recommend eating cherries if
you often eat junk food or any other fatty food. Berries
help to reduce the rate of accumulation of fats, in particular triglycerides,
reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes
second type..

Cherries in cooking

Cherries are a common and affordable fruit, so they can be
found in almost any cuisine in the world. They especially love this berry
in Ukraine, where one of the traditional national dishes is considered
dumplings with cherries. In general, cherries are used to make confitures, jams, sauces,
they are added as a filling in cakes and pies, they are stuffed
duck, they are used to make compotes, jelly, smoothies, cocktails, liqueurs (Portuguese
ginjinha), liqueurs. Interestingly, the leaves of the plant add to
cucumbers when preserved to give them crispness.

An unusual use of cherries has been found in Japan. First, they sell
chips with the taste of this berry, and, secondly, ice cream is popular
with an extraordinary combination of tomato and cherry. By the way, speaking of
about combining this fruit with other foods, it is good
strawberries will do
raspberries,
citrus fruits, bananas,
nectarines,
chocolate, vanilla,
cover, funduk
and almonds.
From drinks, cherry is combined with cognac, wine, vermouth. Can
add this berry to fermented milk products and cheeses.

For example, it is very appropriate in a summer curd-jelly cake,
which is easy to prepare and does not require baking. To prepare it
you will need:

Cherry cake

  • 500 g cherries;
  • 500 g sour cream;
  • . curd;
  • 500 grams of sugar;
  • 100 g of oil;
  • 200 g of ordinary cookies;
  • 50 g of gelatin;
  • 1 package of cherry jelly.

Crumbled cookies must be mixed with melted
butter and, forming a cake, put it on the bottom of the mold. Then you need
beat cottage cheese, sour cream and sugar, add gelatin and beat again
everything until a homogeneous mass is obtained. Half the cherries should be peeled
from the seeds, grind until mashed and pour into the already cooked
cream. Pour the cake with the resulting mixture and put it in the refrigerator until
solidification. Put the remaining cherries on the cake and fill the top
cooked jelly. We send the cake to the refrigerator again until it solidifies.

By the way, for quick cleansing of pitted cherries, you can use
special machines or hand tools. They are noticeably
will facilitate and speed up the process. If for cooking or decoration
dishes you need to cut in half the already peeled cherries, then you can
resort to the life hack used for slicing cherry tomatoes.
True, it should be borne in mind that this method will work only if
you have large enough and not overripe fruits. So the berries are tight
spread on a flat plate or plank, cover on top
something the same flat and, holding on top with your hand, hold
between them with a sharp knife, thus cutting them in two halves.

Finally, it should be noted that cherries are in the top ten fruits
and vegetables most susceptible to pesticide contamination. For
to peel the fruit, it is recommended to mix 1 tablespoon of lemon
juice, 1 tablespoon of vinegar and 1 glass of water. In this solution
cherries should lie down for 10 minutes, and then they need to be rinsed with running
water.

In which only drinks do not add cherries. This and hot punch,
mulled wine,
tea, and cooling smoothies, juices, compotes, and various alcoholic
cocktails. In our opinion, the recipe deserves special attention.
winter berry tea. To prepare it, you need to knead a handful
defrosted cherries with mint
and honey, add 500 ml hibiscus and lemon. Among the summer drinks
a refreshing smoothie stands out. To cook it, you need to grind
in a blender a glass of mint leaves, 200 g strawberries, 200 g cherries, 2
banana and add 1 glass of water.

Girl in cherries

Cherries in cosmetology

Not so long ago, Chinese scientists conducted an experiment that demonstrated
the effectiveness of cherry blossom petal extract in the fight against skin
inflammations of various etiologies. Probably not far off
appropriate cosmetics. As for the already existing
cosmetics, you should pay attention to the natural cherry oil
bones.

It is extracted from crushed raw materials by cold pressing.
Heating, refining or any other additional cleaning
deprive oil of unsaponifiable fractions – biologically active substances,
promoting skin regeneration. Therefore, you need to carefully read
when purchasing the product and pay attention to the way
extraction.

The oil is based on oleic, stearic, linolenic and palmitic
acids, as well as antioxidants, tocopherols, vitamins E and A. Thanks to
the presence of a rare eleostearic acid, this remedy is considered
one of the best natural UV protectors.
It can be used not only on the face but also for skin care
the whole body, as well as on the lips and around the eyes. By its texture
it is light and absorbs quickly.

By creating an invisible protective layer on the skin, the oil not only protects
it from the sun, but also prevents moisture evaporation, leveling the hydrolipidic
balance. Also, the product has a light nourishing effect, promotes
collagen synthesis and maintains the structure of the skin. With systemic
its application can even be classified as anti-aging cosmetics.

There are also many popular cosmetic recipes.
products based on cherries. Most of them are face masks.
Among the most popular are the following:

  • cherry honey (5 ripe berries + 1 teaspoon of liquid honey)
    – for dry skin type;
  • cherry and egg (5 ripe berries + 1 egg yolk) – for fatty
    skin type;
  • cherry sour cream (5 ripe berries + 1 teaspoon of sour cream) –
    for normal skin type.

We have collected the most important points about the benefits and possible dangers of cherries.
in this illustration and we will be very grateful if you share
a picture on social networks, with a link to our page:

Fresh cherries should be firm, but not firm – with light
when pressed, there should be a feeling that the berry may crack.
The fruits must be with petioles, otherwise due to tear
the skins they begin to lose juice and quickly deteriorate. Saturation
the color of the fruit does not always indicate their ripeness, and maybe
indicate belonging to a particular variety (some
cherries, even when ripe, remain scarlet, without acquiring a burgundy
shade). Cherries are usually refrigerated. Unripe fruits
can lie up to ten days, and mature ones – about five.

If we talk about harvesting cherries for the winter, then traditionally from it
make preserves and make jams. However, heat treatment deprives
berries of most vitamins, and certainly used sugar is noticeable
adds calories. In addition, if you are canning pitted cherries,
then they need to be eaten within a year, otherwise they begin to form
poisonous hydrocyanic acid. But the cherry retains all its useful
drying properties. You can store such a product in the refrigerator.
and this is one of the best winter harvesting methods.

Berries can also be frozen. Although the amount of vitamins, especially
vitamin C, will decrease slightly, cherries will still benefit
in the cold season. It is recommended to freeze the fruit directly
immediately after collection. If you buy berries in supermarkets, then
it is advisable to make sure that the package contains as little as possible
pieces of ice, and the fruits were free of rot. By the way, lately
shock freezing is becoming more and more popular when the product is placed
vacuum packed and exposed to such low temperatures
that instead of the usual 2-3 hours, it freezes in 30 minutes
and loses less nutrients.

Cherry trees grow in almost every corner of the world and attract
not only the opportunity to harvest tasty and healthy fruits,
but also the opportunity to enjoy the extraordinary beauty of plants during the period
their flowering. In Asian countries, for example, besides the usual cherries,
a large number of ornamental plants called sakura grows.
At the end of March – at the beginning of April, they turn cities white and pink
blooming splendor, admired by millions
tourists.

By the way, in Japan there is even a special expression “o-hanami”,
which denotes the tradition of admiring cherry blossoms. The last
time more and more decorative cherry trees appear
and in other countries of the world. For example, in Copenhagen, Prague, New York
there are already large parks almost completely planted with these
trees.

Cherries came to us from Byzantium back in the XI century. And already in the XII century. Yuri
Dolgoruky laid the first gardens in the Moscow region. In the XVIII-XIX
centuries in the Russian Empire, the first industrial
gardens.

By the way, at the beginning of the twentieth century. The play by A.P. Chekhov’s “Cherry
garden ”, in which the cherry tree plays a plot-forming role. Moreover,
famous children’s writer J. Rodari in “The Adventures of Cipollino”
depicted two countesses in the shape of cherries, giving them the appropriate names
– Countess Cherry, and named their young nephew Count Cherry.

In 2007, in the village of Bolshiye Bakaldy, a museum was opened
dedicated to cherries. Here since the .th century. grow and process
these berries. And in the city of Glubokoe, in Belarus, since 2013 they have been holding
a festival dedicated to this fruit. A monument to the cherry was erected there
and laid a large garden of 1414 trees (the year the city was founded).
The cherry blossom festival is held annually in April
in South Korea. As for the monuments, they can be found
not only in Belarus, but also. (Vladimir), and even in the USA (Minneapolis).

Interestingly, in English, cherries and cherries have the same
the name “cherry”. And for clarification, words are usually used that describe
fruit taste: “sour” (sour – refers to cherries) and “sweet” (sweet
– refers to cherries).

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  • , title : 'CHERRIES BENEFITS - 13 Amazing Health Benefits of Cherries You Need to Know!
    CHERRIES BENEFITS - 13 Amazing Health Benefits of Cherries You Need to Know!

Anna Evans

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