Like other nightshades, bell peppers contain a healthy set of vitamins,
minerals and active compounds. And for a number of indicators
Bulgarian pepper is one of the record holders, showing a therapeutic
effect in the prevention of diseases of blood vessels, nervous system, eyes and
Useful properties of bell pepper
Composition and calorie content
Raw red pepper contains (in 100 g): .
Calories 26 Kcal
Vitamin C 127,7 Potassium, K 211 Vitamin
B4 5,6 Phosphorus,
P 26 Vitamin E 1,58 Magnesium, Mg 12 Vitamin
Fresh bell peppers are mainly (90-92%) water.
The rest is carbohydrates, which account for most of
its calories, and small amounts of protein and fat. Carbohydrates here
Are the sugars responsible for the sweet taste of ripe peppers.
The fruit of the plant contains a small amount of fiber
– about 2% of the total weight.
Bell peppers contain a complex of various vitamins and minerals
with record indicators for some positions. So, just one
red bell pepper provides 150-170% of the recommended daily allowance
norms of vitamin C. But fruits contain a number of other vitamins:
- pyridoxine (the most common form of vitamin
B6) important for the production of red blood cells,
- phylloquinone (a form of vitamin K) that plays
an essential role in blood clotting and bone strength,
- vitamin Erequired for functioning
nervous and muscular systems,
- vitamin B9performing many tasks, and
gaining special importance during pregnancy,
- beta-carotene red sweet pepper (provitamin
A), responsible for redox processes, exchange
substances, regulation of protein synthesis, membrane functionality
However, bell peppers of different colors can vary significantly.
for nutritional and vitamin value. Plays the role and degree of ripening
fruits – bell peppers are known to be rich in various antioxidants,
especially carotenoids, but there are much more of them in ripe specimens,
than in immature. And the amount of vitamin A in red pepper is 7-8
times its amount in green.
Finally, the way the peppers are grown is important. Polish
researchers found that the organic growing system
provides the level of biologically active compounds (carotenoids
and polyphenols) so that organic bell peppers contain significantly
more vitamin C, total carotenoids, β-carotene,
α-carotene, cis-β-carotene, total phenolic acids
and flavonoids compared to conventionally grown fruits
(inorganic) way. On the level of antioxidant compounds
in fruits, the variety of the plant also affects. .
Of the active compounds found in bell pepper:
- capsaicin – the pigment that makes red pepper
red, is considered a powerful antioxidant,
- violaxanthine – another antioxidant carotenoid,
present in abundance in yellow bell peppers,
- zeaxanthin – the pigment that gives the pepper yellow
coloration, which, when ingested with food, works
to restore visual function,
- lutein – a compound also capable of improving
eye health – it is present in unripe peppers, although practically
absent in ripe fruits,
- quercetin – polyphenolic antioxidant, useful
to prevent chronic heart disease and cancer
Like most plant foods, bell peppers are considered
healthy food. Its regular use is associated with a decrease in
the risk of developing various chronic diseases and pathologies.
- Benefits for the eyes. To the most common
types of visual impairment include macular degeneration and
the main causes of which are considered to be aging and infections. But
introduction to the diet rich in carotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin)
bell pepper can improve eye health (when consumed
fruits in sufficient quantities). In fact, carotenoids protect
retina – the light-sensitive inner wall of the eye – from
oxidative damage, preventing cataract formation
and macular degeneration.
- Prevention of anemia. Anemia
– a common disease characterized by a decrease
the ability of the blood to carry oxygen. One of the most common
causes of anemia – iron deficiency, the noticeable symptoms of which
weakness and fatigue become. Red bell pepper in
prevention of anemia is not only a source of iron (it
contains about 4-5% of the RDA), but as a product
exceptionally rich in ascorbic acid to improve absorption
gland from the intestines.
- Slowing down inflammatory processes. In research,
evaluating the anti-inflammatory effect of an aqueous extract from
bell pepper leaves on mouse spleen cells, scientists have found
that such an extract largely suppressed the production of
inflammatory cytokines and cell proliferation without causing cytotoxicity,
In addition, it suppressed the expression of inflammatory proteins, which
allowed to draw a conclusion about the anti-inflammatory activity of the extract
and its potential in possible therapeutic applications. .
- Mental health. High concentration
vitamin B6 in pepper increases the level of the person who eats it
hormones serotonin and norepinephrine (these compounds are sometimes called
“Hormones of happiness”). Increased levels of these hormones are associated
with an improvement in mood, concentration and energy, and a decrease
– with a number of mental disorders. In addition, vitamin deficiencies
B6 contributes to memory impairment, reduces performance
brain and may increase the risk of disease
- Pregnancy control. FROMsweet pepper contains
about 15% of the RDA for folate in which
pregnant women need. Actual Recommended Daily
folic acid rate increases by about 50% for pregnant women
women because of its role in preventing birth defects and
preserving the health of future children.
- The condition of the skin. Sufficient provision
organism with ascorbic acid and carotenoids promotes
collagen production and good for the skin. For people who have enough
ascorbic acid, the skin is less dry and wrinkled.
- Reduced risk of cancer and heart disease. Carotenoids
in bell pepper as effective herbal antioxidants
reduce the damage that oxidation does to the cells of the body.
In particular, red varieties contain a very large amount of
beta and alpha carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin.
One way to further increase the effectiveness of antioxidants
in bell pepper is to cook it on
a couple. Research has shown that this way of cooking improves
the ability to bind bile acids. This means that in the process
digestion of food more efficiently uses cholesterol and
reduced absorption of fat, and, as a result, the likelihood of
the appearance of problems with blood vessels. .
Moreover, in various epidemiological studies, where
there is a positive association of regular fruit consumption
and vegetables with a reduced risk of developing chronic diseases,
it is also said that the action of any particular specific
phytonutrient alone does not explain the observed benefits. Only
in the combination of compounds, it is possible to obtain a stable therapeutic
Effect. For example, in one study, synergistic inhibition
growth of prostate and breast cancer cells became apparent only
when using combinations of low concentrations of various carotenoids
(or carotenoids with retinoic acid and an active metabolite
vitamin D). . And the bell pepper is just famous for its special
a combination of medicinal components that exhibit a pronounced
benefit in combination with each other.
In official medicine, sweet pepper was used as a component
therapeutic diet. In particular, table number 5 (according to Pevzner)
with an optimal proportion of carbohydrates, proteins and fats, recommended
with chronic hepatitis,
cholelithiasis and other pathologies of the liver and gallbladder,
assumed the use of a limited amount of bell pepper.
And though. since 2003 M. Pevzner’s tables in medical institutions
are not used, instead of them, an alternative
non-dimensional system of diets.
In addition, on sale among dietary supplements can be relatively inexpensive
find sweet pepper oil extracts containing carotenoids
in concentrated form. This extract is recommended by the manufacturer
for the treatment of hypertension.
In folk medicine
In folk medicine, remedies based on
hot pepper, but also sweet bell pepper, people have found use;
- Fruit. Sweet pepper in folk medicine
treat cardiovascular diseases, anemia, scurvy,
diabetes and osteoporosis,
arthritis, asthma. With its help, they improve digestion, normalize
sleep, relieve depression, restore strength and cognitive
- The juice. It is recommended to drink sweet pepper juice
every day for
lowering blood pressure. They usually start drinking it
from small doses (30-50 ml per day), gradually increasing the volume
up to 100 ml.
- Seeds. Some authors call seeds
sweet pepper and whitish pulp near the stalk of the most useful
part of the fetus due to the high concentration of vitamins in them. These
the seeds are used to treat asthma,
diseases of the heart, blood vessels, liver, they are also used to prevent
cancer as a product high in vitamins C and A. For
this seeds are first dried and ground into powder, which
then added to food as a vitamin seasoning.
In traditional medicine, there is a division according to the degree of usefulness.
fruits of different colors.
- Red pepper. It is believed that he possesses the most
a wide range of therapeutic effects. It is recommended to enter
in the daily diet to protect cells from oxidative stress,
prevention of problems with the heart, pancreas, prostate
and the ovaries. As a rich source of vitamins P, C, red carotene
sweet peppers can reduce the risk of stroke, and overcome
consequences of cerebrovascular accident. It is also used
to relieve symptoms of bronchopulmonary diseases. From his
help fight stress and normalize sleep.
- Yellow pepper. Using it in home medicine
regulate the functionality of the thyroid gland, restore efficiency
nervous system, treat the heart and musculoskeletal system.
It is also referred to as a product capable of excreting uric acid.
and thereby alleviate the condition of patients with arthritis and gout.
- Green pepper. Chlorophyll of green fruits helps
saturate the blood with oxygen and by improving nitrogen metabolism,
remove toxins from the body, and the presence of coumaric and chlorogenic
acids gives reason to use such a product in the prevention
In addition, traditional healers recommend that you regularly eat Bulgarian
pepper to improve the condition of skin, hair, bones, teeth and gums.
It is believed that rinsing the mouth with freshly squeezed Bulgarian juice
pepper will help get rid of inflammation of the oral mucosa.
In scientific research
All research on sweet bell peppers can be divided into
several thematic groups. The most numerous of them will be
a group of works in which scientists are trying to establish ways to improve
consumer qualities of grown vegetables, reduce the risk of infection
plants with diseases, provide more efficient and cheaper ways
storage of crops. Among recent (2015-2020) studies in
as an example, you can call work with the following headers:
- “Loci of quantitative trait (LCP), which control the size
fruit and other garden features of bell pepper ”. .
- Polyphenols and Carotenoids in Organic Pickled Bell Pepper
and traditional production “. .
- “Absorption and distribution of fluopyram fungicide residues and
tebuconazole in the tissues of tomato and bell pepper plants ”. .
- “A variety of bell peppers that are resistant to hypothermia increases
excretion of nitrogen and causes stress accumulation of metabolites in
roots in response to low root zone temperatures ”. .
- “Analysis of transcriptomes of coding and non-coding RNA in response
for cooling bell pepper “. .
But there is also a smaller group of research projects,
in which scientists study the mechanisms and degree of therapeutic
the effect of sweet bell pepper on the body. Here are examples of such
“Bell pepper allergy: different sensitization profiles” .
In their work, scientists are considering different options for the appearance
and increasing the sensitivity of a person to the effects of irritants
– compounds present in bell peppers – and mechanisms
the appearance of an allergic reaction to the product.
“The short-term effect of adding Bulgarian juice
pepper with an integrated yoga therapy approach to glucose levels
in blood and cardiovascular function in patients with diabetes mellitus
Type 2: Randomized Controlled Trial ”. .
Here, the researchers approached the study of the influence of sweet
pepper on the condition of patients with type 2 diabetes, combining a therapeutic
the effects of yoga and dietary supplements. The experiment was attended by
50 patients aged 34 to 69 who were random
divided into the study and control groups. Investigated
the group received 100 ml of bell pepper juice (twice a day)
together with yoga therapy, and the control group – yoga therapy only
for 4 consecutive days.
The results of the work showed that although the addition of 100 ml of juice
there was no bell pepper twice a day with yoga therapy
more effective in lowering fasting blood glucose,
but after eating in the study group there was a significant
lowering blood glucose, systolic arterial
pressure, pulse pressure, speed pressure product.
“Bell peppers inhibit β-secretase activity and
aggregation of β-amyloid “. .
In this project, scientists are considering the problem of amyloid deposition
protein in the form of senile plaques, which is considered the main symptom
Alzheimer’s disease. It is formed as a result of consistent
cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein by secretases. Scientists
decided to test how the effects of polyphenols (which extracts are rich in
ripe and unripe bell peppers) will affect amyloid production
and protein aggregation in an in vitro experiment (“in vitro”).
As a result, the researchers concluded that ripe fruits
pepper had a dose-dependent inhibition of β-secretase (2,17 ± 0,17
μg / L), showing significantly (P <0,05) higher
inhibitory effect than immature (3,44 ± 0,11 μg / l). Besides
addition, thioflavin-T analysis and transmission electron microscopy
showed that phenolic extracts of pepper fruits (1 and 10 μg / l)
can counteract the initial aggregation of Aβ1-40, as well as prevent
further aggregation of preformed fibrils.
In summary, the researchers suggested that sweet
bell peppers can be a useful dietary supplement in the treatment
For losing weight
Unlike spicy representatives of the genus, bell pepper does not
contains burning capsaicin, which, among other things, controls
metabolic syndrome and related disorders (obesity,
violation of the lipid profile, etc.). But bell peppers also help.
losing weight to control body weight.
This product is very low in calories (20 to 32 kcal / 100 g) and
a lot of vitamins, which makes it possible to build on it
based on fasting days and diet. But mono diets on bell pepper
not shown to everyone. Choosing a different diet is better for liver problems
and kidneys, ulcers, gastritis with high acidity. Also before
the choice of a pepper diet is better to consult a dietitian for hypertensive patients
and people with ischemic
Below is an example of a 2 week weight loss diet.
based on an American study of 25 weight loss
- 1 day. The entire diet consists of raw vegetables,
the total mass of which should not exceed 1 kg. Moreover, at least
50% of the vegetable set should be bell pepper.
- 2 day. First day vegetables are replaced here
for fruits (too sweet grapes are excluded
- 3-4 days. Pepper (300 g), fruit (300 g), boiled
- 5-7 days. Pepper (300 g), boiled meat (200
d), cottage cheese
(200 g), unsweetened drinking yogurt.
The second week almost duplicates the first, but on days 13-14 you can take
menu of any other day.
Bell peppers can be eaten raw or cooked.
Like its kindred pepper
chili, sweet varieties are sometimes dried and crushed. Such
The powdered spice of non-burning varieties is called paprika.
Although in Hungarian culinary practice, where paprika received especially
widespread, there is also a sharp burning paprika,
which contains pepper seeds containing hot capsaicin.
All types of paprika are added to dishes to give them different
the degree of spice and special flavors. In addition, paprika
often used as a colorant in sausages
and other meat products.
Peppers of any color are eaten, but when choosing fruits, you need to take into account,
that green (unripe) and purple vegetables are slightly bitter
taste, and red, orange and yellow are sweeter, almost fruity
Sweet peppers complement fried meat dishes perfectly, well
combined with stewed pork
In real French ratatouille, Hungarian and Bulgarian lecho,
Hungarian goulash and paprikash, Turkish gyuveche sweet pepper –
one of the important ingredients. Especially expressive aroma and taste
acquire fruits baked in the oven or on a charcoal grill.
Fresh and pickled peppers with scrambled eggs and
One of the oldest and most popular bell pepper recipes,
first discovered in a Boston cookbook in 1896
Is stuffed peppers:
- 6 green peppers.
- 3/4 cup hot parboiled rice
- 1/2 cup cold meat, finely diced
- 1/3 cup stewed and grated tomatoes
- 1 tablespoon ghee
- A few drops of onion juice.
- Salt and pepper.
Cut off pieces from the ends of the pepper stalks. Remove seeds and partitions;
steam for 8 minutes. Fill with rice, meat, tomatoes and butter,
mix well and season with onion juice, salt and pepper.
Put in a skillet, add one and a half cups of water or broth
and bake for forty-five minutes in a moderate-pressure oven.
Prepare peppers in the same way as Stuffed Peppers I. Fill
equal parts finely chopped cold fried chicken
and softened bread crumbs, seasoned with onion juice,
salt and pepper. ” .
Despite the considerable age of the collection, this is not the earliest mention
a dish known to us. Here, for example, is an even earlier recipe for pickled
bell pepper from Miss Parloa’s New Cookbook 1880
of the year:
“Take a large bell pepper. Cut off the stem, remove
him and take out all the seeds. For the filling, use two liters of chopped
cabbage, one cup of white mustard seeds, three tablespoons of seeds
two tablespoons of salt, half a glass of grated horseradish. Fill each
pepper with part of this mixture, and in each place a small onion
and some cucumber.
Tie the stem back together, place the peppers in the jar and cover with cold
vinegar “. .
Regular consumption of bell peppers improves condition
skin and hair. But the main set of cosmetic procedures is related
with external use of the fruits of the plant in the composition of anti-aging,
whitening, toning, nourishing skin masks and lotions
for shine of hair.
Examples of homemade cosmetics with bell pepper for facial skin:
- Rejuvenating mask. Red (yellow) pepper
is ground to a state of gruel and mixed with whipped
egg (1 pc.) and sour cream (1 tsp.). This mass is applied to
face for a quarter of an hour, after which it is washed off with warm water.
- Moisturizing mask. Finely grated
pitted pepper (1 pc.) mixed with cabbage
(1 tbsp. L.) And carrot juice (1 tbsp. L.). So that this semi-liquid
the mixture was kept on the skin, it is first spread over gauze, which
then it is applied for 15-20 minutes in the area of the face and neck. Leftovers
the mixtures are washed off with water.
- Whitening mask. To get rid of pigmented
stains on skin previously oiled with olive
butter, just put the sliced red
Bell pepper. After twenty minutes, the remnants of the mask are washed off
brewing green tea.
Dangerous properties of bell pepper and contraindications
Bell peppers are generally safe, but sometimes
reaction or intolerance. Among the symptoms of an allergic reaction
for bell peppers they call abdominal pain, diarrhea,
nausea, vomiting, skin rash, hives, itchy throat, swelling and shortness
Bell pepper allergy – evidence of an immune response
the proteins it contains. Researchers have studied this problem
at the Mayo Clinic, and according to their data, such a reaction to pepper can be correlated
with the presence of an allergy to wormwood pollen: if a person manifests
an allergic reaction to wormwood, this increases the likelihood of
allergies to bell peppers.
Also, an earlier study published in November
2004 in Clinical & Experimental Allergy .,
has shown that bell peppers need to be included in the grocery list
the so-called “latex-fruit syndrome”: people suffering from
allergy to latex, are more at risk of getting an allergy
and bell peppers, although in practice such an immune response occurs
The second possible cause of stomach pain after consuming Bulgarian
pepper – food intolerance. (Although intolerances have common
symptoms with allergies are not exactly the same). Usually in the case
regular gas, diarrhea and soreness after
the use of pepper, patients are advised to pay attention to the dosage.
According to the Cleveland Clinic, an eating disorder can occur
after a large amount of eaten pepper and does not appear in any way
Sometimes researchers associate the emerging disorder with increased
sensitivity to fructose.
Sometimes – with food poisoning. Sometimes fibrous
pepper and the presence of a rather tough skin. Because of this
pepper is not recommended for people suffering from ulcerative
diseases and gastritis.
Often, experts warn about the likelihood of increased concentration
pesticides in sweet pepper fruits. So, for example, in “Dirty
dozen “(annually updated list of contaminated pesticides
products by the Environment Working Group
– EWG) bell peppers are almost always included. He often closes
this list, but the EWG warns that the pesticides used
for the processing of sweet bell peppers, “tend to be
more toxic to human health ”.
We have collected the most important points about the benefits and possible dangers of bell pepper
in this illustration and we will be very grateful if you share
a picture on social networks, with a link to our page:
Selection and storage
When choosing sweet peppers, hard peppers should be preferred.
to the touch of the fruit of bright color with glossy, dry and smooth skin
no damaged areas (no dark putrefactive spots and cracks).
On yellow peppers, spots of red, green or orange are acceptable
colors, on orange – red or yellow. Bright spotting like
as a rule, it will indicate incomplete ripening of the fruit, although
and such peppers can be bought.
The stalk from which the fruit is torn off must not be dry or
black. Drying out is a sign of long-term storage, and moisture
the skin around the “tail” is a sign of the beginning of decay.
Regardless of the degree of ripeness, the peppers are best kept in the refrigerator,
but at the same time immature fruits (at the stage of technical maturity) at
storage up to 2-3 months are first placed in a relatively warm
refrigerator compartment (about + 10 ° C), and then, after purchasing the skin
bright uniform color, they are moved to the cold compartment (0-1 ° C).
Peppers already ripe at the time of purchase (at the stage of biological maturity)
placed in the cold compartment immediately. They are packed in plastic
bags or placed in trays lined with crumpled porous paper
to absorb excess moisture and create air pockets that provide
To preserve bell peppers until next season, use
freezing in the freezer. To do this, wash the pepper, remove the stalk
and seeds, and then dry well. You can freeze as whole
cups, inserting them into each other according to the principle of “nesting dolls”, and sliced
into fruit slices. But it must be borne in mind that even frozen
pepper gradually, albeit slowly, loses its flavor.
Bell peppers are a very old culture. Together with hot pepper, he
began to be cultivated by the civilizations of South and Central America,
probably over 9000 years ago. The earliest fossil remains
plants dating from about 4100 BC e. found on
southwest of Ecuador.
Europeans heard about sweet pepper soon after the discovery of America
Spanish and Portuguese sailors. Towards the end of the 1600s,
for this product and the term “sweet pepper” known to us today.
In 1699, “pirate” and ship surgeon Lionel Wafer wrote about him
in the book “A New Journey and Description of the Isthmus of America, which
was in the Caribbean ”. In 1744, Edward Long listed
already 9 varieties of capsicum, among which was mentioned
“Large, soft green peppers with flesh, turning when ripe
in red or gold. “
Sweet peppers, as they ripen, really acquire different
shades, becoming, depending on the variety, red, yellow or
orange. Today marketers are using it to sell kits.
of 3 bell peppers – green, yellow and red – under the total
the name “Pepper-traffic light”.
By the way, this product is called bell pepper only in the territories
the former Russian Empire (and later the Soviet Union). To the markets
Bessarabia, Ukraine and the south. since the end of the XNUMXth century, sweet pepper
Bulgarian merchants began to carry, ensuring the circulation of the new “name”
product in these territories. In Bulgaria itself, this culture is called
or just “pepper“Or”pig“Or”pepper».
Often, the name of a specific product is used to define a product.
Varieties and cultivation
In the modern world, there are hundreds of multi-colored and different-sized
varieties of sweet peppers. Choose from them the most productive large or
a delicious variety (hybrid) is quite difficult, so we will show you “top five”
in our opinion, unusual bell peppers, outwardly unlike
the fruits we are accustomed to.
- F1 Snowwhite. Early hybrid of the Hungarian group
waxy peppers. The weight can reach 165 grams. The fruit turns out
sweet and juicy. But it attracts us, first of all, not gustatory
qualities, but its color. At first, the fruits have a white milky
color, and then, as they ripen, become bright orange.
- Ingrid. High-yielding variety with mass of peppers
up to 230 grams, with fruits of unusual shape and color. By color
Ingrid resembles chocolate most of all, and is almost correct in shape
- Red Wonder F1. The fruits of this hybrid are 220-260 each
grams each, despite the telling name, by the end of ripening
acquire not so much red as a dark burgundy color.
But this pepper was also called a “miracle” because it has enough
rare, almost round shape with flattened “poles”.
- Gingerbread Man. And here the name speaks directly about the form
pepper, which, due to its sphericity, is very similar
red ripe tomato. In addition, this variety has a good
productivity, resistance to diseases and pests.
- Blot. Purple bell pepper with
high yield. He is not afraid of wilting caused by controversy
fungus Verticillium albo-atrum, which other varieties are afraid of, but
he will not stand the absence of light.
Peppers can be grown not only in vegetable gardens and open plantations,
but also at home. Especially for decorative effect are sold
small pepper-trees or seeds from which to grow
bush with many peppercorns on the branches. When transplanted to the open
the soil of such a bush is easy to turn into a solid large plant,
if you follow the general growing requirements for peppers.
Peppers are very picky about lighting. He does not tolerate shadows for
the entire period of its development. Needs nutrient soil. For
it is suitable for purchased soil for begonias or violets, and with independent
cooking – a mixture of turf, sand and peat in a ratio of 1: 1: 2, respectively.
The root system area of the plant is not very large, so at home
for planting, you can use clay pots about 18-20 cm.
in diameter. In addition, bell peppers love warmth and do not like drafts.
But in general, growing bell peppers is quite a feasible task.
even for a novice gardener.