Plum, Calories, benefits and harms, Useful properties

It is one of the leading fruit crops in temperate
regions. Plum is a high-yielding stone fruit plant, the origin of
which is the result of natural hybridization of cherry plum
and blackthorn,
which historically occurred in the Caucasian and Asia Minor regions.
Plum cultivation continued in the Mediterranean and Central Asia. From Mediterranean
Italy, plum has penetrated into European countries and has firmly taken the position of
one of the most popular fruit trees in the world of fruit growing.

Plum – born, representing the family of Pink , subfamily
Almond (Plum) – covers a variety of forms:
Damsons (mild), plums, blackthorn, damson, plum Canadian,
draining American, Chinese plum, plum Ussuri, etc.. .

Useful properties of plums

Composition and calorie content

Fresh drain comprises (100 g) .

Calories 46 Kcal

Vitamin C 9,5 Potassium, K 157 Vitamin
B4 1,9 Phosphorus,
P 16 Vitamin
B3
0,417
Magnesium, Mg
7
Vitamin E
0.26
Kalytsiy, Ca
6
Vitamin B5
0,135
iron,
Fe 0,17

Full composition

Due to the high water content in plum pulp, the calorie content of the
fruit is relatively low. In canned form, the calorie content
of plum products (
including prunes ) increases significantly.

In general, the amount of vitamins and minerals contained in fresh
plums and prunes differs slightly. The content of
vitamin K, B vitamins
, and individual minerals in prunes is higher than in fresh
plums. Compared to fresh fruits,
prunes contain more calories, fiber and carbohydrates.

Fresh plums (fruits) contain 6-17% sugars (with a predominance of
glucose and fructose), up to 1.6% organic
acids (malic, citric, oxalic, succinic, quinic),
diphenylisatin, pectins, flavonols (quercetin, isoquercitrin),
anthocyanins and leukoanthocyanins, carotene, vitamin E, ascorbic acid,
B vitamins, compounds of potassium, iron, iodine, copper and zinc.
Kernels contain up to 42% fatty oils.

Plum leaves contain vitamins E and C, flavonoids, phenol carboxylic
acids. The composition of plum flowers includes flavonoids, cyanogenic
glycoside, flavonoid glycoside kaempferol and kaempferin, homoisoflavone
glycosides prunosides.

Medicinal properties

Plum fruits in fresh and dried form (also compotes from them
or juice with pulp) have a mild laxative effect. They are recommended
with constipation
and intestinal atony, to cleanse the intestines in the presence of inflammatory
processes in it . If these diseases are accompanied by diabetes
mellitus or obesity,
before eating plums, it is necessary to get rid
of sugar and acids during processing . For non-infectious hepatitis,
plums are good for the liver; they improve the condition of patients with atherosclerosis;
promote the removal of cholesterol, excess water and salt
deposits from the body . The content of dietary fiber (both soluble
and insoluble) in plums improves digestion. Pectins
in the composition of the plums, radioactive substances are removed. The fresh bark of the plum
tree is used in homeopathy.

Use in medicine

The pulp of plums is a part of the
Kafiol pharmaceutical combined laxative . In addition to this component, the preparation also contains
crushed senna leaves and fruits, fig fruits
and liquid paraffin. “Kafiol” refers to drugs that
cause chemical irritation of the intestinal mucosa.
It has a number of contraindications: proctitis, hemorrhoidal disease in the
acute stage, intestinal obstruction, perforated ulcer, spastic
colitis and constipation, disorders of water and electrolyte metabolism, etc.

In folk medicine

  • As a laxative, a recipe is used:
    remove the seeds from the plums and pour cold boiled water overnight. In the morning,
    cook the fruits for an hour, adding
    hot water as the liquid evaporates . Then drain the broth and consume the boiled plums
    before each meal (about 10 pieces at a time).
  • To strengthen the immune system, a decoction is useful:
    pour 20 g of finely chopped plum leaves, pour 250 ml of boiling water and boil over low heat
    for half an hour. Strain and drink ¼ glasses three times a day
    before eating.

Resin on a plum tree

  • For inflammatory processes in the kidneys, a drug from the
    bark of a plum tree is used: pour 10 g of chopped bark with a glass of
    boiling water and cook the broth in a water bath for half an hour. Strain, increase the
    volume by adding 50 ml of boiling water and drink ¼ cup three times a day
    before meals.
  • In case of constipation, an infusion is prescribed:
    rinse the plum tree branches (50 g) well, grind, pour 0.5 liters of boiling water, let it brew
    for 2 hours. Strain and drink 50 ml up to three times a day.
  • With gastritis
    (with low acidity), a useful recipe: just
    before use, mix the juice of homemade plums, prickly plums
    (thorny plums ) and honey (in proportions 4: 2: 1). Take the composition in
    a tablespoon three times a day. This treatment is contraindicated
    in diabetes.
  • To improve the functioning of the digestive tract, dry plum flowers
    (25 g) pour 250 ml of hot water. Let it brew, strain
    and drink cup infusion three times a day before meals.
  • Traditional healers
    suggest dissolving and removing stones from the gallbladder using the resin (gum) of the plum tree. 100 g of resin
    should be dissolved in 1 liter of dry white wine. Drink 50 ml three times
    a day half an hour before meals. It is noteworthy that this recipe was
    mentioned in the “Complete Herbalist” (1653) by N. Culpeper.

Outwardly:

  • For stomatitis, rinsing with a decoction of plum leaves is recommended:
    pour 20 g of dried leaves with a glass of boiling water, boil for a quarter of an
    hour and then add boiled water, bringing the volume of liquid to the
    original.
  • Alcohol tincture on plum
    pits helps with sciatica: split the pits. Grind the kernels of the plum pits to
    a powder state (you will need 25 g in total) and pour a glass of
    vodka. Let it brew for a week and strain. Rub the
    inflamed areas of the back with this tincture .
  • With an advanced form of weeping eczema,
    traditional healers advise an vinegar broth from plum leaves.
    Combine half a glass of vinegar (wine, fruit) with the same
    amount of boiling water and bring to a boil. Pour a glass of finely chopped
    fresh plum leaves into the vinegar broth and let it boil again.
    Insist for one hour in an enamel bowl under a lid. Saturate a
    gauze bandage with cooled broth and apply to damaged
    skin. After 10 minutes, rinse the sore spot with warm boiled
    water and lubricate with propolis ointment.

Flowering plum

In oriental medicine

In Indian medicine, plum is included as one of the main
components in the composition of drugs used in the treatment of gynecological
diseases (leukorrhea, unstable cycle, pregnancy failure).

In the traditional medicine of China, the fruits of the plum are used as a remedy
for vomiting, and the expectorant effect is also attributed to the plum.

In scientific research

The scientific interest in the study of the medicinal properties of plums is explained by the
high content of phenols in its fruits, mainly anthocyanins,
which are natural antioxidants.

In the work of Igwe E., Charlton K., the connection between the use of
plums and the improvement of cognitive function (in particular, a positive
effect on memory and related processes) is substantiated . In addition to the above
and antioxidant properties, the relationship between the inclusion
of plum fruits in the diet and the reduction of risk factors for cardiovascular
diseases is emphasized .

The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antibacterial and anti
cancer properties of home plum gum are analyzed in a study by Nazar
U., Raza A. et al.

University studies in Oklahoma, Florida have proven the benefits of
dried plums for strengthening bone tissue. Regular consumption of
dried plums in the diet directly increased bone density
and was found to be beneficial in cases of fractures
and osteoporosis.

A number of scientific works emphasize the following: the chemical composition
of plum fruits allows this fruit to be used as a source of raw materials
for the production of antioxidants in the food industry. [10,11]

Red plums

For losing weight

Low-calorie plums can become the basis for both a one-component
express diet (designed for 2-3 days) and for fasting
days (during which water, unsweetened green
tea is also used ). In the absence of contraindications, plum
juice is included in the diet .

Biologically active compounds contained in plum fruits
help in the fight against metabolic syndrome. Flavonoids and phenolic
compounds such as anthocyanins, chlorogenic acids, quercetin
and catechins counteract obesity by
inhibiting the growth of fat cells. A study by the
University of Liverpool (Institute of Psychology and Health)
concluded that eating prunes as part of a diet
for weight control actually accelerates weight loss.

In cooking

Plum is a fruit universally used in the field of culinary, which is
used both in confectionery and in addition to meat dishes.

  • Fresh plums are used to make compotes, preserves, jams
    , marmalades , confitures, fruit puree, marmalade and marshmallow, candied fruits. Pectins and pectin
    like substances contained in plums have high gelling
    properties. Plums are prepared as a side dish for meat, they are added to fruit
    salads and pastries. Plums are dried, frozen (with or
    without seeds ), pickled.
  • Dried plums (prunes) are used in compotes, for snacks
    and desserts, in combination with stew or baked meat. Varieties, the fruits of
    which are used for drying, production of dried fruits, must
    have a high content of dry substances and sugars. The pulp of suitable
    varieties is dense, and the bone is small.
  • Spicy and sweet and sour
    sauces (plum chutney, tkemali) are prepared from certain varieties of plums . In different recipes, plums
    go well with many spices: cloves, allspice,
    cinnamon, nutmeg, vanilla, and even garlic.

Plum sauce

Spicy plum sauce

Ingredients: 3 kg of plums, 50 g of garlic, 15-20 g of basil greens,
100 ml of vegetable oil, 5-7 g of ground cinnamon, 150-200 g of sugar,
salt and ground pepper to taste. Wash the plums and remove the seeds.
Put the fruits in a saucepan and simmer over low heat until
tender. Then rub the stewed plums through a sieve. Garlic
squash, green chop. Mix vegetable
oil, salt, pepper, spices, sugar, herbs and garlic with plum puree . Boil the sauce
over low heat for 25 minutes, stirring occasionally. Pour hot
sauce into sterilized jars and close.

  • How to quickly peel plums? Wash the
    plum, on the surface of the fruit (in the place opposite to the location of the
    stalk), make small cross-shaped cuts with a knife.
    Boil water, dip the plums in boiling water for half a minute, then
    immediately transfer the fruits to ice water (with ice cubes),
    also for half a minute. After that, pry off the peel in the area of ​​the incision
    – the drain will be easily cleaned.
  • In order for the fruits to stay fresh longer, the plums should not be washed in advance,
    but immediately before use.
  • In order to ripen the plums that have been picked, but slightly unripe, the fruits
    must be put in a paper bag with bananas
    (or apples),
    wrapped tightly and left for a couple of days. The
    ethylene released by the bananas will speed up the ripening process of the plums. [1.9]

Plum compote

Beverages

  • A lot of both alcoholic and non-alcoholic
    drinks are prepared from plums , and often the national plum drink becomes one
    of the country’s gastronomic business cards.
  • Popular in China is Suan Matang, a sweet and sour plum tea, a soft
    drink that is rarely needed in the summer.
  • Demson gin is a plum liqueur made in Britain. It takes
    pride of place in the list of gifts that are customary to give at Christmas.
  • Jerkam is a traditional alcoholic drink from a range of light fruit
    wines, plum cider, which has made famous the area in Worcestershire,
    England. Jerkam is also prepared from other stone fruits: peach,
    nectarine, apricot.
  • Slivovitz
    is a famous plum brandy, the production of which is widespread
    in Central and Eastern European countries (Czech Republic, Hungary,
    Slovakia, Poland, Serbia, etc.).
  • In Japan, the traditional plum liqueur is called umeshu.
    Umeshu is served with ice, mineral water, added to cocktails.
  • Slivyanka is a popular plum liqueur, for the preparation of which
    you can count more than one recipe option.

Slivyanka at home : fill a
bottle with Hungarian plums and pour vodka so that it completely covers the
fruits. Keep the bottle tightly capped in a dark place
for 6 weeks. Then drain the vodka, and cover the plums with sugar
(in the amount – “how many will enter”). Close the bottle tightly and leave for
2 weeks. Then drain the resulting syrup and mix it with the previously
drained vodka infused with plums. Filter the filling, pour
into containers and seal. Store in a cool place, aging period
– at least six months.

Plum wine

Plums in winemaking

Sorts like “Hungarian” are suitable for making wine. Of
white plums, only plums with low acidity and
early ripening plums are unsuitable . Plums make excellent dessert
wines. The difficulty for the winemaker is that the plum is a fruit
that “gives off” the juice hard, so the plums must be pre-
processed. Plum wine turns out to be opaque, cloudy, and
needs to be clarified. The longer you store plum wine, the better the
taste becomes .

In cosmetology

Plum cosmetics use plum
juice or ripe fruit pulp.

Plum face masks for dry skin

Option 1

The following recipe nourishes, softens and tones dry skin:
grind one egg yolk with a teaspoon of plum juice. Apply the
mixture to your face, after 20 minutes, rinse with warm and then cool
water.

Option 2

The mask is useful for dry skin: peel
and puree one ripe plum . Put the mass on the face (after having lubricated it with a nourishing
cream) and rinse off after a quarter of an hour.

Plum masks for normal skin

Option 1

Purée the ripe plum fruit peeled from the peel, mix with a
tablespoon of cottage cheese or sour cream, and apply the mass on the face. Wash off after
15 minutes with water at room temperature.

Option 2

To prepare a nutritious mask, grind a
tablespoon of butter, one yolk, a teaspoon of honey
and a tablespoon of plum puree until smooth . Leave the mask on the face for half an hour,
then remove the residue with a soft paper towel or cotton pad
(this mask is also suitable for dry skin).

Mask for oily skin:
peel and puree soft ripe plums . Mix plum puree with one beaten
egg white and apply to face. After 20 minutes, wash off with warm
water.

The following mask tones, rejuvenates : mix
egg yolk, 4 tablespoons of plum puree, 0.5 teaspoon of
honey and 2 tablespoons of grated oatmeal. Apply a homogeneous
mass to the face, décolleté, neck and arms. Wash off mask
in 20 minutes.

For any type of skin, a procedure is recommended:
moisten a few cotton pads or a layer of cotton wool in 100 ml of ripe plum juice and apply
such lotions to the face. After a quarter of an hour, wipe your
face lightly with a clean sponge.

Plum smoothie

To cleanse the body

Plum fruits are used in a variety of detox recipes that
cleanse the body of accumulated toxins and toxins.

Plum cinnamon smoothie

For cooking you will need: 3 large plums,
pitted and finely chopped, a quarter cup of apple juice, a
quarter cup of blueberries,
half a teaspoon of cinnamon and ice cubes. Grind all ingredients
in a blender until smooth. The calorie content of such a smoothie
is about 115 kcal.

A decoction of prunes and raisins also gives a good cleansing effect.

Dangerous properties of plums and contraindications

Plums are not recommended for people suffering from obesity, diabetes
mellitus; prone to low blood pressure (hypotension).
Sour varieties of plums are contraindicated for gastritis with high acidity
(hyperacid), stomach ulcer or duodenal ulcer.

During the drying process, prunes are treated with sulfites (to prevent
oxidation of phenols in fruits). Therefore, the use of prunes can
cause in patients with hypersensitivity to
sulfite substances , serious allergic reactions, up to anaphylactic
shock.

It is important to remember that the use of plums before a diagnostic test
for carcinoid tumors can lead to a false positive result:
this type of tumor provokes an increase in the level of serotonin in the
blood, and a significant amount of this
substance is fixed in the composition of plums .

Early childhood is also a contraindication to the intensive
and systematic inclusion of plums in the diet (
small quantities of plum puree are allowed ). [1,7,8]

We have collected the most important points about the benefits and possible dangers of plums
in this illustration and we will be very grateful if you share
a picture on social networks, with a link to our page:

It is best to pick plums when
4-5 days are left for the fruit to reach its final ripeness . When buying, preference should be given to
still rather elastic plums with a waxy bloom. Fruits with a thin
skin have a very short shelf life. It is advisable to store plums in a plastic
bag with small holes in the fruit and vegetable compartment of the refrigerator.
The average shelf life of unripe fruits under such conditions is up to
20 days. Prunes are stored in glassware or linen bags
in a dry and cool place.

The plum tree is moderately light-demanding and
is
more shade-tolerant than other stone fruits (peach, cherry, apricot) .
European plum varieties are characterized by a high need for moisture and intensive watering, since
their formation took place in conditions of sufficiently abundant moisture.
In addition, plum species such as blackthorn and Canadian plum are
drought tolerant. Plum grows well in various types of soil.
However, highly productive plantations of this culture can be created
in fertile areas, on soil with favorable physical characteristics.
Saline, waterlogged, stony soils, clogged with rubble or
lime unsuitable for growing plums. Loamy
chernozem, soddy and chestnut soils are suitable for draining .
Thermal conditions are one of the most important factors. It should be remembered that the area of ​​the plum is
limited primarily by temperature conditions. Plum is a thermophilic
plant (varieties of the Ussuri
plum are less susceptible to cold ). According to the degree of winter hardiness, all plum varieties are grouped into
low, medium and relatively winter hardy.

According to the ripening dates of the fruits, plum varieties are divided into early
(Early blue, Apricot, Renclode of Franz Joseph), average
(Renclode Altana, Moldavskaya blue, Mirabel Nancy, Kirk, Jefferson)
and later (Hungarian ordinary, Anna Shpet, Renclode
Bove).

One of the most significant varietal differences is the taste of the fruit.
It depends on the presence and harmony of the compound in the fruits of various
substances, first of all, sugars and organic acids.

Based on the taste of the fruit, the varieties are conventionally divided into three groups:

It should be noted that the palatability of fruits in almost all
varieties changes significantly over the years. This is due to more or
less favorable weather conditions throughout the year. Warm,
sunny, moderately humid weather during fruit ripening contributes to the
formation of high taste characteristics.

In modern fruit growing, plum is a fruit crop cultivated in
almost all countries of the world. Plum fruits are distinguished by their rich chemical
composition, high nutritional value and excellent taste characteristics.

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