This fruit plant is the oldest form of cherry
subgenus. It is believed that already 10 thousand years ago this tree was known
in Anatolia, as well as in Central and Northern Europe. In the botanical
classification at the level of the family Rosaceae sweet cherry – “relative”
roses, and at the level of the genus – the “sister” of the plum.
It got its common name thanks to the ancient Romans,
discovered plants in the vicinity of the town of Kerasunt, located
on the territory of modern Turkey. First, a drupe of “special cherry”
called “Kerasunt fruit” (lat. “cerasi”), and then in different
languages, more or less consonant derivatives
from this name (Spanish – “cereza”, German “kirsche”, English –
“Cherry”, rus. – “cherry”, etc.). Moreover, in academic science,
using Latin in terminology, another
the name – “Prunus avium”, which translates as “bird cherry”.
In medicine, cherry pulp, its seeds and even plant gum were used
long ago, due to which certain traditions of application have developed
compositions based on it. However, since 2007, when in the scientific world
anticancer properties of anthocyanins are being actively studied,
cherries again became the focus of experimental medicine.
Useful properties of sweet cherry
Composition and calorie content
Fresh cherries contain (in 100 g): .
Calories 63 Kcal
Vitamin C 7 Potassium, K 222 Vitamin
B4 6,1 Phosphorus,
P 21 Vitamin B5 0,199 Calcium, Ca 13 Vitamin
B3 0,154 Magnesium, Mg 11 Vitamin E 0,07 Iron,
The pulp of cherry fruits contains about 10% sugars, fiber,
hemicellulose, various organic acids, pectins, vitamins
groups B, PP, C, biotin, iron salts, flavonoid glycosides, ether
oils, coumarins, amygdalin. Depending on the cherry variety and conditions
its maturation, the chemical composition of the product varies, but in any
the fruit of a dark red color contains a number of anthocyanins among the flavonoids
(cyanidin 3-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside, pelargonidine 3-rutinoside,
peonidine 3-rutinoside), as well as hydroxycinnamic acids and
Cherry leaves contain a comparatively high amount of vitamin C. Seeds –
fatty oil and amygdalin. But in general, sweet cherry is not a record holder.
by the content of vitamins. It represents value as a repository
Moreover, unlike cherries, which have a little more anthocyanins,
cherries are distinguished by an abundance of polyphenols, thanks to which cells
get protection from oxidation and damage.
Relatively recently, in the first decade of the .st century, scientists turned
special attention to the flavonoid substances contained in cherries
– anthocyanins. These are plant glycosides that in plants
“Responsible” for the red, purple, blue colors of fruits or leaves.
The closer to this spectrum the color of the product, the more anthocyanins it contains.
And since so many varieties of cherries have just burgundy
and a deep red color, “bird cherry” has become the focus of scientists’ attention.
Anthocyanins interested doctors, because with the help of this substance
the plants themselves are protected from ultraviolet radiation, and as applied
to people, the properties of anthocyanins can be used in the fight against cancer
formations. During its growth, the cancer cell requires intensive
nutrition, which provokes an increase in the number of blood vessels and
capillaries. Anthocyanins, on the other hand, are capable of blocking nutrient channels,
limiting the flow of resources to the cancer cell, as a result
why she dies “of hunger”.
Also, fresh cherries contain a lot of potassium, which helps to strengthen
heart muscle and normalization of the pulse. Cherry biologically
active substances (for example, such organic compounds
like coumarins), are able to prevent blood clotting, thanks to
why regular consumption of “bird cherry” reduces the threat of formation
blood clots, being the prevention of heart attacks
Cherry fruits have a weak diuretic effect, as well as the ability
reduce the concentration of uric acid in the blood plasma that is used
to relieve seizures in patients with gout.
However, it is more effective to use extracts from the fruit for this, and
don’t just eat berries.
Some studies indicate the ability of sweet cherries
fetuses to lower blood pressure. However, the important thing here is correct
set the mode of use of the product and its quantity. So research
it was found that reliably the upper and lower indicators of arterial
pressure decreased within two hours after consuming a large
cups (300 ml) cherry juice. The effect lasted for about 6 hours.
At the same time, the division of the same volume into three parts with its hourly
using a similar effect on pressure indicators
The age of the patients also played a role in achieving the therapeutic effect.
hypertension and the duration of “cherry therapy”. So, in the elderly
people who drank a standard glass (200 ml) of freshly squeezed daily
cherry juice for 6 or 12 weeks, there was a decrease in the average
systolic pressure indicators. Diastolic pressure at
this remained unchanged.
Recently, the radioprotective properties of the juice were also determined.
sweet cherries.… This means that the systematic use of this
drink is potentially able to protect the body from radiation by
prevention of influence on organs of radioactive isotopes. but
this property is still in the initial stage of study.
Among the common confirmed effects produced by the use of
cherries, can be called sleep harmonization, stress relief, improvement
the mood of the subjects, an increase in the ability to remember and perceive
Use in medicine
Despite the numerous medicinal properties of cherries, as
raw materials, it is used mainly in food supplements and sports
nutrition. Thus, a number of Western companies offer cherry extracts in
capsules without specifying the recommended daily intake.
Among the readily available on the market are Enzymatic Therapy brands,
The use of sweet cherry fruits in modern folk medicine is based on
on the alleged expectorant, antipyretic and tonic effects.
Known to folk healers and sedative (sedative and hypnotic)
action produced by aqueous infusions of cherry fruits. Exist
recipes for using sweet cherry juice to combat fungal infections,
the effectiveness of which is confirmed by medical research.
But traditional healers use not only berries. For example,
tea from “bird cherry” flowers, as well as a decoction of its branches actively
used as a medicine for diseases of the mucous membrane
mouth and gums, and also as a sedative for burns. Decoction of stalks
cherries have a pronounced diuretic effect. However, although
experimental verification and confirmed this effect, were identified
and the risks of using this decoction for urolithiasis. The danger
associated with strong leaching (excretion) of calcium salts when consumed
doses recommended by healers.
Below are the recipes for the two above-mentioned decoctions from stalks and branches:
- To prepare a decoction from the stalks, 1 liter of water is brought
until a boil, after which a large handful of well is dipped into it
washed cherry “tails”. Within 5 minutes the stalk
boiled over low heat and left in a saucepan for half an hour
for cooling. This amount of broth is enough for two days.
- In a decoction of branches, young cherry shoots are collected, carefully
washed and crushed, and then boiled for 2-3 hours
over low heat. The cooled filtered liquid needs two or three
rinse the mouth once a day to stop inflammatory
In oriental medicine
In traditional Chinese medicine, it is customary to separate all foods
food according to the criterion of the presence / absence of two opposing
started Yang and Yin. For gradation and convenience of stabilizing the balance of these
began in the body is introduced a scale with divisions from “-3” (for products
food with a maximum concentration of Yin energy) to “+3” (with a maximum
concentration of Yang energy). Cherries on this scale are on
position “+1”, moderately and gently increasing activity and mobility,
stimulating progressive movement, strengthening firmness and strength.
At the same time, products with moderate values close to zero (“-1”
and “+1”) are considered more preferable than products that
located on the edges of the scale, which are recommended to use
with great care.
A completely different approach to the use of cherries and cherries was confessed
in the ancient Persian tradition. He was a mixture of folk
beliefs and experimental medicine, in which the nature of cherries
was defined as “hot in 1 degree and wet” (for comparison
the nature of the cherry was considered “cold to the 2nd degree and wet”)..
With the help of cherries, the ancient Persians got rid of thirst, nausea,
biliary vomiting, high blood pressure. It was believed that cherry juice
pits, to which anise seeds are added,
helps to remove stones, cure diseases of the bladder,
facilitate the course of menstruation.
Cherry gum, dissolved in wine, according to the plan of the Persian doctors,
also had to fight stones in the bladder, and
relieve lung ulcers, hemoptysis, suffocation and the resulting
Some of the treatments were extreme. So,
for example, one of the ancient treatises on Middle Eastern medicine
offered a prescription for treating urinary tract ulcers and getting rid of
them from pus. It recommended crushing the kernels of the seeds of the fruit
and insert the mixture with the wick into the opening of the penis. Procedure
this was painful, but for such drastic measures, patients
agreed, tired of constant torment and under the influence of authority
Persian medieval medical school, central representative
which was the famous Avicenna, was indeed very revered
and progressive for its time. Not surprisingly, since XII-XIII
centuries it spread in the West. The author of “Salernsky
Code of Health ”, Arnold from Villanova, who studied at the medical
faculty in Montpellier, the works of the great Persian healer,
gives his assessment of the healing effect of “bird cherry”:
“If you sing cherries, you will receive considerable benefits:
They cleanse the stomach, and relieve the core of stones;
You will have good blood from the pulp of the berries. “
I must say that due to the external similarity of cherries and cherries, the ancient
physicians did not always distinguish them. Often only by
indirect signs, if any (taste characteristics,
density of pulp, color of berries, etc.), one could assume that
that the recipes were about cherries. Still in some
modern Western scientific research, such a distinction is not
is indicated, and then we have to talk about the general effect of
the use of these drupes or experimental drugs for
In scientific research
In the spring of 2018 in the scientific journal Nutrients, publishing research
and reviews on all aspects of nutrition, an overview of the results appeared
29 controlled scientific experiments conducted on volunteers,
who consumed in various programs either cherries and cherries,
either juices from them, or preparations based on them. The bulk
materials (20 works) were devoted to the “more promising” cherry.
In 2 studies, cherry and cherry did not differ. In 7 experiments
scientists worked exclusively with cherries, the “daily dose” of which
varied within 45-270 “berries”. (When investigating the action
preparations and extracts daily dose of biologically active substances
recalculated by the number of fruits containing them).
Not all experiments have unequivocally confirmed (or refuted)
studied effect, but overall, they were able to demonstrate the potential
these “drupes”. Summarized, the results were as follows
- In 100% of experiments, the use of “berries” and drugs reduced
concentration of uric acid, which reduced the frequency of seizures
gout, improved the condition of patients with osteoarthritis.
- In 80% of cases, based on the reaction of special markers, scientists
recorded a weakening of the oxidative process, which gave rise to
talk about the direct antioxidant effect of cherries.
- 71% of the results confirmed the ability of cherries to reduce arterial
- 69% of studies found anti-inflammatory effects
improves the condition of blood vessels.
So, in the fight against arthritis
the action of sweet cherry anthocyanins contributed to a decrease in the concentration
uric acid in plasma and relieved seizures in patients. Experiments
in mice and rats also confirmed this. At the same time, it was found that
that to obtain the result it is more efficient to use the extracted
anthocyanins or cherry extract, not just eating the fruit..
The anti-inflammatory effect was confirmed by experiment, in
which healthy men and women daily consumed 280
g cherries for 28 days. The researchers took their blood and
tested it for inflammatory markers (for example, C-reactive
protein, whose concentration in blood plasma increases with inflammatory
processes in the body). In the middle of the experiment and at the end of it
it was found that the concentration of most markers decreased..
The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of cherries impart
polyphenols, melatonin, carotenoids and vitamins E and C. Therefore, it
consumption helps to reduce levels of oxidative stress
To determine the effect of cherries on human pressure,
popular in the USA variety of sweet cherry “Bing”. Scientists have found that the upper
and the lower pressure decreased significantly within 2 hours after
one-time use of 300 ml of fresh juice of this cherry and
returned to normal within 6 hours. However, if a person drank
juice every hour, 100 ml, then it had no effect
– neither upper nor lower pressure decreased. From this scientists
concluded that both dose and digestion time are important for
In another study, 200 ml of freshly squeezed cherry juice per day
(or 138 mg of anthocyanins per day) reduced the mean systolic
(upper) but not diastolic (lower) blood pressure in the elderly
people after 6 and 12 weeks of daily use. Control
comparison was made with a group that took a placebo for 12 weeks
.… The effect is associated with the effect of sweet cherries on a decrease in the body
peptide “Endothelin-1”, which causes vasoconstriction and worsens
According to various studies, the use of cherries does not have
significant effect on sugar and insulin levels in the body
a healthy person. But consuming sweet cherry extract before infection
helped prevent its development in rats.. Also
thanks to anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonols,
stimulating the consumption of glucose by hepatocytes (liver cells).
In addition, anthocyanins slow down the release of glucose.
from complex carbohydrates and stimulate the production of insulin by beta cells..
In general, scientists believe that cherries contribute to the regulation of the level
blood glucose, but it is not yet clear how much it can actually prevent
the development of diabetes in humans.
In experiments on mice, the addition of cherry extract or pure
anthocyanins in a high-fat diet helped reduce
blood glucose and triglycerides (unhealthy fats) in mice
(in comparison with those rodents who were not given cherries)..
Also, pnthocyanins from cherries in the diet improved lipid metabolism.
in the liver in mice.reducing diet-induced liver steatosis
(fatty liver), which in humans is considered the most
widespread hepatosis characterized by pathological accumulation
fat in cells.
In addition to the therapeutic effect, scientists also studied the effect of sweet cherries.
on the state of the nervous system, quality of sleep and cognitive abilities
So it turned out that cherries affect the quality even better than cherries.
and the duration of sleep. Results are visible after 3
day field of daily use 140-145 g (or 25 berries) sweet cherries.
There is also a decrease in cortisol (stress hormone) levels
in urine, reducing anxiety and improving mood..
The influence of cherries on cognitive abilities was determined experimentally
with grown neural cells. Scientists have found that polyphenols,
contained in the “berry”, help cells to protect themselves from destruction,
caused by increased oxidative stress.… Experiments
animals have also demonstrated a positive effect of anthocyanins on memory.
For losing weight
“Cherry Weight Loss” is considered one of the most enjoyable and easy
carried among all “berry diets”. 100 grams of product
contains only about 50-60 kilocalories, but cherries with
this gives a person a feeling of satiety, which greatly simplifies control
over the process.
The most popular express diets using cherries are
fasting days. Stable long-term weight loss they
will not provide, but they will help you temporarily get in shape.
For a day, you will need up to 2 kg of sweet cherries and 1 liter of kefir
or low-fat drinking yogurt. All products to be shared
for 5 servings and is eaten (drunk) during the day. If in between
between meals a feeling of hunger will arise, it is recommended
muffle with plain water or herbal teas. The volume of drunk at
this water is not limited. Sometimes the “fasting day” is successful
stretch for 3 days. It is believed that with such a diet, you can reset
up to 4 kg.
7 Day Express Diet.
A week on one cherry without side effects will not even live
the most hardy. Therefore, seven-day weight loss involves only
adding cherries as an additional ingredient to every meal.
- Breakfast: Oatmeal
porridge or cottage cheese (150 g) and cherries.
- Lunch: Boiled and lean meat (100 g) and cherries.
- Snack: herbal tea and cherries.
- Dinner: Baked fish (100 g) and vegetable salad (150 g).
Because the vitamin C in bird cherry helps to absorb
iron found in other foods, cherries are recommended
people at risk of developing anemia,
those who are going to lose a few extra pounds for vacation with the help of diets.
Sweet cherry goes well with many traditional for our
products table. Its fruits are often added to cereals, cherry
meat and fish are seasoned with sauces, it is constantly present in
as a filling in baked goods and curd casseroles. Exist,
however, there are also rarer ways to make bird cherries. Among
such – cherry soup. Here is his recipe.
For the dish you will need:
- Sweet Cherries – 500 g.
- White wine – 2 glasses
- Water – 2 glass.
- Cream – 1 glass.
- Lemon – 1 pcs.
- Sugar and cinnamon to taste.
To make soup you need:
- 1 Wash the cherry fruits and remove the seeds from them.
- 2 Remove the zest from the lemon and squeeze the juice into a common saucepan.
- 3 Mix wine, water, juice and lemon zest in a saucepan, add
sugar, a cinnamon stick and, bringing it all to a boil, a few
simmer for minutes.
- 4 Add cherries and bring to a boil again.
- 5 Remove the cinnamon stick and let the soup cool.
- 6 Mix the cream and soup and beat until smooth.
Such a ready-made dish is sent to the refrigerator for 2 hours, after which it is served chilled.
As a source of zinc and copper for collagen production,
responsible for skin elasticity, cherry extracts are part of
various masks for the skin. As a rule, as part of such a cosmetic
funds are also other components, as a result of which natural
masks with a cherry component at the base can perform different
- smooth out wrinkles on the face (for example, Vilenta sheet mask
with cherry extract);
- cleanse and moisturize (e.g. Japan Gals Natural
- nourish and protect (e.g. hand mask with cherry extract
and vitamins from the German brand LCN);
- have anti-inflammatory effect, protecting against acne,
blackheads and blackheads
(for example, face mask Luchix “Shark Retinol” with Roman chamomile and cherry).
Cherry seed oil can be found in natural
bases for lipstick. The antifungal effect of the juice is used in
home remedies for treating affected nails. Shampoos
based on cherry extract are advertised as products capable of
due to the action of vitamins
group B, to give the hair a lively shine and thickness.
Dangerous properties of cherries and contraindications
Doctors-gastroenterologists warn against eating fresh cherries
people suffering from intestinal adhesive disease and other disorders
patency, as well as people prone to flatulence.
Also, with great care and in small portions, you should try
cherries sick with ulcers and gastritis
with high acidity. In addition, the sugar content of cherries makes
its “difficult” product for diabetics.
However, doctors warn that even healthy people should not
overuse cherries and lean on them shortly after heavy
lunch. Vegetable fiber, which is found in abundance in
fruits, can lead to intestinal distension and discomfort in
stomach. If you want to eat more, it is advisable to wait about
0,5-1 hours – this will help to avoid digestive upset.
We have collected the most important points about the benefits and possible dangers of cherries.
in this illustration and we will be very grateful if you share
a picture on social networks, with a link to our page:
Selection and storage of cherries
A competent approach to the choice of cherries requires attention as to ourselves
fruits, and to those who sell them. Therefore, cherries are advised to acquire
where it undergoes safety and quality control. Even for
Weighed “berries” purchased on the market must be provided upon request
documents confirming the passage of the check. About the place and conditions
the growth of the fruit can be obtained from the seller or, if the cherry is sold
prepackaged – on the label.
Minor defects (dents and cuts) that buyers often
do not pay attention lead to rapid damage to the fetus and the appearance
the characteristic putrid aroma of fermentation. A similar smell is
one of the main indicators of the condition of the fruit.
Since cherries often begin to deteriorate from the stone, the beginning
decay processes can also be recognized by the state of the stalk (vegetable
“Tail”). Fresh cherries are green and not dry. Dry and
a darkened stalk indicates that the berries have already been stored sufficiently
long and the likelihood that they began to deteriorate is higher.
Experts advise not to rush and buy cherries in the midst of
season, which lasts 1-1,5 months – from late May to early July.
During this period, the fruits are both tastier and healthier. At the same time, the color is ripe
berries are more dependent on the variety and focus on it
need only adjusted for varietal differences.
There are varieties of cherries that, even during the period of maximum ripeness,
are pink. Such fruits differ from dark ones in less saturated
sweet and sour taste, but they contain more vitamin C. Yellow
varieties are also characterized by pronounced sourness. However, to transport
(forwarding) them are more difficult because their thin skin makes them
require careful handling. If the cherry is more attractive
sweet, bright taste and high content of organic acids,
then it is better to choose dark red, burgundy or almost black varieties.
They are also advised to be used in canning.
Early varieties of cherries are poorly suited for storage, so they are better
available immediately after purchase. But also keep later varieties
follow in the refrigerator, in a container with a lid. Moreover, before that
the berries should be washed, dried, the stalks should be separated, and only then
send to the coldest place of the refrigerator.
There is another storage method that does not require the removal of the “tails”
which is especially true for varieties where the stalk is very dense
attach to the fetus and is only separated with damage (for example,
variety “Valery Chkalov”). In a glass jar, a layer is laid on the bottom
cherry leaves, on top of them – berries – also in one layer,
and then alternately a few more layers of berries and leaves. Jar tight
closed with a lapped lid and placed in the refrigerator. After such
preparation cherries can be stored up to 2 weeks without loss of flavor
and useful qualities.
Sweet cherry is a common tree for residents of Asia and southern regions of Europe,
and with the development of frost-resistant varieties, it became not uncommon and
in more northern countries. However, some facts are at odds with generally accepted
ideas about this plant and its fruits.
- Cherry tree in height can reach 25-30 meters, although
Plants not exceeding 5-10 meters are more common in gardens.
- Food coloring is made from cherries, however, contrary to expectations,
it is not red, but green.
- “Bird cherry” this plant was named, apparently, for the love of birds
to its fruits. They do not refuse the desire to peck ripe berries
even city sparrows.
- One hectare of flowering cherry orchard provides raw material for 35 kilograms
pollen collected by bees.
- It is incorrect to call sweet cherry a “berry” in the classical sense of this
term, since one of the botanical characteristics of berries is
the presence of many seeds inside the fruit. Therefore, in a “serious conversation”
what the people call “berries”, it is more correct to call “stone fruits
- According to some psychologists, people who name as a loved one
sweet cherry delicacies, have a soft, docile character, are characterized by
sincerity and childlike spontaneity, love small surprises
and are ready for sacrificial behavior for the sake of another person.
There are still few cherries monuments in the world, in comparison
with monuments to other vegetables and fruits. One of the few is
in the city of Minneapolis (USA). Since 2012, their monument is planned
set in the Ukrainian “cherry capital” – the city of Melitopol.
In the meantime, it has not come to the implementation of the presented projects, in the city
a 27-meter mural with an image of
fruiting branches of “bird cherry”.
During the tsarist empire, Melitopol cherries were famous in
France, where she went in barrels filled with special solutions.
In Paris, until the middle of the .th century, there was a store that was called
“Melitopol cherry”. In addition to climatic conditions, taste
quality and as a result – the popularity of the Ukrainian product was ensured
special Azov soils, formed after the melting of the ancient glacier.
Ideal cherry soils were formed due to the fact that above
a one and a half meter layer of black soil was applied 70-90 cm of easily warming
The emergence of cherry orchards in the south of Ukraine is associated with the names of the doctor
Andrei Korvatsky and landowner-philanthropist Louis Henri Philibert, one
of which was a distant relative of the Hungarian king, and the other
– a descendant of the Huguenots who moved from France to the Netherlands.
Varieties and cultivation
The ripening time of cherry fruits depends on the variety. The earliest
ripen in the second half of May, and the latest ones – by the end of June.
There are dozens of varieties of sweet cherries, each of which is remarkable for something.
But all of them, in addition to their advantages, have their own disadvantages.
- “Valery Chkalov”… Frost resistant (at -24 ° C
a third of the buds survive) and a relatively early variety (ripens in
the first June decade) was the result of the joint work of specialists
Melitopol Experimental Gardening Station and Michurinsk Central
genetic laboratory. The fruits reach 6-8 grams, having a dark red,
almost black. Pinkish streaks are clearly visible in the pulp.
This variety is distinguished by the bright taste and juiciness of cherries, which are also suitable
for canning. However, there are also disadvantages: the tree is often affected
gray rot, coccomycosis and other fungal diseases that
can completely ruin the harvest.
- “Regina”… German breeders specifically
was created on the basis of other varieties “Rube” and “Schneider” as sweet cherry
late fruiting, ripening by mid-summer. The pulp has
honey-sweet taste with slight sourness. The fruits themselves are dense, well
carry transportation. The key disadvantage is the need
the presence of pollinators of other varieties.
- “Red Bittner”… Also a German variety, which
for more than a dozen years. In Poland, he so “got accustomed” that he received
local regional names “Napoleonovskaya” and “Poznanskaya”.
The skin of the fruit is yellow, but the well-lit cherries are covered with
brilliant blush. Light yellow pulp, extracted from it
colorless juice. The disadvantages of growing include the danger
cracking of the skin in rainy weather (which helps spraying
calcium preparations), and to the shortcomings of storage – sensitivity
to pressure upon reaching full ripeness. For the same reason
Cherry “Red Bittner” for transportation is harvested a little earlier
- “Bull heart”. The name of the variety speaks for itself: fruits
large (7-10 g) flat-round shape, vaguely resembling a heart.
They have the highest tasting rating, and compotes from this cherry
They are distinguished by a rich, beautiful dark red color. However, according to
this variety is inferior to the characteristics of keeping quality and transportability
many other varieties. At the same time, the tree has high winter hardiness.
and is immune to fungal diseases and in particular to coccomycosis.
- “Yellow”… Early cherry, ripening at the beginning
June (even a little earlier than that of the Valery Chkalov variety), bred
at Artyomovskaya OSS. The skin, although thin, is dense. Unique
the taste is created by a combination of bitterness and sourness. The fruits reach
weights 8-12 g and are widely used for jam and compotes.
The entry of a tree into fruiting, the strength of its growth, quality and quantity
the fruits obtained depend mainly on the rootstock – the plant,
to the root system (or stem) of which a graft of cultural
varieties. Today, many vigorous and dwarf rootstocks are known,
each of which has physiological compatibility with some
cherry varieties and incompatibility with others.
Due to the fact that cherry is a very vigorous fruit
trees, breeders for a long time could not find a way to effectively
limiting her growth. Only from the 60s of the twentieth century there was a qualitative
a change in the selection of dwarf rootstocks that, since the 70s,
caused a breakthrough in horticulture in the cultivation of this crop. Topics
no less, even today, when choosing rootstocks for specific varieties, you need
take into account a huge number of factors affecting the size and quality
harvest: from frost and virus resistance to the number of root suckers
and stocking density. As a result, each gardener creates his own
a unique knowledge base for getting the best harvest.
So, for example, their innovative methods of growing cherries
on frost-resistant rootstocks they are practiced in the Dutch nursery Fleuren,
annually selling about 400-450 thousand plant seedlings. For
in order to achieve the optimal ratio of juiciness, berries, their
taste, caliber, damage resistance, transportable endurance,
the speed of the garden’s entry into full fruiting, its protection
from climatic factors, etc., – the nursery workers refused
from the tall stock “Colt” and began to grow low trees.
It turned out to be easier to protect them from bad weather and birds. Moreover, it is
simplified the collection of fruits, and the compacted planting scheme made it possible to obtain
more yield from the same area.
More than 20 varieties of sweet and sour cherries are grown in the nursery, among
which and the most popular in the world Burlat, Vanda, Merchant, Karina,
Kordia, Regina, and for each variety its own optimal
rootstock. At Fleuren, depending on the cherry varieties,
rootstocks “Gisela” -3, -5, -6 and -12.
However, despite the successful Dutch experience, not every household
it is possible to create an optimal combination of stocking density, characteristics
soil, irrigation regime, herbicide application, etc. Dwarf rootstocks
require the use of non-depleted nutrient-rich soil
and stable watering during dry periods. Hungarian breeders,
for example, in one of the farms that is not equipped with an irrigation system,
on the varieties Alex and Katalin it was not possible to get large and beautiful
fruits when using the rootstock “Gisela-5”, which is considered more
demanding growing conditions than “Gisela-6”. Wherein
in neighboring Poland, in prepared farms, such a problem is not
arose – the root system of plants even during a snowless winter
demonstrated frost resistance, which, among other things, also
contributed to the growth of popularity among European and American gardeners
and Gisela-5 and Gisela-6.
In post-Soviet countries, the stock is still quite in demand.
Colt, which absorbs magnesium and calcium better than many others.
On sandy permeable soils, this creates an advantage by eliminating
cherries for magnesium deficiency. Nurseries also grow seedlings on “Colt”
also because it reproduces well with the usual horizontal
layering. However, this stock is not frost-resistant enough and from 6-7
years, it has a delayed incompatibility with such popular
varieties like Burlat and Summit.