Pumpkin is an annual or perennial plant, the first mention of which dates back to the 4th-3rd centuries B.C. Translated from Old Slavonic, this word is starts a “chubby fruit.” Currently, thanks to the efforts of agronomists, there are different varieties of pumpkins that differ from each other in appearance, taste and areas of use.
- Brief description of the pumpkin
- Hardcore <
- Atlantic giant
- Big Max
- Big Moon
- Paris Gold
- Stopudova (Titanium)
- Bbw <
- Princess Frog
- For the Moscow Region
- Gribovskaya bush 189
- Parizhanka <
- Russian <
- Therapeutic <
- For Siberia and the Urals
- Hybrid s
- Sweet <
Brief description of pumpkin
Pumpkin is a genus of herbaceous annual or perennial plants of the pumpkin family. Usually, this word means certain species of the genus: common (or thick), nutmeg and large-fruited.
They refer to annual herbaceous crops that are grown in the garden or plot for livestock (fodder varieties) or for food (dining views).
General description of the plant:
- bush has a developed rod root system, which can reach 8 m in length;
- stems are powerful, fibrous, covered with hard hairs;
- the leaves are large, dark green in color, with a diameter of up to 25 cm. They are also covered with hard hairs;
- the culture grows, spreading along the ground and clinging to the soil with branched antennae;
- it is a monoecious plant;
- flowers are located singly or in bunches. Their color varies from white to orange. The cup and whisk have the shape of a bell;
- the size of the vegetable, the characteristics of its appearance and taste vary depending on the variety. Usually it is a round or pear-shaped fruit that has a hard peel and a large number of flattened seeds in the pulp.
At the moment, there are more than 20 different types of plants that belong to the pumpkin genus. Among them there are both wild-growing and cultivars cultivated by agronomists.
Currently, pumpkins are actively grown as a feed and table plant. This vegetable is most widespread in China (more than 28% of the total market), then in India (20%), Russia, Ukraine and the USA (4.5% each).
In countries Due to the long ripening period and inappropriate climatic conditions, the plant is practically not cultivated in Northern Europe and the UK.
Due to the popularity of vegetables over the past few years, a large number of agricultural communities have been created that specialize in breeding new varieties of pumpkins and growing existing ones.
The English-speaking community is considered to be the most popular Stardew Valley and the Russian-language “Sweet Potatoes”. Agrosite and Semko, which are based on the Internet, are also known.
A characteristic feature of these varieties is not the size of the fruit, but the thick and rough peel. It is in it (and also in the seeds) that a large proportion of useful trace elements is contained. In addition, a thick peel allows you to plant a plant in early spring, which allows you to get a crop in late August or early September.
The 5 most popular hard-bark varieties are considered.
- Barn. This is a mid-early variety of universal application with a semi-bushy type of growth. The fruits, even after ripening, have a green skin color and a small number of gray veins. The average weight of a vegetable is 3-4 kg. The barn is bred by planting seeds in greenhouses or seedlings. A unique feature of this variety is that it does not accumulate heavy metals and nitrates, and its flesh contains high levels of beta-carotene.
- Bambino. This is a mid-early variety for universal use with creeping shoots. Its fruits are round in shape and upon ripening acquire a rich yellow color. Their average weight is 6-8 kg.The pulp of the vegetable is tasty, sweet, juicy, contains a large amount of vitamins A and C. It is stored by Bambino throughout the winter.
- Cinderella. This is a mid-early table variety, which is planted immediately in the open ground. Thanks to the large foliage and developed bush, this hard-core pumpkin is not afraid of frost. The fruit weighs more than 9 kg; they have a rounded shape. After ripening, the pumpkin acquires a golden yellow color, sometimes with an orange tint. The value of the Cinderella variety is not only in the pulp, but also in the seeds. So, the latter are eaten both fresh and slightly fried to improve vision, restore hair and nails.
- Red Baroness. Mid-ripening variety that ripens 100 days after the appearance of the first seedlings. The fruit is large (up to 10 kg), round, segments clearly distinguished. The pulp is tasty, juicy and rich in vitamins. It is consumed both fresh and baked.
- Marble toad. This variety got its name thanks to the peel color dark green with white veins and stains. This is a heat-loving vegetable with an average ripening period. The first fruits appear 4 months after planting in open ground. The species is intended for cultivation only in warm regions of Russia. Pumpkin weight varies from 6 to 12 kg. The fruits are used in cooking: baked with slices, boiled cereal and mashed potatoes. In a cellar or other dark, cool place, vegetables retain their palatability and presentation for a whole year.
Also, the seeds of hard-boiled pumpkin varieties have a unique chemical composition and taste.
These species differ not only in the large size of the fruits, but also unique flavor characteristics of their pulp. So, after full ripening of pumpkin, the sugar content in most varieties can exceed 15%, which is even more than that of ripe watermelon.
There are 10 most common large-fruited varieties.
You can distinguish this pumpkin variety from others even in the size of a seed. The Atlantic is a record-breaking variety both in the size of the pumpkin and in the volume of the bush and the amount of soil needed to grow this kind of soil.
The average weight of this giant pumpkin is 45 kg. With careful care, you can get vegetables weighing up to 250 kg.
The Atlantic giant is a mid-early variety whose first crop ripens 125 days after seed germination. It is thermophilic and requires regular watering. If these conditions are not met, the bush may lose its ovary or become ill.
This is another giant variety with fruits weighing up to 50 kg. It is considered mid-season and heat-loving. Beautiful oval or round vegetables after ripening acquire a deep orange hue.
The main advantage of the Big Max variety is its good resistance to common diseases of melons.
This is a medium-late variety characterized by large fruits . The average weight of one pumpkin is 25 kg, but a case has been recorded when a “giant” was grown weighing more than 90 kg. The plant bush is powerful and well developed: the lashes reach 3 m in length.
The pumpkins are round, smooth, and the segmentation is weak. The variety is appreciated for its size and long shelf life. Providing the necessary conditions, the crop “lies” for a whole year. Big Moon is also resistant to most diseases of melons.
This is a unique large-fruited variety. It does not differ in increased productivity, but it has excellent taste. The species is resistant to most diseases of gourds. Ripening occurs 3.5-4 months after seed germination.
The color of the pumpkin is gray-green with a small splash of orange. The shape of the fruit is round. Ribs are mild. The pulp of the fruit of the Zorka variety is sweet, but not juicy. It contains a small amount of seeds. The average weight is 6-8 kg.
A universal mid-season type of pumpkin. This is the most popular variety of this plant. Namely, it is used in most recipes by the famous chef Ilya Lazerson.
Kapitoshka pumpkin is small (about 1-2 kg), the number of ovaries on one shoot is 6-7.The fruit has a round shape, it is orange in color. The vegetable has crispy and velvety flesh with an average level of sweetness. In some, especially foreign, sources there is a hybrid version of this pumpkin called Orange Summer.
This is an annual French pumpkin that has been getting more and more lately popularity. This is due to its amazing taste and a large number of vitamins that are contained in its pulp.
The rich yellow color of the peel has become the reason for this name of the variety. Parisian golden pumpkin is a mid-early variety. Bred by agronomists in Paris, it tolerates sharp drops in temperature. Fruits are flattened, with pronounced segments. Their weight varies from 8 to 12 kg.
This is a mid-season large-fruited universal pumpkin. The huge fruits of the Stopudovaya variety are suitable for both eating and for feeding livestock. Due to the large foliage, powerful bush and well-developed root system, Titan can withstand sharp temperature drops without harm to the ovary.
To achieve the maximum fruit weight of 50 kg, you need to leave one pumpkin per brush.
This is a mid-season variety that ripens for 110-120 days. The fruit is large (weighing up to 40 kg), bright orange. The pulp is up to 10 cm thick, tasty and aromatic.Variety Fatty is characterized by high productivity, resistance to diseases and versatility of use.
This is a medium-late large-fruited pumpkin, which differs from others in its unusual appearance. This beauty has a peel of dark green color, top covered with tubercles and growths, which resembles a toad skin. Because of this, the pumpkin got its name. A bush looks like a bush of zucchini. From one plant, 15-20 kg of fruits are harvested.
Also, due to the high sugar content, the fruits of the Tsarevna frog variety are well stored and do not lose their presentation for a long time, even when they are in a warm room.
These varieties are considered the most delicious and healthy. However, at the same time, they are quite demanding on weather conditions and difficult to grow. The best option for breeding nutmeg varieties would be to use a greenhouse or film cover.
- Pineapple. This is a mid-season hybrid. Pumpkin is characterized by a shape in the form of a pear. Its pulp is thick, dense, sweet, with a pronounced muscat aroma. Fruits reach a weight of 1.5-2.5 kg. This is one of the sweetest and most delicious pumpkin varieties.
- Arabat. Table type pumpkin, which belongs to the late-ripening varieties. The first crop ripens after 130-135 days from the moment of seed germination. The average mass of the fetus is 6 kg.
- A large helmet. Delicious table pumpkin. The variety is medium late – the crop is formed on 120 days.The plant resembles a bush of zucchini. Each one ripens 3-5 ovaries with an average weight of 4-5 kg. The peel is orange-brown, waxy. The pulp is fibrous with a small content of seeds. Fruits are stored up to six months. The uniqueness of a pumpkin A big helmet is its fragrance. After ripening in its smell, you can catch the notes of the aroma of fig foliage.
- Prikubanskaya. This is a medium-late variety that has a long history of breeding. Small pumpkin weighs up to 2 kg. The Prikuban variety is characterized by an elongated pear-shaped fruit shape. The skin color is orange-brown. The pulp of the vegetable is tender, sweet and juicy. It is from pumpkins of the Prikubansky variety that various treats are often prepared.
- Candied. Due to the increased sugar content in the pulp, Candied pumpkin fruits are widely used in cooking – it is often dried and dried. Because of this, the variety got its name. This is a medium-late culture. The first crop ripens in 4-5 months from the moment of seed germination. Fruits are light brown, rounded flattened. The pulp is velvety, bright orange in color, with a high sugar content. The average weight of one fruit is 5 kg. On one bush – 3-4 ovaries. Harvest tolerates transportation and is stored for a long time even in apartment conditions.
In the central and southern regions of Russia, such varieties of nutmeg pumpkins are cultivated as Wonder-Yudo, Japanese Black, Trombone.
A unique feature of nutmeg varieties is the possibility of their ripening outside the melon.If the weather conditions worsen, the fruits are picked from the beds and placed in a dark, dry place where they gradually mature.
For the Moscow Region
The Moscow Region is characterized by strong temperature changes throughout the summer. Also there the earth warms up for a long time in the spring and early frosts in the autumn are frequent. These factors make the Moscow Region a little suitable area for growing gourds. However, there are several types of pumpkins that are successfully bred in a summer house in this region.
This is a gymnospermous pumpkin brought out by a Polish breeder. The plant has a bush structure, without long lashes and large green mass. They grow pumpkin for tasty seeds. The flesh is yellowish and has neutral taste.
Mushroom bush 189
This early-ripening pumpkin is appreciated for its compactness: the plant looks like a squash bush. Fruits have an oblong shape. After ripening, their green color changes to bright yellow with a small amount of green blotches. The average weight is 2 kg. Gribovskaya bush 189 is appreciated for its unpretentiousness: the bush does not require removal of extra shoots and antennae.
A mid-season round-shaped pumpkin. The weight of one fruit is more than 20 kg.Vegetables are stored for a long time in a dark cool place and tolerate transportation well.
This is a unique variety that is grown almost throughout Russia due to its frost resistance.
Many gardeners say that you can let the bushes spread along the ground or tie them up on trellises. Early ripe pumpkins of the Russkaya variety ripen after 3 months. In shape, they resemble a hula: round, but slightly pointed near the stem and inflorescence.
The flesh is moderately sweet, juicy. The mass of the fetus does not exceed 4 kg, but up to 6 ovaries are formed on one lash. The vegetable is canned, and juice and mashed potatoes are also prepared from it. On an industrial scale, mashed potatoes from this variety are added when preserving tomato and creating tomato juice. The main drawback of the Russian variety is the very short shelf life of the crop.
According to the name Healing or Healing Pumpkin, it is actively used in pharmacy, traditional medicine and cosmetology. This is facilitated by the high carotene content and low sugar level in the pulp of the vegetable.
Ripening fruits ripen 3 months after seed germination. The skin color after ripening pumpkin is gray with small white veins. The therapeutic variety is distinguished not only by its chemical composition, but also by its disk-like form. It has distinct segments.
The flesh is crisp, juicy and moderately sweet. The fruits are small – about 3-4 kg.The crop is stored in a cool, dark room for up to six months.
This variety is named after its unusual aroma, which vaguely resembles the smell of almonds.
This is an ultra-mature hard-bred variety that is sensitive to weather conditions and watering. The shape of the fruit is round, the segmentation is pronounced, the color after ripening is saturated orange. The weight of the pumpkin is about 5 kg. The number of ovaries depends on the weather and soil quality.
Vegetables are used in cooking and for animals to add raw to food. The main disadvantage of the variety is that the bushes are susceptible to powdery mildew. Plus – plants tolerate cold well.
Matreshka, Kolobok, Bessemyanka Michurinskaya and Dynnaya varieties are less common in the Moscow Region.
All of these pumpkin varieties are ripe and frost-resistant. They are bred through seedlings. They are also suitable for cultivation in the Leningrad Region and central regions of the country.
For Siberia and the Urals
Pumpkin is a heat-loving plant with a long ripening period. To grow it in regions with a cold and arid climate is very problematic. However, breeders were able to cope with this, creating new types of vegetables. They have a short ripening period, thick peel and small volumes of fruits.
In Siberia and the Urals, it is better to grow the following varieties:
- Beninkaza. This is the so-called wax or winter pumpkin.In Russia, it is still not well known, but gardeners already note its good frost resistance. This allows you to grow Beninkaza pumpkin in Siberia and the Urals. The fruit is elongated, light green in color. In appearance, it resembles a zucchini or an unripe melon;
- Baby. Ultra-ripe pumpkin, which begins to bear fruit after 80 days from the moment of seed germination. The plant is compact (has 4-5 ovaries on one shoot). The mass of fruits depends on the composition of the soil and the care of the crop;
- Print. Mid-season grade. Spreading bush with long lashes. Fruits weighing up to 15 kg, bright orange, flattened. For good fruiting, the plant needs a bush formation and systematic watering;
- Freckle. This is an ultra-ripe pumpkin, which is characterized by a small bush size, small leaves and short shoots. Cultivation requires a relatively small area. Fruits weigh on average 2 kg. They have a round shape and green skin with a small network of white veins. The pulp is not very sweet and not very juicy, has a pear flavor. Mostly fruits are used for livestock feeding.
Adagio, Olga and Premiere varieties are also grown in these territories.
Only frost-resistant and early-growing varieties are bred in the Urals and in the Far North. . You can also cultivate pumpkins that can ripen outside of the melon.
Hybrid varieties are especially popular among gardeners. Like all other vegetables of category f1, such pumpkins can be grown in open ground in almost any region. Only in some areas it is required to cover them with foil or to keep them in greenhouses for the first several months.
The most common varieties marked with F1 are:
- Atlas. This is a pear-shaped early pumpkin with large fruits and delicate tasty pulp;
- Matilda. This is a Dutch hybrid pumpkin, which is characterized by increased productivity. On one shoot, up to 9 ovaries ripen simultaneously. Matilda F1 is an elegant pumpkin that has a pear shape and crispy sweet flesh. The weight of elongated fruits does not exceed 2-3 kg. Due to the small amount of seeds in the pulp, the vegetable is used for stuffing and full baking;
- Potimaron (Red Sun). This is a medium-late table gourd with small, 2-3 kg, red fruits. In shape they resemble an inverted drop. Use them for canning and cooking different dishes. Potimaron is kept very well. In a dark, cool, dry place, it retains its taste and presentation for a whole year;
- Butter cake.This is one of the latest varieties that are harvested after the first frost. The fruits have a thin gray-green peel, sweet and crisp flesh. The average weight of the pumpkin reaches 7 kg. The variety Butter Butter can be stored for a long time. At the same time, the taste of vegetables will only improve over time;
- Chenzhou. Although the countries of East Asia are the birthplace of pumpkin, at present it grows well in the beds almost throughout Russia. This is a wax pumpkin. Chenzhou is fully consistent with the declared characteristics: it is frost-resistant, elongated, the flesh is milky green. Under suitable conditions, the crop can be stored for 2 years.
Among other varieties of category F1, Justinka, Pluto, Barbara are also popular.
Modern hybrids successfully combine good palatability, high productivity, resistance to sudden changes in temperature and immunity to diseases. All this affects the popularity of pumpkins marked f1 and promotes the development of new species.
Separately, it is worth highlighting varieties that have sweet and juicy pulp and a rich aroma.
- Apricot. Mid-early variety. The fruit is round, slightly flattened, slightly ribbed. Ripe striped pumpkin. The main color of her peel is orange, and the stripes are dark green. The pulp is slightly fibrous, very juicy. Seeds do not have a peel. They are consumed both raw and slightly fried.
- Caramel.Despite its name, this variety has a high content of vitamin C in its pulp and an average level of sweetness. Early ripe fruits have a clear division into segments, a rounded shape and a red-orange skin color. The average weight is 1.5-2 kg, but on one shoot up to 6-8 ovaries are tied. The pulp of the vegetable is juicy, velvety. Vegetables are eaten raw and used to prepare various dishes.
- Muscat de Provence. This is a French pumpkin, who was able to take root in the vegetable gardens on the territory of Russia, as well as her “countrywoman” – Paris Gold. Bred it in seedling method. In the northern regions of Russia, it is recommended to plant it in a greenhouse or under a film. She is mid-season. The first fruits ripen 100-110 days after planting seedlings in the soil. The shape of the fruit is round, flattened. Segmentation is pronounced. After ripening, the peel acquires a rich orange color. The average weight is not more than 4 kg. The peculiarity of the variety is that the crop can be harvested until it is fully ripe — the pumpkin is well matured outside the melon.
- Pink Fairy. Early ripe table grade. The plant is climbing. On one shoot, up to 6 ovaries are formed. The fruits are unusual – light pink, glossy, weighing 2-3 kg. The pulp is juicy, crispy.
- Winter sweet (Winter sweet). This is a late ripe pumpkin, which has a powerful bush: its lashes can reach 6 m in length. Even after ripening, the fruit retains a dark gray color.Their shape is oval, flattened and clearly segmented. The peel is thick and bumpy. The average weight of the fetus is 5-7 kg. The variety is demanding on weather conditions. It needs constant heat, but can easily tolerate drought. The crop is mainly used by producers of juices and baby food.
Sweet varieties of Augustine, Peeling and Sweet Chamomile are also common.
Most of them relate to the nutmeg species of pumpkins, but there are also large fruited. Their feature is a high level of sugar in the pulp. They even surpass some watermelons in sweetness.
Currently, pumpkins are not only actively used for food and feed purposes, but also grown specifically for decorating the interior. This is facilitated by the breeding of new species that have unique external characteristics.
The most popular decorative varieties:
- Chinese bitter Karelian;
- Mandarin duck;
- Turkish turban;
In describing decorative pumpkins, much attention is paid their appearance, and then other characteristics. After all, it is because of him that these vegetables have such names.
Some instances even pose a serious threat to human health. So, decorative pumpkin Chinese bitter Karelia in its raw form is poisonous. Before use, it must be soaked in saline for a while.
When choosing a particular variety, you need to have a clear idea of the future use of fruits. It is also necessary to take into account the climatic conditions of the region and the availability of the necessary agricultural technology.
Varietal variety of pumpkins allows you to choose the best option for each area, depending on the preferences of the gardener.