Spring garlic is used in cooking, traditional medicine and cosmetology. It is not difficult to grow it, and storage will not be a hassle. Let’s look at how to grow spring garlic in the country, what varieties should you pay attention to and how to store it properly in winter.
- Landing dates
- Soil selection
- Crop rotation <
- Variety selection
- Watering <
- Feeding <
- Cleaning and storage
- Storage <
- Fungal diseases
- Viral and bacterial diseases
- Pests <
Before proceeding to the description of the growing process to Ulthur, we’ll tell you about the difference between winter and spring garlic. Winter garlic is planted before winter, spring, which is also called summer, planted in spring. The difference between these types of vegetables is that winter varieties do not differ in keeping quality, and spring varieties lie until spring. Externally, the bulb of spring garlic does not differ from the bulb of winter.
Spring garlic is planted. Determined when to plant spring garlic, based on weather conditions. As soon as the soil warms up to 5-6 ° C, proceed to the planting of the culture. It should not be delayed with planting, since spring garlic at a temperature exceeding 10 ° C develops worse than at 5-6 ° C.In addition, at an air temperature of 10 ° C and above, the growth of its leaves slows down. As a rule, suitable temperature conditions in late April. In regions with a cold climate, it is better to plant a crop in the first ten days of May.
Another important point is soil moisture. Successful root formation occurs subject to the presence of sufficient moisture; therefore, do not delay the planting of cloves or seedlings. They are planted in viscous soil.
Spring garlic is not afraid of short-term spring frosts. This means that you should not take any measures to warm the plantings.
Spring garlic is grown on neutral soils. Sandy and loamy soil is best suited. At the same time, fertilizers must be added to the soil in the fall, so from then on, where to plant garlic is determined.
The best fertilizer for this crop is compost. For every 2 square meters. m. make a bucket of compost or humus. Wood ash and mineral fertilizers are also added to the soil. For 1 square. m should account for 3 cups of ash and 20 g of fertilizer. The choice is stopped with complex mineral fertilizers.
Spring garlic is a photophilous plant that does not like wind. It needs to be grown on a site that meets both requirements as much as possible. Especially the plant does not like the northern cold wind. In the lowlands where moisture is retained, the plant rots.
Crop rotation is an important agricultural measure for this crop. You can’t grow a plant every year on the same site. Soils are infected with fungal and bacterial diseases characteristic of garlic. In addition, parasite larvae remain in the soil. The planting place is changed every 3-4 years.
Another need to change the land is due to the fact that garlic takes certain nutrients from the soil, so that the soil for growing this crop becomes poor.
The plant needs in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Accordingly, crops that require other nutrients should be planted after and before garlic. The best predecessors for spring garlic are squash, cucumbers, cabbage or zucchini. It is also permissible to plant garlic after herbs, cereals and legumes.
Cabbage, peas or beans should not be planted next to the plant. It oppresses these cultures. Good neighbors will be strawberries, currants, cucumbers, potatoes, gooseberries, roses, gladioli or tulips.
Planting, growing and caring for spring garlic will not cause much trouble if you choose the right variety. The best varieties of spring garlic to date are: Gulliver, Elenovsky, Casablanca, Solent, Veleten, Alkor, Flavor. All of them are resistant to fungal diseases.Let’s take a closer look at the yield and ripening period of each variety.
- Gulliver. This is a shootable large variety. Gulliver needs 85-95 days to mature. Bulb weight varies between 100-120 g. The bulb consists of 4-5 cloves. The variety is distinguished by a large diameter of the bulb. Productivity – 98 tons per 1 ha.
- Elenovsky. The ripening period of this non-shooting Russian variety is 90-95 days. Bulb weight varies between 13-36 g. Up to 6 cloves are formed in one bulb. Productivity – 32 tons per 1 ha.
- Casablanca. The ripening period of a variety bred in Holland is 85-90 days. Bulb weight varies between 45-50 g. From 8 to 12 cloves are formed in one medium-sized bulb. Productivity – 90 tons per 1 ha.
- Solent. The ripening period of this large and non-shooting English variety is 108-112 days. Bulb weight varies between 80-130 g. From 9 to 18 cloves are formed in one onion. The yield of the variety Solent is about 20 tons per 1 ha.
- Veleten. This non-shooting Ukrainian variety is suitable for both spring and autumn planting. Unlike winter varieties, it is well stored in the winter. For ripening, the variety needs 87-90 days. Bulb weight varies between 30-50 g. A medium-sized bulb consists of 8-10 cloves. Productivity – 20 tons per 1 ha.
- Alcor. The maturity of this Russian variety giving arrows is 85-95 days. Bulb weight varies between 15-35 g.In one onion, 4 to 6 cloves are formed. Productivity – 30 tons per 1 ha.
- Flavor. This is a non-shooting large variety of French breeding. The ripening period is 90-95 days. Bulb mass, which looks unusual due to the arrangement of cloves in 2 rows, varies between 70-80 g. From 15 to 20 small cloves are formed in one bulb. Productivity – 40 tons per 1 ha.
Varieties that let the arrow, propagated by cloves and seeds. One-tooth is grown from seeds, from which, after planting, a full-fledged head of garlic grows. The propagation of non-shooting varieties occurs with teeth. They don’t give seeds.
Conventionally, planting spring garlic can be divided into several stages. Let us dwell on each of them individually.
- Before planting spring garlic, you need to prepare planting material. The heads are divided into teeth. Small teeth are not suitable for planting. They are suitable only for growing seed material. All planting material is soaked for 12 hours in a nitroammofoski solution (6 g per 1 liter of water). 30 minutes before planting in the soil, the cloves are soaked in a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Soaking garlic is carried out to accelerate the process of root formation. The variety is suitable for cultivation in central Russia.
- Before planting spring garlic in the ground, a site is prepared. Pre-sowing preparation includes loosening and soil moisture assessment. Loosening is carried out using a rake. Next, look at the degree of soil moisture. The area should not be excessively wet. If necessary, let the earth dry.
- Make furrows for planting a vegetable crop. According to agricultural standards, the distance between the rows should be about 27 cm. The culture is planted to a depth of 3-3.5 cm. According to the planting pattern, the distance between the cloves should be at least 6 cm. Large cloves are laid out at a distance of 10 cm.
- Lay out the planting material. It is laid on the surface of the earth, not crushed. Otherwise, the soil inhibits the development of the root system.
- Fill the planting material with soil. The planting of spring garlic does not end there. The beds are slightly leveled with a rake and covered with a layer of mulch. For mulching use humus, saturating the earth with nutrients. An alternative is compost or peat.
The first leaves appear 10-14 days after planting. Active leaf development begins when the temperature rises to 10-14 ° C.
To increase the crop yield, a month before planting, the cloves are transferred to a colder room (cellar or garage, for example).
Care of a vegetable crop includes watering, fertilizing, loosening the soil and destroying weeds. Loosening of beds is carried out on the second day after watering. During cultivation, weeding is carried out.
Watering the beds should be moderate, from the first day after planting, otherwise the crop will rot. Depending on weather conditions, watering is carried out 1-2 times a week in early spring, and 3-4 times closer to summer. After the bulb has formed, the frequency of irrigation is reduced to 1 time per week. As a rule, bulb formation ends after the appearance of 6 leaves. Watering is stopped in the second half of August.
The lack of moisture can be judged by the dried tips of the leaves. Vegetable culture is watered exclusively with settled water. Be sure to loosen the soil after watering: The earth’s crust prevents penetration into the air.
Topping spring garlic involves the addition of organic and mineral fertilizers to the soil. The first time the plant is fed after the appearance of the first shoots. It should be nitrogen top dressing. Mullein, bird droppings or infusions of herbs are suitable. It is permissible to simply spread humus on the beds. After feeding, watering is carried out. It is undesirable to feed plants with fresh manure.
After 14 days, a second dressing of the vegetable crop is performed. It involves the introduction of liquid mineral fertilizers. Preference is given to complex fertilizers.
After the formation of 6 leaves, a third top dressing is performed. It involves the introduction of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. You can use wood ash. An alternative is mineral fertilizers. Feeding with ash can be continued until mid-August.
When growing crops on fertile and well-cultivated land, you can do without feeding.
Harvesting and storage
The shelf life of spring garlic depends on how well harvested and prepared for storage.
To understand when to harvest spring garlic, you need to monitor the condition of the leaves. In a ripened culture, they turn yellow and fade. As a rule, spring garlic is harvested in the second half of September. In the southern regions, culture is dug up earlier than in the north-west of the country. You can speed up the process of ripening crops. To do this, each leaf is tied in a knot. Tie leaves should be in weak knots. This action is performed 30 days before the harvest.
Digging should be done only in sunny weather. During cleaning, they act neatly: mechanical damage to the teeth negatively affects their keeping quality. Harvesting from the garden immediately after harvesting is not worth it. For 40-60 minutes, it should dry in the open air. If the soil is moist, spread the crop on a tarp.
You can harvest the crop manually or using special equipment.
After harvesting the garlic is sent to the attic or to the garage for drying. You can dry the ripened heads and in the fresh air, but they should be under a canopy. Exposure to direct sunlight negatively affects the shelf life of the crop. Heads can be dried on nets or in a suspended state. If drying is carried out in a suspended state, then the heads are bundled in 4-5 pieces.
After drying, cut dried leaves and weave the heads into braids. To keep the crop at home until spring, the leaves are cut at a distance of 6-8 cm from the neck. You can store the crop in linen bags or cardboard boxes, but garlic woven into braids lasts longer than the one that is packed in bags or boxes.
In the spring it is important to ensure proper care for the vegetable crop, otherwise it will affect the disease.
The nature of the disease is determined by the appearance of the plant.
The most common diseases are fusarium, white rot, rust, cervical rot, black and green mold. All these diseases are caused by fungi.You can identify fungal diseases by the appearance of the leaves. x yellow spots appear that darken over time.The teeth either become watery and begin to rot, or wrinkle and dry out.
Treatment of these diseases is impossible – you have to destroy the affected plants. The main preventive measure is to maintain crop rotation and use good planting material . After sowing, diseased plants grow from the affected teeth.
Viral and bacterial diseases
These diseases are less common. Cloves damaged by bacterial diseases are poorly stored. Their bottom rot or ulcers appear. Symptoms of viral diseases are slow growth, deformation and chlorosis of leaves.
To treat these ailments, toxic chemicals are used.The final processing is carried out 30 days before the harvest. A preventive measure is the treatment of planting material with TMTD.
Vegetable crops are attacked by stem nematodes, onion flies, onion moths, onion leaf beetles and onion grindstones. For the prevention and control of pests, pesticides are used. There are folk remedies, but they are ineffective.