Biennial herb from the legume family,
up to 1 m high, with a tap-branched root. Stems
ascending, branched, almost round at the bottom
and slightly angular at the top. Leaves are alternate, trifoliate,
glabrous, long-petiolate) with entire subulate
stipules. Leaflets obovate or lanceolate,
sawtooth-serrated. The flowers are small, yellow, irregular,
moth, on short pedicels, collected in long
axillary brushes. Fruit – glabrous, cross-rugose, one to two-seeded
bean. Blooms in June and August. Found on saline,
and dry meadows, slopes of ravines, gullies, forest
edges, among shrubs in the forest-steppe and steppe zones.
Melilot is harvested during flowering, cutting with knives
tops and side shoots up to 30 cm long without thick
and rough stems. You can not collect the herb of medicinal sweet clover
on roadsides and near unpaved roads where it
covered with dust. Raw materials are harvested in dry weather, when
dew will come off, as being wet it is very fast
warms up and darkens. The raw materials are immediately sent to
Raw materials are dried in attics with good ventilation or under
canopies, spread out in a thin layer (up to 5-7 cm thick)
on paper or cloth and flipping it periodically. Drying
finish when the stems become brittle. It is impossible
overdry the raw materials, since then almost all the leaves crumble.
Dry in dryers at a temperature not exceeding 40 ° C. Term
shelf life of raw materials 2 years. The smell of raw materials is coumarin (smell
fresh hay), the taste is salty-bitter. Is the subject
Useful properties of sweet clover
Sweet clover herb contains glycosides, with
cleavage of which coumarin is formed (colorless,
crystalline substance with the smell of fresh hay), melilotol,
cymarine, melilotic and coumaric acids, tanning
and fat-like substances, derivatives of purine, choline,
essential oil, protein, flavonoids, ascorbic acid,
tocopherol, carotene, sugars, mucus. In a decaying plant
found dicumarol (dicumarin), which prevents clotting
Experimentally established and clinically confirmed,
that coumarin contained in the herb inhibits the central
nervous system, has an anticonvulsant effect.
In patients with leukopenia due to radiation therapy, coumarin
causes an increase in the number of leukocytes, mainly
due to granulocytes and, to a lesser extent, lymphocytes.
Sweet clover is used for insomnia, hysteria, cardiospasm,
migraine, climacteric complaints, as an expectorant
remedies for inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system,
laxative. The herb of the plant is part of the emollients
fees for poultices and preparation of green (abscess
and corn) plaster.
Donnik is an ancient medicine, it is also known
and the pre-Slavic era. In folk medicine, water infusion
herbs are used for increased nervous excitability,
insomnia, headache, neurasthenia, hysteria, melancholy,
disorder of menstruation, especially in menopause
period, bronchitis, dropsy, pain in the intestines and urinary
bladder, flatulence, and also as lactic acid (2 tea
tablespoons of herbs infused with 1/2 cup boiling water for
4 hours, drink in 3 divided doses 20-40 minutes before meals.)
Outwardly infusion and decoction of sweet clover, as well as ointment from flowers
sweet clover is used to treat furunculosis, purulent wounds,
mastitis, otitis media (2 tablespoons of herbs are infused with
2 cups boiling water for 5-6 hours).
The biological activity of a plant is determined by the presence
it contains coumarin. Sweet clover coumarin increases
systolic blood pressure, increases the minute
the volume of the heart and the number of leukocytes in the blood, improves
cerebral and peripheral blood supply and circulation
organs of the abdominal cavity.
There is information about the use of sweet clover medicinal
in India as an emollient, hemostatic agent;
with flatulence. In Chinese medicine, in fees – for
treatment of epidemic encephalitis.
Aboveground part. In homeopathy – for making essences;
inside – with climacteric ailments and psychosis
on the basis of hyperemia. In folk medicine – laxative,
included in softening fees; with gynecological diseases;
infusion, broth – with flatulence, diseases of the upper
respiratory tract and lungs, hypertension,
atherosclerosis; as an expectorant, sedative, diuretic,
antibacterial, hypotensive, antispasmodic,
pain reliever. Outwardly infusion, decoction (baths, compresses,
washing, poultices, lotions, ointments, plasters) – as
irritating, distracting, anti-inflammatory, cleansing,
emollient; with abscesses, furunculosis, mastitis, articular
rheumatism and malignant tumors. In Bulgaria infusion,
decoction – anticoagulant and fibrinolytic; with chronic
bronchitis, cystitis, migraine, hypertension.
In Poland – with insomnia, neurasthenia, with heart
and headaches; externally – for the treatment of hemorrhoids. IN
Austria and Germany – for diseases of the stomach and bronchitis.
In France, the broth inside is antispasmodic and astringent;
Leaves. A tissue preparation “Meliocin”, biostimulating
the effect of which is twice as high as that of aloe extract.
Flowers (fresh). Ointment (externally) – for boils, carbuncles
to accelerate their maturation.
Dangerous properties of melilot
Contraindicated in pregnancy and kidney disease. Donnik – poisonous
plant, the dosage should be strictly observed. Desirable
use it only in fees
In large doses, it inhibits the central nervous system, unfavorably
acts on smooth muscles. With prolonged use and
overdose causes dizziness, headaches, nausea, vomiting,
drowsiness, sometimes – liver damage, hemorrhages (under
skin, muscles, internal organs) and even paralysis
central nervous system. You can not use it during pregnancy,
internal bleeding, decreased blood clotting. Curative
the use of medicinal clover is possible only for the intended purpose and
under the supervision of the attending or local doctor.
Poisoning of animals is associated with feeding them spoiled
hay or silage from medicinal melilot. When decaying
hay (under the influence of molds), a poisonous
dicoumarin, which has an anticoagulant effect. Poisoning
develops with a latency period of 3-5 days and is characterized by
bleeding, hemorrhage, dyspeptic disorders,
depression of liver function, hematuria, possible allergic
reactions. Penetrating through the placenta, dicumarin can cause
lethal bleeding in the fetus. Poisoning is especially dangerous
with a lack of vitamin K in the diet.
sick animals are given food rich in vitamin K (alfalfa,
clover hay, carrots, etc.). Cattle
injected intramuscularly at 0,1-0,3 g of vitamin K and calcium-containing
drugs (calcium gluconate, calcium chloride).
If you suffer from puffiness and pain after injuries, then the folk recipe for ointment based on sweet clover will be your savior!