In XVIII century in France from Switzerland brought the ancestors of Montbeliard heifers. The Montbeliard breed of cows has been carefully selected for a century. Selection specialists aimed at producing special heifers that will produce milk suitable for the preparation of local varieties of cheese. The results were presented at the World Exhibition in Paris.Montbeliard received universal approval and recognition. Such a cow has become a welcome choice for small and large factory farms.
- Appearance of animals
- Characterization of milk production
- Characteristics of meat
- Sperm of Montbeliard bulls to improve livestock
- How to properly feed Montbeliard cows
- The method of milking such a breed of cows
- Conclusion <
of these representatives of cattle were kept on farms in the mountainous regions of France and were used mainly as dairy cattle. Later, Montbeliard animals began to be imported to other European countries, to Africa and even Australia. The distribution of the species is associated with the unpretentiousness of Montbeliard cattle in feed and the ability to quickly acclimatize.
Appearance of animals
The Montbeliard breed has the following external characteristics:
- Red-and-white suit.
- Proportional body build.
- Body length 1.62-1.65 m.
- Height at withers 1.4 m .
- The body weight of an adult is 600-650 kg, the bull is 1-1.2 tons.
- The head is large, the back is wide, and the chest is deep (the underparts in the bulls are expanded).
- The Montbeliard heifer has a large udder, shaped like a bowl.
Montbeliard cattle has a long lifespan and good health.
Careful breeding allowed the French to get highly milked individuals. Milk is characterized by an optimal ratio of protein and fat, an increased concentration of vitamins and minerals. The lactation process in heifers of this species is long and quite generous.
Gobies of this breed are also a valuable meat species. Experts recognized the high quality of meat.
Characterization of milk yield
Milk heifers have a fat content of 4%, the protein content in it is 3.45%. A Montbeliard cow gives up to 8000 kg of milk per year. A cow for one milk yield a large amount of product. Lactation lasts 305 days. Yield indicators are stable, may vary slightly with changes in diet. The fat content of milk always remains constant.
Montbeliard heifer gives milk, which has excellent taste. It is used for the industrial production of elite varieties of cheese, cottage cheese, yogurt. The dairy product from Montbeliard cattle is in great demand due to its excellent taste and nutritional value.
Characteristics of meat
The cows of this breed are in good health, therefore their meat has a high quality.Meat characteristics of this breed:
- High slaughter yield, up to 65-68% (ratio of carcass slaughter weight to animal body weight before slaughter).
- Low fat content in meat.
- The meat is red in color.
- The back of the carcass consists of premium meat, its percentage is large.
Representatives of the breed Montbeliard quickly gain weight. A bull in one day gives an increase of 1 to 1.5 kg, depending on the feed.
Sperm of Montbeliard bulls to improve livestock
The seminal fluid of bulls of this breed is used for artificial insemination of cows of the same species, to increase the meat and dairy characteristics of other breeds, the creation of new types of cattle. Crossing is carried out by several methods:
- Absorption crosses. Two different cattle breeds mate with each other to improve the performance of an unproductive species.
- Variable crossbreeding. Used to obtain highly productive animals. Hybrid females mate with bulls of the original species. The increased viability of hybrids has been preserved for many generations.
Variable crossbreeding is used on large farms and allows to improve the livestock of different breeds. Rapid breeding depends on proper insemination and good cattle care.
How to properly feed Montbeliard cows
Montbeliard is unpretentious in food.Animals digest even roughage, but for healthy livestock growth, you need to make the diet rich in vitamins, minerals and a sufficient content of carbohydrates.
If the cow eats properly, milk production will be high, and the increase in mass will be maximum. An unbalanced diet will lead to a decrease in the level of protein in milk and a deterioration in its taste. After the first calving, calves and emaciated animals after the illness, young animals increase the amount of feed.
Milking procedure for this breed of cow
Highly productive cows require more frequent milking. For them, increase the number of meals. It is necessary to feed thoroughbred cattle 3 times a day at regular intervals.
It is also important to observe feeding rules for healthy growth of calves. Colostrum calves are fed 4 times a day, from the tenth day of life – 3 times. For feeding calves use:
- Root crops (rich in carbohydrates).
- Corn silage (rich in vitamins and carbohydrates that are easily absorbed by the young body).
- Hay (coarse fibers for normal digestion).
- Concentrated feed.
- Boiled water for calves 4-7 days of age.
- Raw, purified water for older calves.
The quality of feed for cows and calves should be high. Six-month-old calves can be fed, as well as adult cattle. The main thing is to pay attention to the usefulness and diversity of the diet.
Montbeliard is an elite individual.
Pedigree cattle have high productivity indicators. The semen of the Montbeliard breed insemination bulls is used to improve other breeds and breed new productive species.
This breed of cows has its own characteristics and its nuances in the content, which are important to know . A cow of the Montbeliard breed is a meat and dairy individual, and therefore it is considered the most optimal choice for a large farm. Such animals can be brought up only if the condition is met: they are provided with everything necessary, which is important for the successful development and mass gain.