Pigs are considered pets with high profitability. These representatives of artiodactyls quickly gain weight, are unpretentious in the selection of the diet and the conditions of detention. When raising pigs, livestock farmers try to maximize the productive qualities of the breeds. However, before crossing pigs, you should decide on the ultimate goal of mating.There are several methods of breeding these animals, which depend on the number of different breeds and representatives of one species on the farm.
- Ways of crossing pigs
- Purebred breeding
- Related breeding
- Selection of pigs for mating
- How the pig breeding scheme is selected
- Conclusion <
Methods for crossing pigs
There are several methods for selecting partners among pigs for mating. Some methods of crossbreeding allow to maximize some productive qualities to the detriment of others. There are also methods that allow you to average the breed of pigs to get all types of products from one individual in equal quantities. Among the most popular, we can distinguish the following:
Most often, breeders use purebred crosses. In this case, the offspring retains all the characteristic features of the breed.Using this method, livestock farmers regulate meat quality, weight gain and animal fecundity.
Pigs that meet strict criteria are selected for divorce. First of all, they affect the appearance of the animal, physique, the absence of congenital diseases and behavioral characteristics.
Purebred mating is also divided into kinship and unrelated. Crossbreeding involves the mating of pigs from one sow or immediate relatives.
Often they can breed a pig and a boar that is its descendant. Livestock breeders carry out such crosses in order to form certain qualities in the breed and fix them at the genetic level.
Related breeding cannot be used on an ongoing basis, as this leads to inbreeding. The result may be degeneration of the breed, genetic malfunctions in piglets and external defects.
To dilute the blood and thereby increase the viability of the offspring, unrelated mating is performed among pigs. It is used much more often, since this preserves the genetic fund of the breed and does not lead to degeneration. For this type of breeding, males and females of the same breed are used, but from different offspring.
There is also interbreeding pigs.These types of crosses are used to breed animals with high productivity.
However, often when improving some characteristics, other qualities of animals may decrease. Therefore, pigs from interbreeding are rarely left for divorce and allowed for slaughter. There are several types of this crossbreeding method:
- Absorption breeding. Productive breeds are crossed with weaker individuals so that the piglets get average characteristics. However, this method can improve the breed after only a few generations. Most often, the owners of small farms use the method of absorption breeding.
- Reproductive breeding. Breeders will use this method to breed a new breed. For this, representatives of already existing breeds with certain characteristics are selected, the offspring of which usually have high productivity. However, in reproductive crossing, only one characteristic improves. Three-breed crosses are used to maximize productivity. Representatives of 3 breeds with the same orientation in breeding are selected.
- Introductory crossing. This method is used to change or adjust the internal qualities of the rock. It is used to improve the taste of meat in meat species or to increase the percentage of fat if the pig is slaughtered for fat. The main features of the breed during this crossing are preserved.For this, representatives of the improved third generation are crossed with the uterus of the first, thereby changing the quality of the species. Often, in this case, three-breed crosses are also used, but this time representatives of different species must have different qualities.
- Industrial breeding. In this case, the external characteristics of the breed lose their value. Farmers are trying to achieve maximum productivity from animals. Pigs are bred in order to improve pedigree characteristics, without worrying about the violation of the gene pool. Industrial pig breeding is used on large farms or enterprises. Pigs from this mating go to the slaughter.
All methods of crossing are aimed at improving the fecundity of pigs, however, their use depends on the size of the farm, the number of breeds and representatives of one line.
Selection of pigs for mating
The characteristics of the offspring are largely dependent on the parental qualities. The selection of wild boars and sows for mating is an important process in breeding animals. It should be borne in mind that one uterus can give birth to piglets with different characteristics if several males fertilized it.
Breeders use 2 methods of selecting partners for mating:
- Individual selection. Each male is assigned one male.
- Group selection. One male is used to fertilize several females.
Individual selection is more often used for breeding pure breeds, while in industrial crossbreeding they prefer group selection.
Also, the selection of animals for breeding can be heterogeneous or homogeneous, but a heterogeneous economy is more resistant to disease and gives a maximum survival rate. With a uniform selection, the pig has the same characteristics, which strengthens certain qualities in the gene pool of piglets. Often it is used for breeding rare breeds: males are crossed with cheaper sows. Thus, a new generation can gain weight faster or increase the percentage of body fat.
Heterogeneous selection usually increases the level of health in animals. Hybrids are characterized by good endurance, they are easier to tolerate infectious diseases, and also in some cases have greater productivity. However, very often an admixture of different breeds can impair the taste of meat or uterine fertility. A similar sampling method is typical for industrial pig breeding.
How a pig breeding scheme is selected
Very often, boar and sow selection schemes are alternated. the flock also protects the herd from inbreeding, and at the same time, the characteristics of the gene pool pass from generation to generation.
A feature of crossbreeding in pigs is the selection of animals by class. The middle-class sow can be mixed with a high boar. Offspring from a similar mating often take the genes of the paternal line. However, a high-class female is not reduced to boars of the lower class: piglets lose many qualities that are characteristic of this breed. Also, breeders do not recommend bringing animals with similar deficiencies. If both parents gain weight poorly, then their offspring will not be suitable for fattening and will not pay for its content.
When selecting partners, they also pay attention to the age of the animals. Young females are brought together with experienced males: this facilitates and speeds up the mating process. You can pick any boar for middle-aged sows, but a young male will become a guarantor of healthier offspring.
Unlike wild pigs, domestic breeds can not cope during mating without human intervention. Very often it is necessary to direct the male, because the animal, due to its large weight, is not able to fertilize the female correctly. Beginners should consult with specialists or watch instructional videos.