Pigs, like all representatives of the animal world, are susceptible to many diseases. One of the most dangerous diseases is erysipelas in pigs. Animals aged 3 to 12 months are at risk.
- Causes of the disease
- Forms of the disease
- Disease prevention
- Disease treatment
Erysipelas in pigs is caused by a bacterial infection of erisipelotrix, which is dangerous not only for animals, but also for people, which should be remembered by all who grow pigs. kusha Many farmers compare pig rye with Aujeszky’s disease.
Every pig breeder should know what symptoms and treatments should be given to the animal when a disease is detected. photo or video.
Causes of the disease
Erysipelas is an infectious disease that can be transmitted from other carriers. In addition to pigs, birds, rodents, and insects carry the bacterium. The disease is also transmitted through food, manure, care items previously used for a sick animal.
The bacterium lives in the soil, is activated in the warm season, and therefore the disease is seasonal.
The first symptoms manifest themselves in the form of a significant increase in temperature (up to 42 ° C), there are problems with movement (infection affects the hind legs of the animal). Among the less common symptoms, there is a decrease in activity, problems with stools, refusal to eat food, conjunctivitis. Another of the most striking manifestations of the disease is the appearance of erythema on the skin.
As soon as red spots began to form on the skin of the pig, it must be transferred to a separate room, away from relatives. Similar skin defects pass even after a full course of treatment and recovery of the animal. Erysipelas sometimes becomes chronic, gradually causing severe depletion of the pig’s body. Endocarditis also appears, the skin dies.
At the first suspicion of an ailment, you should contact your veterinarian. The specialist will conduct a series of tests, examine the clinical picture of the disease of pig erysipelas, make a final diagnosis.
Forms of the disease
The disease manifests itself in several forms.
The active form of the disease
It is very rare in pigs, most often pigs are subject to it, whose age is from 7 to 10 months. Basically, the fulminant stage of erysipelas begins due to improper maintenance: growing a large number of individuals in a small room.
Symptoms of active erysipelas in pigs:
- lack of appetite;
- heart failure.
With this course of the disease, death occurs within 2-4 hours after infection
Acute form of the disease
The acute form of swine erysipelas manifests itself with the following symptoms:
- fever up to 43 ° С;
- lack of appetite;
In addition, a sick pig may have gastrointestinal problems, diarrhea, and constipation. Also, an acute form of infection causes the appearance of conjunctivitis, a pig cannot stand on its feet, bury itself in the litter, its skin takes a bluish tint, and spots of red-burgundy or pink appear on it. If you do not start treatment, the pig dies after 2-4 days.
Subacute form of the disease
- body temperature 41 ° C;
- appearance of rashes or spots on the skin;
- decreased appetite;
- problems with vision and stool.
If the erysipelas in pigs is confirmed, after infection, after a few days, the spots begin to increase, resembling squares 1-4 cm in size, they will darken, turning purple. 7-14 days, spots discolor and their virtually impossible to notice.
Chronic form of the disease
This form is either the result of the previous ones, or is passed from the pregnant mother to the baby. The disease affects the functioning of the heart, joints and causes the death of skin areas
Erysipelas in small pigs are difficult, and therefore their treatment should be given priority.
First of all, all individuals that have not yet been infected are vaccinated. To date, vaccination against erysipelas in pigs is the only effective system to combat such a disease. There is even a whole science of epizootology, which studies the manifestation of the epizootic process during which the infection affects a large number of animals.
There is also a live dry vaccination from strain BP-2. The vaccine against swine erysipelas is produced from the production strain BP-2 Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae. It is packaged in ampoules or in special bottles and dried. You can recognize such a vaccine by its characteristic light appearance.
This drug forms resistance to the causative agent of the infection and is safe for animals of any age.
Use this tool must be clearly agreed with the doctor and after studying the instructions on application. The vaccine is given intramuscularly. Syringes must be disposable and sterile. For the introduction of the drug requires alcohol lotion.Young animals after weaning are immunized twice: the first time, starting at the age of 2 months and again after 25-30 days. The next vaccine is given after 5 months.
For individuals older than 4 months, the drug is administered once, and then the procedure is repeated after 5 months. Females are given a vaccine 30-35 days before farrowing. If there is a threat of an epidemic on the farm and individuals become ill without exception, the drug is administered regardless of when it was put before. To avoid the spread of infection, infected individuals are isolated. When the animals are completely cured, the next vaccine can be given no earlier than 2 weeks later.
It is very important to monitor the state of the livestock after vaccination. In some cases, there may be minor ailments.
To prevent cattle from getting sick as much as possible, preventive measures and cleanliness must be observed indoors. The pen must be processed once a week using bleach and formaldehyde solution.
Every day drinkers and feeders should be checked for contamination. if there is dirt, it’s better to replace it.
Liquid mixers should be given in minimal quantities, and if the animal cannot eat them, they should not be given such food again. Feeds should be fed so that the necessary elements and vitamins are enough.
When keeping a whole number of pigs, it is advisable to invite a veterinarian to the farm and immediately vaccinate the necessary individuals, conduct a routine examination. Do this at least once every 6 months, even if the herd does not bother anything.
When working with any animals, it is recommended that the farmer wear protective clothing and gloves. The work field with the infected individual is completely disinfected.
Treatment of the disease
If laboratory diagnosis was performed and the disease was confirmed, treatment should be started. How to treat mug in pigs? At home, the pig remove the signs of erysipelas, lower the temperature, remove toxins and the pathogen from the body. In general, antibiotics of the penicillin group are prescribed by veterinarians, they must be used together with serum against swine erysipelas disease. One ampoule of the antibiotic is diluted with all known saline and a sick pig is administered during the first days after infection. The next day, another 2 of the same injections are performed with a difference of 6 hours.
In addition to the usual penicillin, several derivatives of it are allowed: potassium and sodium salt, bicillin 3 and 5.
Recommended in parallel with antibiotics administer to the pig preparations for the heart, only their dosage is best discussed with the veterinarian. They also treat with bicillin. On the basis of numerous studies, employees found that bicillin-3 at a dose of 20,000-40,000 IU / kg protects the piglet from the causative agent of erysipelas for 72 hours. At home, on the recommendation of a veterinarian, it is used for prophylaxis.
Serum is considered to be the main way to combat pig erysipelas. The vaccine for swine erysipelas is administered intramuscularly, the volume depends on the weight of the animal. The exact dosage will tell the doctor or instructions for use, issued with the drug.Serum is administered daily for 5-7 days.
You can not choose a treatment regimen yourself and you can not prescribe drugs. All medicines are selected by the veterinarian individually, taking into account the characteristics of the body of each individual.