Any farmer containing pigs should know all the features of cutting pig carcasses. Regardless of whether livestock is kept for the retail sale of pork or to provide meat for one’s own family, cutting pork carcasses is an important stage in livestock production. In addition, the correct pig cutting scheme is a profitable business.
- Features of carcass cutting
- Suitable time for slaughter
- Popular options for carcass cutting
- How to bleed
- American and German methods
- Features of the Moscow method
- Technological and technical issues
It can take up to several hours for beginner farmers to slaughter cattle. An experienced specialist can cope in 10-15 minutes. The main thing is to do everything in stages, and the experience will come with time.
Features of carcass cutting
The boar’s meat is tender, therefore it does not require additional ripening in limbo, unlike beef, it concerns pigs of any breeds, from Vietnamese vis-bellied to Belarusian and even mangalitsky animals. But so that the process of cutting pork carcass takes place more quickly, do not neglect the convenience. It is for these purposes that the piglet is hung on hooks. The very scheme for cutting the carcass of a pig depends on the purpose of the operation. If slaughter is carried out for sale, you should use the American or German pig cutting scheme. Such options have many advantages. In part, they are popular due to the fact that they have almost no waste.An advantageous method is characterized by the separation of body parts into the highest, first and second grades of meat.
If the cutting of pig carcasses is done in lard, knowledge of the features of its separation from individual pieces of carcass is required. The easiest process option is the English method. The farmer, who decided to kill the pig at home, can use any method convenient for himself. The main thing is to know what parts the animal’s body consists of and what meat is suitable for certain dishes.
Features of the technology for cutting pork carcass are slightly different from operations conducted with other types of livestock. Each breeder tries to follow one simple rule: the varietal level of the product is higher and better away from the head and closer to the spine. Butchering a pig, unlike other cattle, somewhat deviates from the accepted norm. The most delicious and tender meat, especially valuable for trade, is the cervical region.
The right time for slaughter
Before butchering a pig, every farmer should be aware of some features that will facilitate the process of work. The fact is that the pig organism during the period of growth and maturation undergoes several physiological phases that affect the quality of the carcass. For cutting a pig, most of these cycles are suitable, except for one thing: when the animal organism is in a state of hunting. Manipulation should also not be resorted to if the male is neutered.Sterilized males contain the hormone androsterone, which is harmful to human health.
The cutting scheme for pig carcasses also depends on the physical condition of the livestock, as different individuals belong to one of 4 types of meat products. Specialists distinguish:
- fat pigs;
- bacon pigs;
- meat pigs;
Experienced farmers know how to properly prepare a pig for a particular physical condition. To do this, you should know the features of feeding and livestock. In addition, in the conditions of home detention it is not difficult to correctly fulfill the necessary requirements. The main thing is to monitor their development and take care of the animal’s death in a timely manner.
The choice of time of day is also an equally important nuance, especially in summer. They cut the pig in dry, calm weather so that dust and debris do not fall on the chopped parts of the carcass. Air temperature is also important. The cooler it is outside, the better for meat. In addition, it is in the early hours that a minimal accumulation of insects is observed. But all these nuances can be avoided if cutting and deboning pork carcasses is done indoors. In winter, there are no requirements. They resort to manipulations at any convenient time.
Popular carcass cutting options
If a novice farmer is concerned about how to properly slaughter a pig’s carcass, he should study all the nuances of cutting such as:
Each scheme for cutting pig carcasses has its advantages and disadvantages. In part, they depend on the division of the carcass into a certain number of body parts. So, the English version is a division into 4 parts. Cut off the head, then the front, middle and hind quarters. This method is simple and rarely leads to problems. Each quarter of the carcass can be used for cooking as a whole or succumb to additional butchering. You can learn about the features of this carcass cutting scheme from the numerous video instructions available on the Internet.
In some countries, the application of cutting of pork carcass according to one of the schemes differs from the accepted specifications. And most often, such features relate to cutting a pig’s head not in two parts. In domestic conditions, this work is also done, separating the ears, cheeks, nickels and brains of an animal.
You can also learn how to cut a piglet from various information sources, but the American, German and Moscow schemes are more complex, requiring more time and effort. In part, such carcass cutting schemes are difficult due to the greater number of cuts and cuts, which should be carried out in stages. Before performing the chosen method of this operation, the farmer should take care of bleeding the pig.
How is bleeding carried out
To completely go through the whole technological process of obtaining meat products, from cutting the pig to its analysis apart, it is important to take care of its timely bleeding.The purpose of the operation is to preserve the quality of meat and improve its appearance. Part of this process depends on how you plan to slaughter or slaughter the pig:
- When cutting the throat of a still living boar, you should put it on its side and wait for the blood to drain through the cut in the neck itself.
- If you kill an animal with a blow to the heart, you will have to draw blood from the sternum manually.
- To simplify and accelerate bleeding, the pig should be hung upside down.
There is no bleeding always. If it is planned to prepare it immediately after cutting the carcass of a pig, the operation can be omitted. The meat does not have time to deteriorate and does not lose its appearance. In addition, most of the blood will go away during cutting.
Also, an important preparatory operation is to remove the skin with the bristles. The most convenient method is the singeing of a suspended carcass. Only after the completion of this operation should you decide how to cut the carcass of the pig.
American and German methods
Cutting the carcass of the pig according to the American scheme has its own characteristics. The main difference between this method is a longitudinal cut of 2 half carcasses. Each of them accounts for 6 finished varietal parts of meat. In addition, individual clippings are divided into lard and meat.But the carcass is cut into the following parts:
- shoulder blade (front shoulder);
- back with flesh;
- back ham;
- front ham;
The German pork carcass cutting scheme is similar to the American one, but consists of 8 separate parts. Its main difference is cuts of the spinal section. In this scheme there are 3 of them. Slaughter and cutting of a boar is carried out using the same methods using sharpened knives in limbo.
Novice farmers often wonder whether pigs can be cut and how this process differs from working with adult animals. As practice shows, cutting a piglet is not often resorted to. Most often, minimal culinary cutting of pork carcasses is made. In more than 80 percent of cases, all manipulations for cutting a dairy boar are carried out immediately in the kitchen. Step-by-step operations are minimized. The belly rips open at the carcass, from there internal organs get. If you plan to bake meat in the oven, notches are made on the ridge in the pelvic and shoulder areas. This is a necessary step for uniform roasting of pork.
Features of the Moscow method
You can learn about how to properly carve a pork carcass from the half-century instructions stated in Soviet GOST 7597- 55. This regulatory document shows all the features of the Moscow scheme (popular name). This GOST is applied now.It says that meat products are divided into 2 grades: first and second. The first includes all products, except front and rear shafts and drumsticks, which are considered second-rate.
Mentioned in the document is the culinary identity of certain products according to the Moscow scheme:
- Shovel. Suitable for frying, stewing and minced meat. Also suitable for preparing first courses.
- Loin. Suitable for meat products: schnitzels, chops, barbecue, etc.
- Loin. Suitable for roast, escalope, kebab, soups and goulash.
- Back ham (leg). Used for cooking roasts, soups and meatballs.
- Sternum. First courses and fries.
- Neck sides. First courses.
Second-rate shank and drumstick (parts of the leg) are more suitable for broths and toppings from pulp. The head also goes to retail and is used for first courses.
If a novice farmer is interested in how to properly cut a pig, he should be guided by the Soviet method. According to many years of study and observation, this is precisely the scheme that best suits the culinary peculiarities of domestic and European cuisines.
Technological and technical issues
The first attempts by pastoralists to cook pork carcasses often drag out for several hours.The problems arise are different, for some farmers it is difficult to separate the head, neck or leg, while for others it is difficult to properly drain the blood. Experienced cattle breeders advise bleeding the animal by cutting the carotid artery and stabbing it in the heart. In addition, it is better to hang the pig on a horizontal bar or hooks upside down. How much time is required depends on the physiological characteristics of the animal itself. After bleeding, the bristles on the carcass should also be seared.
Culinary cutting and deboning of pork carcasses will be the fastest if some technical and technological features of work are taken into account. This is partly true for the tool. All operations will require sharp knives for domestic cutting of pigs, as well as a hacksaw, which is used to cut bones. In addition, 2 knives are needed in the work. One should be long (18 and more centimeters), it is used to separate the leg, sternum and other soft parts. Another knife is used for cutting bones.
Also, the technical and technological features of the procedure depend on the main place where you need to cut the carcasses of pigs and where their blood drains. Not all farmers on the farm have a place for such manipulations. Experienced butchers advise using any pallet with high sides if there are no hooks and crossbars. But the slaughtered pig should be placed only on its side. So, bleeding is faster. Separation itself begins with the head. It is cut into 2 parts and extracted from the eyes and teeth.The next goal is the sternum. After its removal, the internal organs are removed and the carcass is further divided into parts: neck, leg (shoulder blade and lard), back ham, etc.