If you like animals and want to work for yourself, then opening your own business can be a way out. Of all the business options, pig farming is the most popular among rural residents. Before you engage in this type of activity, you need to make a business plan for a mini pig farm. Pork meat is a running product, and the price for it is set substantial. Pigs are unpretentious, their cultivation does not require sophisticated technology.However, as in any business, everything must be weighed and calculated in advance so that the expected profit does not turn into losses.
- How to get the maximum business income
- Documentation for pig production
- Housing for pigs and its arrangement
- How to choose the breed
- Feeding pigs
- Features of pig breeding
- Monetary component of the business plan
A pig breeding business plan should consist of costing and incomes, as well as points of sale of finished products.
The business plan of a pig farm can be drawn up either independently or by contacting specialists. He should have been clearly calculated, then the farmer will have all possible risks reduced to zero. Those involved in pig farming know that although caring for animals is not difficult, it takes time. In order for him to be enough, the daily regimen of the owner of the animals must change. Pigs also require that they be cared for regularly, only they need to be fed several times a day. And at first, in this business you will need initial capital.To do this, the novice pig farmer must assess his strength in physical and monetary terms.
If the farm is planned to be small, for itself, with the sale of surpluses according to friends, then the owner it is enough to issue private household plots (private household plots). However, if the pig farm is planned on a large scale, it is more convenient to arrange this business as an individual entrepreneur. Of course, the people who formalized everything officially will have to make tax deductions, draw up appropriate papers in different organizations. But they will be able to raise as many pigs as they want.
It is worth making a business plan. So, having written down on paper all the estimated income and expenses, the novice pig farmer will better see how much money and for what purpose he will need. If there is no experience and not too much finance, it’s worth buying a few animals, and if things go, then develop your business further.
To breed pigs, a business plan should be drawn up taking into account the climatic and regional characteristics of the breeder’s residence. It will not be amiss to ask whether there are similar farms near the area where pigs are raised. If a person wants to seriously engage in raising pigs, then he can not do without high-quality animal producers.
Before buying animals, you need to determine the breed, which should also be included in the business plan for raising domestic pigs.At the initial stage, you should focus on the breeds that produce a lot of fat and meat. Breeding pigs only on a tribe is not very profitable, since it will not be possible to get high-quality animals that meet all the breed standards without the skills of a veterinarian or livestock specialist. However, this option should not be discounted: piglets can be sold if you suddenly need cash or when there is a shortage of feed, therefore it is profitable even with a mini-pig complex.
How to get the maximum income from business
Everyone knows that pigs receive meat and lard, so growing pig heads at home should be focused on this aspect. However, other products for sale can also be used. Do not refuse to sell hides, blood or even farm manure for sale. It’s only worth knowing about the methods of selling all this product in advance.
Pork can be sold not only in raw form, but also in finished form. Farm-smoked bacon is always appreciated by lovers of meat products, minced meat, sausages and much more is willingly bought by both citizens and catering establishments. The simplest thing is to build a smokehouse. The advantage of this solution will be not only additional income, but also a longer shelf life of the products sold.
All of the above should be taken into account when drawing up a business plan.The following points should also be included:
- the cost of feed and the place of purchase;
- the cost of maintaining the premises for pigs;
- the possible risks and ways to deal with them ;
- veterinary and zootechnical assistance.
Documentation for pig husbandry
Business and raising pigs is not only sales and production certain products. This is also the documentation that regulates this activity by law. The need to deal with all sorts of legal and bureaucratic issues often scares people who are not versed in such matters. In fact, it is not as difficult as it seems at first glance. It is best to register the pig farm where it will be located.
It is best to talk with local authorities in advance about doing business in the territory under their jurisdiction. It is advisable to do this with a business plan in hand so that both parties can clarify some issues. This will help the owner to gain a reputation as a competent and serious owner with whom you can deal. If the owner of the pig farm plans to hire assistants, then officials are usually positive about this intention, as this increases the number of jobs and contributes to the prosperity of the region as a whole.
In some regions where there is a large shortage of jobs, local authorities, on the contrary, strongly encourage such manifestations of the initiative, which can help with the choice of a site for construction, as well as with paperwork and credit. You can also find out the mechanism of special programs that operate in the regions to support small and medium-sized businesses.
Housing for pigs and its arrangement
After the documents permitting we’ll be ready to open a pig farm, it’s worth buying a room so that the farm starts functioning. It can be either built on purpose or converted to keeping pigs from a suitable building. From scratch, of course, building a stable will be more expensive, but you can immediately make it warm and convenient for breeding animals.The home farm, made for specific requests, even after the end of the meat activity can be put up for sale. Also, upon request, you can immediately bring light, water and sewage to the premises.
If the farm is designed for 100, 300, 500 animals, then you can’t do without hiring employees. So, the business plan must also include the costs of their wages, and the building project – various utility rooms: office, change house, laboratory, utility room, bathroom and so on.Also, the farm must fully comply with the number of livestock.
The premises of the pig farm
The pigsty must comply with all sanitary standards, there should be no dirt. To make it comfortable for animals, it should be light and warm. There should be no drafts in the room, otherwise pigs can get sick.
After the walls and roof are erected, the pigsty needs to be equipped. This will require the construction of partitions for corrals and the installation of equipment. Some owners are in no hurry to equip their farm with modern innovations and in vain. Such equipment will reduce the number of workers, improve the quality of care. Investments in this area will quickly pay off.
If the owner buys second-hand equipment, especially older models, then the price will, of course, be lower. However, such equipment is not very reliable and may fail at any time, then the breeding farm may suffer losses. The owner urgently needs to repair or even purchase new equipment or premises that would be suitable for growing pigs. Such unplanned expenses can significantly affect the profitability of the business.
In advanced farms, all aspects of animal care: feeding, water supply, and cleaning are almost completely automated. This has a positive effect on the health of pigs and the volume of finished products.
How to choose a breed
Choosing a breed of domestic pigs is not so difficult, the main thing is to study the description of the necessary breeds before purchase, get acquainted with the characteristics of individuals, see photos and videos of pigs.
A wide variety of pig breeds are currently bred. They differ in the quality of meat (there are greasy, there are bacon), by climatic conditions, by feeding time and fecundity. First you need to find out what breed options are suitable for the area, and only then, based on other criteria, choose the breed that will be raised.
First you do not need to buy animals so much to fill all pens. Even with a large pig farm, 350-400 heads are enough for the first time to settle. Of this amount, about 15-20 animals are left for divorce. Of these, 2-3 boars, and the rest are sows. Other pigs will go to fattening, then the benefit will be obtained in six months. It is possible, if there are financial problems, to start with fewer animals, and to develop production gradually, in accordance with the availability of money, as well as in accordance with other factors.
Even at the stage of construction of the pig farm, the owner should think about her settlement. To do this, visit other similar farms in the region. It is worth agreeing on the possibility of acquiring breeding animals, finding out their pedigrees, and finding out all the features of this breed.Such attention to residents will help to solve the following problems:
- Avoid mating of related individuals. This is a very important point, since the offspring from such unions are not viable.
- Such qualities as weight gain, fertility are inherited. In order to avoid further problems with the increase in the number of livestock, you need to immediately start quality producers.
- The profitability of the enterprise as a whole depends on the proper selection of breeding animals. The better the animals selected for the tribe, the more profit the owner will receive in the future.
In many farms, the so-called Vietnamese breed is now popular. These pigs really have a lot of undeniable advantages:
- they are fertile and at one time bring a large number of piglets;
- they quickly gain weight, therefore they are very cost-effective;
- they have excellent meat quality;
- they are characterized by unpretentiousness in the care and fattening;
- they have stable immunity to various diseases.
Vietnamese whiskers pigs are very profitable. The only condition is to ensure good care and consideration of the characteristics of the breed. Animals need a place where they can walk. Pigs of Siberian North and Large White breeds are also in demand. Among other positive qualities, these rocks are resistant to the cold climate, which is inherent in most of our country.
So that the pig breeding enterprise does not become unprofitable, when drawing up a business plan, you need to consider the issue of purchasing feed. If the food is purchased in small batches, then it may be disadvantageous, especially for a beginner farmer. At such costs, the profit from keeping animals will be small. It is more convenient to negotiate with the manufacturer and purchase feed in bulk.
Select suppliers should be on the recommendation or study reviews of products of independent consumers. However, saving too much and buying poor-quality feed is also not worth it. Nutrition should be satisfying, varied, contain all the necessary substances and elements. Otherwise, pigs will not gain weight well, and in some cases they may become ill. During periods of vitamin deficiency, vitamins and mineral supplements must be given to animals.
Features of pig breeding
It is also worthwhile to solve problems with the production of offspring by pigs in advance. Females and their children should be surrounded by special attention. If it is planned to hire workers, then for this purpose it is better to choose a person experienced in this field, responsible and competent. Also, the farm may need the help of a livestock specialist and veterinarian. Experts in pig farming already have at least basic knowledge. This will help to avoid mistakes that many novice owners make out of inexperience.
Properly performed mating and care for the female at the time when the offspring is expected, as well as monitoring the farrowing process will avoid high mortality among newborn piglets, and this cannot but have a positive effect on the income that will be derived from the maintenance of the pig farm . If you follow the simple rules for the care and maintenance of animals, even a novice farmer can grow healthy and active individuals.
The money component of the business plan
It is very important for the future pig farmer to know how much profit he will receive from his activities. We give an example where all indicators are designed for a livestock of 350-400 individuals. These pigs will eat about 30-35 tons of cereals and 250-300 kg of additives to the main feed per year. To care for so many pigs, 4-5 people are needed. Fodder crops can not only be bought, but also grown by yourself. If there is no such site, then you need to initially decide on its receipt of ownership. If the owner plans to grow feed on his own, he should also consider attracting workers for this purpose, and purchasing seeds and equipment. All this will also need to be included in the business plan.
The business plan also takes into account the increase in stock. For example, if there are 15 sows available, then 150 pigs can be obtained from them at a time. Pigs bring cubs 2 times a year, therefore, in a year the growth of the herd will be 300 goals.During the year, under normal conditions of care and fattening, piglets must reach a weight of not less than 100 kg. It is worth paying attention to the breed of animals, since in different breeds such indicators will differ. The owner receives about 50-60 kg of pure meat from each pig. This result is increased by the number of piglets. The resulting figure is multiplied by the cost of a kilogram of pork in the region.
The income will be approximately 3,150,000. All expenses should be deducted from this amount: feed, staff, electricity, and much more. Focusing on the market value of the above, the net income of the owner of the pig farm will be 1,000,000 rubles per year. Even if you start from scratch, then the investment will pay for itself within 2-3 years. Further, the company will begin to bring substantial profit to the owner.
It is worth considering that the figures given above are average. In different regions, they may differ, so it is better for the future owner of the pig farm to make the necessary calculation himself. And having completed all the calculations, everyone will be able to decide whether it is profitable for him to raise pigs or not.