Pig farming can be a profitable business, but breeding boars and pigs at home requires certain rules to be followed. If you have good pigsties and a territory for collecting green food, it is quite possible to organize breeding of even the most capricious breeds. Consider what a novice pig farmer should know.
- Pig production as a business
- What novice farmers need to know
- Construction of a pigsty
- Pig breeds
- Organization of feeding
- Preparation of the premises for pigs
- Important points
- Growing a large number of pigs at home
- Canadian pig technology
- Tips for beginner pig farmers
- Tips for choosing the breed
- Conclusion <
Pig-breeding as a business
Pig-breeding can always be considered as a means of obtaining It’s not only about a large farm, but even growing a small number of pigs, you can make good money. If we look at statistics, then pig farming is one of the most profitable areas of agricultural activity.
It is beneficial to engage in pig farming at home for several reasons.
- The farmer does not have to buy meat products, market prices for which cannot be called low.When considering this aspect, one must take into account the fact that pigs are not herbivores and will have to spend money on feed. But even with the purchase of expensive feed, the cost of meat and lard obtained at home will be much lower than the market.
- By growing pigs on their own, the pig farmer gets high-quality meat. Pork producers often use excessive amounts of antibiotics to prevent infectious diseases. If there is a slaughter of milk pigs, then the drugs accumulated in the body do not have time to go out naturally. Such pork is not a healthy food. In addition, farms often use drugs that promote rapid weight gain.
- Home pig products can be put up for sale. Cost-effective this event is due to the fact that the pork carcass when cutting is virtually no waste. On sale are even ears with legs, which make an excellent jelly. And the net meat yield after slaughter in some breeds is 80%. It is also worth noting that some breeds gain up to 350 kg of weight. Accordingly, it is possible to calculate what revenue comes from the sale of one pig. Alternatively, you can take pigs live weight. However, the profit in this case is significantly reduced.
- You can do breeding work and put up for sale piglets. Multiple pregnancy is a biological feature of pigs.One pig gives birth to the order of 10 piglets per farrow. And this is only an average. There are breeds of pigs that produce 15 small pigs during farrowing, and animals give birth 2-3 times a year. It turns out that in one year you can get about 25 viable piglets.
- The last aspect on which you can earn is breeding boars. Many are willing to pay for the “rent” of a breeding boar for mating. The price depends on the breed of boar. The better the breed, the more money you can get. But such earnings do not always bring high profits. Case by case, the rest of the time the animal makes no profit.
Pig farming at home, especially if you combine all the aspects that you can earn, brings considerable profit. But it needs to be organized correctly.
What novice farmers need to know
Every novice pig farmer should know the basics of pig farming. In order for pigs to gain weight well, they need to provide comfortable living conditions and good nutrition.
Set up a pigsty
A pig is a large animal. The length of the body of almost all breeds of meat orientation exceeds 150 cm. In addition, animals need to move. Accordingly, the pigsty should be spacious. Per adult, according to the standards, there should be an average of 7 square meters. m. Boars are given more space than pigs (8 sq. m.).Equip the pigsty so that it is easy to maintain cleanliness. It will be necessary to clean up the pigsty often, because when the litter is replaced in time, air humidity rises, and the reproduction of microbes in such conditions occurs very quickly.
In addition to compound feeds, green fodder is present in the pig’s diet, so it’s advisable to equip a walking area. For one adult boar with a pregnant pig, there should be 10 square meters. m. Each pregnant pig is given at least 1.5 square meters. m. But for the animals to independently obtain green fodder for themselves, it is advisable to devote much more space. This is especially true for breeds that are suitable for grazing.
If the breed is not intended for grazing, this does not mean that the animals do not need sunlight. In addition to sunlight, pigs need mud baths, so in the warmer months at least several times a week it is worth releasing artiodactyls for a walk.
Breeds of pigs
Unfortunately, the ecological situation not the best way affects all living organisms, and pigs are no exception. Some breeds with a good genotype are on the verge of extinction. But livestock specialists are working on breeding new species of pigs around the world. Scientists from China, Belgium, Russia, and the Republic of Uzbekistan (RU) achieved considerable success.
All pigs are divided into 3 groups: greasy, bacon, meat-greasy.It is easy to guess that sebaceous rocks, for example, are valued for lard. However, high productivity is not always the main indicator. Sometimes a product is valued for its high palatability. There are few sebaceous breeds, since this product is in less demand than meat.
There are much more meat breeds than sebaceous. Some pigs have a special meat structure that allows them to be called marble. It, of course, can not be compared with marbled beef on a vein of fat, evenly spaced in the meat, but makes it tender and juicy. The most popular animals are universal. These pigs usually have high productivity indicators, but the meat yield after slaughter is not more than 60%.
Each pig breeder should be guided in the breeds, so you should first read the literature on this topic. When studying each breed pay attention to the features of their content and breeding. Some animals do not tolerate low temperatures, so they are suitable for growing in regions with a warm climate. And in Russia, a temperate climate is far from everywhere. Some pigs have a long and warm coat, so they do not tolerate heat. Regions with a moderately cold climate are suitable for their breeding.
As of today, the following breeds of pigs are the most popular: large white, maishan, Belarusian black-and-white, brazier, Latvian white, peterne, Lithuanian white, Libyan, Breitovskaya.
Organization of feeding
It is important to organize the feeding correctly. Pigs eat relatively little. In the diet of some breeds 70% are green feed, and of the remaining 30% only 10% is feed. The remaining 20% are acorns, nuts, crops.
Only high-quality compound feeds must be selected. Part of the quality can be judged by the pricing policy. Cheap feeds are not of high quality. Dry mixes must contain mineral additives (meat and bone meal, chalk, etc.).
In addition to grain crops, vegetables should be present in the diet. Potatoes, beets and carrots are preferred. From crops, pigs are given rye, wheat and barley. Legumes are also included in the diet. Nutrition affects both weight gain and meat quality. And in this regard, the effectiveness of the use of green feed is difficult to overestimate. Long-term practice shows that if young nettles and alfalfa are present in the diet, pork has a more delicate taste.
When fattening meat, more green fodder is obtained, while fattening increases the number of root crops, corn, potatoes and barley.
Preparing a room for pigs
Every pig farmer knows that before buying young animals you need to properly prepare a pigsty. If we are talking about a new building, then they check how well the equipment is fixed, whether all the rules are observed when forming machines.Particular attention is paid to ventilation.
Pigs are afraid of drafts, so you need to carefully approach the arrangement of the ventilation system. If we are talking about an old building, before buying young animals, they disinfect the entire room, including equipment. Experienced farmers are advised to build a pigsty from scratch, taking into account the needs of a particular type of pig. Before starting construction on the photo and video, you can see the appearance of the finished pigsties. However, a drawing is developed before the building is constructed.
If necessary, equip the room with a heating system. If the breed is resistant to low temperatures, it is possible to do room warming. Sheathed with a heat insulation can be done both on the outside and inside. It is desirable that the air temperature in it was 15-17 ° C in winter.
If the floor is made of wood, it needs to be remodeled. Pigs gnaw at this natural material. cover It will not last for more than a few months. In addition, it is not possible to maintain cleanliness in a room with a wooden floor.
Also pay attention to the presence of bends for liquid waste. They are needed to simplify the care of animals. In the absence of bends they are installed. To do this, make the floor at an angle of 3-5 ° C. It is advisable to use a slotted floor structure. But the size of the slots is made so that artiodactyls do not stumble over them. Be sure to set aside an area for young animals and piglets with a sow. Separately contain boars.
The pigsty should be well equipped. Drinking bowls and feeders that can be done on their own, it is advisable to attach to the walls of the machines.
Growing a large number of pigs at home
You can independently maintain a mini-farm.In this case, it will be necessary to turn the breeding and raising of pigs into the main activity. For this activity to be profitable, you should properly equip the farm. In this case, it is not possible to manage one room. We will have to separately build a pigsty for adults who do not take part in breeding, and a separate pigsty reproducer. Depending on the number of boars taking part in the breeding work, it is possible to build a separate house for them.
At the plants innovative technologies are used, which allows you to get the maximum profit. It is advisable to introduce modern technology on their own mini-farms. So, for example, farmers recommend using Canadian technology.
Canadian technology for raising pigs
Sometimes this technology for raising pigs is called cold. For the sake of fairness, it is worth noting that not every farmer in the country today uses it, considering it not particularly suitable in connection with the climatic characteristics of Russia.
Canadian technology involves keeping pigs in a tent hangar. Litter of organic materials (straw, sawdust, shavings, etc.) is laid on the floor of the hangar. During operation of the hangar, the litter does not change to a new one. As necessary, a new one is laid on top of the old straw. The main thing is that the top layer of the litter is dry. Organic materials along with manure are composted.Accordingly, the litter always remains warm. As practice shows, the temperature of such a floor does not fall below 15 ° C. At this temperature, artiodactyls feel comfortable. Initially, the thickness of the litter layer should be 20-25 cm.
Opponents of this growing technology cite the fact that bacteria that can cause various diseases accumulate in the lower layers of the litter.
Drinking bowls with a cold function auto-heating, and pigs are placed in corrals in numerous groups.
Danish technology for raising pigs is also noteworthy. But it is more acceptable for industrial production, and not for mini-farms, so we will not consider it in detail.
Tips for beginning pig farmers
The organization of such a business requires considerable preparation .
Before buying piglets and setting up a pig farm, they calculate how profitable this activity is in a particular region. If, for example, there is already a pig farm nearby, then it will be difficult to find a point of sale. In this case, it is advisable to breed artiodactyls exclusively for their own needs. The economy in the region also affects business development.
To prevent pig breeding for beginners from becoming a loss-making enterprise, all necessary calculations are preliminarily made. Already at this stage, you need to decide whether it will be a large economy or not.Planning a large farm makes sense only if it is possible to place large buildings and nearby there are areas for collecting green fodder. You also need to understand that any business needs material investment to develop.
Tips for choosing a breed
Before you begin, you should familiarize yourself with the list of the most common breeds in a particular region. At the same time, we must not forget that selection does not stand still. Livestock specialists work every day to improve each breed, so you should supplement the list with recently appeared ones, who have managed to prove themselves on the good side. It is better to stop the choice on hybrid breeds.
When raising pigs, you should know the features of the breed. It is important to timely slaughter. In many breeds with a set of masses, feed conversion increases, so it is sometimes beneficial to slaughter an animal without waiting for it to gain maximum weight.
Young animals must be vaccinated. The introduction of drugs should be done by a specialist. All medicines are used in accordance with the instructions.
The profitability of this livestock industry depends on many factors. The farm will be profitable only if the animals are provided with proper conditions for keeping and feeding. The use of advanced technologies also plays an important role. You can see in the video what conditions are created for pigs in industrial enterprises.All of them are not applicable in a mini-farm, but some points can be used.