Vitamin and Mineral supplements for pigs are an indispensable element of animal nutrition. The fact is that with their help it is possible to control the weight gain of animals, as well as to do everything so that the pig remains healthy and does not hurt. As for vitamins for pigs, pigs need them like nobody else, because they are one of those animals that do not produce them on their own.Let us examine the question of what kind of vitamin complexes pigs will need, why each specific vitamin is needed and why the state of vitamin deficiency is dangerous for pigs.
- Why do we need vitamins to pigs
- How vitamin deficiency occurs in pigs
- Vitamin A
- Vitamin D in pig nutrition
- Vitamin E for pigs and its importance
- Vitamin B in the diet of pigs
- The need for minerals in the nutrition of pigs
- How ra calculate the rate of consumption of vitamins and minerals
- Choose BMVD
- the feasibility of drugs to stimulate the growth of pigs
Why pigs need vitamins
Vitamins by themselves or as part of complexes are regulators of metabolism in pigs. The fact is that the food that the animal consumes during the day is better absorbed, the mumps is less sick, which makes it possible to build up a much larger mass of sows or cocks.
In addition, females who regularly receive vitamin-rich foods bring more offspring. It is impossible not to say about meat.It was noticed that the meat of those individuals that ate properly had the best taste and is not so fat and tight.
How the vitamin deficiency occurs in pigs
At the very beginning I wanted to to touch on a topic like vitamin deficiency in pigs. This problem occurs quite often and in many cases becomes the reason for going to the veterinarian. Usually, the presence of vitamin deficiency is suspected when the pig begins to often get sick. It can be both viral and infectious diseases, with the causative agents of which the immunity of the animal cannot cope. In addition, symptoms of vitamin deficiency include the following symptoms:
- the presence of parasites in cattle (skin parasites are especially common);
- slow growth and weight gain;
- deterioration in growth rates of young animals, that is, the female gives birth to fewer piglets or does not give birth at all;
- pigs lose their appetite.
As you can see, the list is impressive. But all this can be avoided if the food of the pig will include a variety of feed additives for food. It is worth saying that the smallest ones, that is, piglets, are most in need of proper nutrition, and females who carry offspring (pregnant) or are engaged in their feeding (suckling) can also be included in this list. Their nutrition should be monitored as closely as possible.
The need for vitamin A
If you make a rating of the most important vitamins for pigs, then in the first place there will definitely be vitamin A, or retinol. The fact is that it directly affects the growth rate of the mass of pigs. If it has become noticeable that young pigs do not eat well, behave too calmly, and often suffer from various diseases, it is worth suspecting that their diet does not have enough retinol. , females. The fact is that they cannot normally conceive and bear their offspring, since there are no forces in the body for this. Even if such a pig can bear the offspring, it is very likely that newborns or sick babies will be born.
If the animal has not received vitamin A for a long time, then most likely the pregnancy will terminate prematurely, that is, a miscarriage will occur . As for males, boars suffer no less from a lack of vitamin A. First of all, this affects the function of fertilization: the quality of sperm decreases sharply.
It is worth saying that animals need vitamin A all year round, regardless of which weather outside the window or how old the animal is. It is important to try to monitor normal nutrition constantly, avoiding errors and inaccuracies.It is best to feed pigs with foods where vitamin A is natural rather than artificial, as the latter is absorbed much worse. Be sure to add such products as grass flour, carrots, grains, pumpkin and corn to the menu yourself.
Vitamin D in pig nutrition
D vitamin deficiency is also dangerous for the health status of pigs, as well as retinol retrieval. Not only malnutrition, but also errors in the direct content of cattle will contribute to the development of a painful condition:
- the room is poorly cleaned, does not meet sanitary standards;
- increased humidity in the pigsty, which provokes excessive dampness;
- lack of proper ventilation.
How do you know if mumps are getting vitamin D? First of all, you should pay attention to how her joints look. In pigs with improper nutrition, it will most likely be possible to detect inflamed joints, which will indicate that rickets are developing. As in the previous case, we can say that such pigs have problems with bearing offspring, as well as childbirth.
What kind of prophylaxis should be carried out? First of all, a sufficient cattle grazing should be organized. In summer, pigs should be outdoors for the maximum amount of time. For winter, an ordinary ultraviolet lamp, which is installed in a pigsty, is suitable.In addition, it is necessary to diversify the nutrition of pigs with vitamin complexes, which will include vitamin D, a preventive course of fish oil will not be out of place.
Vitamin E for pigs and its importance
The next multivitamin, which will be discussed, is vitamin E. Its direct function relates to the genital area, that is, the issue of conception, gestation and birth of piglets. With its deficiency, the animal experiences huge problems during pregnancy, giving birth to sick or even dead babies.
In the case when there is enough vitamin E in the diet, one can observe how females regularly bring in offspring, the percentage of mortality which is negligible.
Vitamin E is recommended only with food, so it will be absorbed as much as possible. You should pay attention to products such as wheat, corn, regular silage, legumes, barley and oats.
Vitamin B in pig nutrition
Like the previous vitamin, this one is also responsible for the pig’s sexual life.Females who are in a state of vitamin deficiency experience difficulties with bearing offspring, as well as in the process of childbirth. Usually in such offspring there are stillborn babies or very weak ones who are on the verge of life and death.
If vitamin deficiency B is diagnosed in a pig, it becomes weak, poorly sucks when it comes to a suckling animal, and also often has problems in the functioning of the cardiovascular system, is poorly gaining weight and has disorders of the musculoskeletal system.
If it was determined by laboratory tests that the pig needs vitamin B5 and B3, then besides all of the above symptoms c, the following may appear:
- the presence of uncontrolled seizures;
- the so-called goose step of a pig.
To prevent such serious consequences, you need to monitor the proper nutrition of the animal: add bran, grass flour, root crops, grain, as well as dairy products to the feed, it will also benefit.
The need for minerals in the nutrition of pigs
A pig cannot live without minerals. The fact is that a lot depends on their presence, including the state of the animal’s health. Minerals are extremely important for the normal formation of bone and cartilage, therefore it is necessary to introduce them into the diet of young animals.In addition, the mineral components help in the process of hematopoiesis, as well as in the assimilation of the protein, which is responsible for increasing the mass of the pig. If there are enough minerals in the diet, you will most likely have to face serious disorders in the cardiac or nervous system.
The female is most sensitive to the lack of minerals in her diet, as she builds up weight faster than males. Particular attention should be paid to the nutrition of the animal and the composition of the menu in the first months after birth. The fact is that at this stage there is a rapid jump in growth and weight gain, which must be maintained with the help of complexes of minerals and vitamin supplements.
How to understand that there are not enough minerals in the diet? If a mistake has been made in the preparation of the diet, the following symptoms will appear:
- young animals may develop abnormalities in the structure of bones, develop rickets;
- females often have problems with childbirth.
How to calculate the intake of vitamins and minerals
Pigs should receive the whole spectrum of minerals, including the main ones: selenium, iodine, magnesium, calcium and so on. However, it can be difficult to understand how much to give one or another component, because the number will vary depending on the breed, age and weight of the animal.We will proceed from the averaged norms, which are usually taken as the basis:
- Calcium – per 100 kg accounts for about 12 g per day, while the figure increases during the period of feeding piglets and decreases when the animal carries the offspring. As for the piglets, they are given calcium at the rate of approximately 0.7% of the total volume of food.
- Salt. It is added to the finished feed, while adhering to the following proportion: about 1% of food is added about 0.7% salt.
- Iron. Normally, a pig should receive about 75 mg per day.
- Copper. The norm of its consumption is about 15 mg per day.
- Manganese – about 45 mg.
- Zinc – about 80 mg per day.
- Iodine – not more than 0, 5 mg per day. All these components should be part of premixes.
It is recommended to add such simple and cheap products as bone flour, ground shell rock, turf, ordinary eggshell, crushed to the state of flour, and so on. Further. They can serve as a great premix. Since it is difficult to independently calculate the content of all of the above feed components, many are inclined to purchase ready-made complexes, which are called BMVD for pigs. The abbreviation stands for protein-mineral vitamin supplements or feed additives for pigs, enriched with the necessary components.
Such complex preparations contain everything that a pig may need .The plus also lies in the fact that such drugs can be given to both adults and piglets. Currently, the range of BMVD is wide, as feed additives in feeding pigs are in demand. Both domestic manufacturers and foreign options sell products on the markets, the price of which is much higher.
Today, the most optimal price-quality ratio can be noted in such a food supplement as azobacterin or hendrix from purine – one of the most successful premixes . The composition contains the entire list of essential vitamin ingredients, including B12. It is recommended to start the course no earlier than the time when the piglet is 2 months old. Based on the instructions, you need to give 0.5 grams per 1 kg of live weight of the animal.
Despite the positive reviews of many farmers, veterinarians warn that not all such food additives (feed premixes) for piglets are the same, therefore it is recommended get a consultation with a veterinarian before giving one or another BMVD.
The feasibility of drugs to stimulate the growth of pigs
It’s no secret that pigs are raised and then fed for further slaughter. That is, the farmer is interested in the animal gaining weight as quickly as possible. For these purposes, drugs have been developed that make the pig’s body grow faster, they can be both hormonal and not contain hormones in the composition.In some cases, supplements are used for the rapid growth of pigs or, as they are also called, premixes.
Hormonal drugs, anabolics, act quickly, the first results can be seen within a few weeks after the first application. The essence of the method is that the female sex hormone enters the pig’s body, it is usually hemmed into a fold near the auricle of the animal. This capsule is designed for long-term use and is valid for 7-9 months. Hormones can also be injected into the pig through injections. Usually, veterinarians use the most effective drugs for such purposes: laurobolin or retabolin. If you compare the 2 methods at a cost, the first is more expensive, but at the same time faster and more effective.
As mentioned earlier, there is a second way to make the pig gain weight without using hormones. The method consists in the fact that the pig is fed in accordance with a diet that is maximally enriched with proteins and vitamins. You can also use the old proven method, which consists in the course of antibiotic use. They are usually administered to the animal subcutaneously. In this case, the mass increases due to the fact that the work of the intestinal microflora is suppressed, the metabolism changes. Usually, veterinarians recommend the use of drugs such as biomycin, biovit or bacitracin, their effectiveness has been tested for years.It is worth saying that the greatest success in mass growth can be achieved with a skillful combination of antibiotics and BMVD for pigs, which will contain all the necessary components, this scheme is an excellent stimulator of mass growth.