Engaged in eggplant cultivation almost every gardener. Eggplant care and growing in a greenhouse require special attention.
- Selection of the greenhouse variety
- Preparation of seedlings
- Transfer to the greenhouse
- Sterilization of the soil
- Application of nutrients
- Landing scheme
- Care instructions
- Formation of the bush
- Garter <
- Watering and humidity
- Top dressing
- During pollination and fruiting
- Neighborhood with other crops
- Conclusion <
Selection of the greenhouse variety
Eggplants are planted in the greenhouse of any kind. An ideal option is a self-made polycarbonate or film construction.
Gardeners use low-growing varieties and hybrids to plant eggplants: they do not need a garter during the growth process.
Among the existing varieties, preference is given to the following:
- The Nutcracker;
- Violet miracle.
Of all the varieties listed, the tank lazhanov for a greenhouse is better to choose zoned.
Seeds for seedlings are sown 2.5 months before planting in the greenhouse.
Planting seeds for seedlings is carried out in large seedlings with a depth of and 8 cm wide. Peat cubes or halves of plastic bottles are sometimes used. In bulk containers, the sensitive root system of plants is less likely to be damaged, which is not the case with cramped seedlings. After damage to the roots, seedlings are not always able to recover.
Agricultural technology involves a number of procedures for growing seedlings:
- system watering;
- loosening the soil.
From the moment the first leaf appears and until the fourth leaf develops, the plants are covered with darkening material in both morning and evening hours.
After the air temperature it stabilizes on the street and reaches the level of 15 ° С, plantings begin to harden. They are taken out to the balcony, placed in the garden, gradually increasing the duration of their stay in the fresh air.
Moving to the greenhouse
Eggplant is planted in the polycarbonate greenhouse when:
- 8-9 leaves are formed in plants;
- the plants will grow stronger and reach 20 cm in height;
- the sprouts will have a strong root system;
- flower buds will appear;
- the age of the plant will reach 75 days (in some regions, the planting time is 1-2 weeks less).
Due to the nature of the root system, plants are transplanted to the greenhouse along with an earthen lump.
Sterilization of the soil
To plant the crop under the film, it is worthwhile to spend autumn preparatory work. The soil is cleaned of last year’s vegetation residues, well loosened and disinfected.
There are different ways to sterilize the soil before planting eggplant:
- Thermal (thermal). The soil is treated with steam, boiling water or calcined in an oven. This method is suitable if a person grows a small number of plants. The heating temperature should not exceed 100 ° C, because at higher temperatures, not only harmful insects, but also beneficial microorganisms die.
- Chemical. Of the chemicals used for disinfecting the soil, bleached powder is used: 100 g of the substance is embedded in the ground on a plot of 1 sq. Km. m. Formalin is another effective remedy against diseases and parasites. 200 g of a substance of 40% concentration are dissolved in 10 l of water. After treatment, the soil is covered with covering material for a day.
- Biological. One of the most effective and environmentally friendly methods of soil sterilization.The top layer of waste soil – about 20 cm – is removed with a shovel, put in a thin layer, and then watered with slurry. Such a mixture must be dug up at least once every six months and weed seedlings are removed. The soil, which has high acidity, is additionally calcified with fluff: per 1 sq. Km. 4 kg of substance are added to the plot.
Eggplants are grown in the greenhouse, fertilized only with organic fertilizers. It doesn’t matter if it is rotted manure or plant compost – the yield will be good anyway.
For a plot of 1 sq. M. m make 3-4 kg of compost or rotted manure. The soil is sprinkled with a nutrient, then dug shallow. Organics enrich the soil, improve its structure and reduce the level of acidity.
Sometimes, wood ash is additionally added separately from the organics. For 1 square. m of area consume 250 g of substance.
To keep the soil loose and light, sawdust is introduced into the greenhouse for eggplants – 1/2 bucket per 1 sq. m. m. To retain moisture – 1/2 bucket of peat land.
It is impossible to plant eggplants in a greenhouse unless all of the above conditions are met. It will not be possible to get strong plants and a good harvest without top dressing.
Planting plants in the ground is the most important stage.
Secrets of moving seedlings:
- To facilitate the removal of plants with an earthen lump, they are abundantly watered an hour before transplanting.
- Prepared beds are leveled and proceed to digging out planting holes, the depth of which should not exceed 20 cm.
- Successful eggplant cultivation involves abundant spilling of holes in a potassium permanganate solution – 2 l in each hole. This disinfects and moisturizes the soil.
- If seedlings were grown in peat bricks, there is no need to extract plants.
It is worth growing eggplants according to the strictly specified pattern – the distance between the bushes is 30 cm, between the rows-60 cm. The plants are planted to a depth of 2-3 cm. As a result, 1 sq. M. m will be 6-7 plants. Thickened planted vegetables will develop poorly and bear fruit.
It is worth approaching the cultivation of eggplant in a greenhouse: the seedlings of this vegetable are tender and susceptible to any changes.
After planting, plants take some time to adapt – about 3 weeks. During this time, the room is no longer ventilated to avoid freezing and death of landings.
To care for the eggplant in the greenhouse does not require special knowledge and skills.All planting needs is regular watering, good lighting and warmth.
Formation of the bush
Formation of the bush, taking into account the peculiarities of growth and development of eggplant, is a mandatory procedure . Pasynkovka is carried out according to the following scheme: the first pinching of the apical shoot is carried out in plants that have reached 25 cm in height. Such manipulation stimulates the growth of lateral stems. Of the total number, only 3 pairs of the strongest and most well-developed are left, the rest must be removed.
Such a bush formation in the future makes it possible to obtain a strong and compact plant. yellowed leaves and deformed fruits.
Plants growing in a greenhouse made of film or polycarbonate need a garter.
They are tied to a trellis so as not to damage the brittle stems.
Garter is made in several places, so plants provide stability and prevent the breaking of the main stem of
Watering and humidity
Compliance schemes and irrigation frequency -. the main condition for the successful cultivation of culture. The first watering is carried out 5 days after planting seedlings. Water is poured under the root until the soil gets wet to a depth of 20 cm. 12 hours after irrigation, a loosening procedure is carried out to a depth of 2-3 cm. It will exclude the formation of an earth crust.
Subsequent soil moisture is carried out as the top layer of the earth dries. At the same time, air humidity should not be too high – about 40%. To ensure this, after each moderate watering of eggplant, the soil is mulched with straw, agrofibre or fallen needles, then the greenhouse is aired. Watering combined with mulching prevents drying out of the soil and makes it possible to grow strong plants.
The basic rules for growing eggplants in a greenhouse require regular and balanced plant nutrition.
A vegetable grows well if it is fed with nitrogen on time. Nutrition is carried out in several stages:
- 2 weeks after planting the plants in a greenhouse, a solution of 3 tbsp. l azofoski and 10 l of water. 0.5 l of fertilizer is consumed per 1 bush.
- The second nutrition is carried out after the formation of the ovary. For this, 2 feeding options are used: mullein infusion (1:10) or mash based on weed grass and yeast (1: 5).
For those who want to plant eggplants and not think about their fertilizer, there is a simpler option: when planting, 1/3 tsp. is poured into each well. complex fertilizer AVA. After applying such top dressing, every 10 days of planting, they are watered with infusion of fermented herbs (a bucket of water is required for 1 liter of raw materials).
During the period of pollination and fruiting
To ensure good pollination, plants are sprayed with the drug “Bud” or “Ovary.”It is possible to ensure the mass formation of fruits after pollination by providing plants with foliar micronutrients.
Nitrogen fertilizers cannot be overused. Such preparations stimulate intensive growth of green mass, disrupt the natural process of flowering and fruit formation.
Neighborhood with other crops
Only a few crops are allowed to be planted in front of the eggplant in the greenhouse. You can grow radishes, onions, dill.
Eggplants can be planted in the same room with cucumbers, tomatoes and sweet peppers: they are almost the same. The plant tolerates well the neighborhood with gourds: watermelon and melon.
Growing eggplant in a greenhouse is a troublesome and demanding process. It is important for plants to create good greenhouse conditions, provide regular watering, top dressing, and then they will thank with a rich harvest.