The representative of the early ripening varieties is the Vera eggplant. Productivity of the species is average. Fruits have high taste and marketability. Suitable for early lovers of cultivation.
- Variety characteristic
- Description of the tree
- Description of the fruits
- Planting seeds
- Caring for sprouts
- Planting seedlings
- Fertilizing <
- Diseases and pests
- Pest control
- Pest control
Variety bred in 1998 year at the West Siberian vegetable experimental station in Barnaul. It is entered in the State registry of Russia in 2001. It is zoned in the Ural, West Siberian and Far Eastern regions. It is intended for cultivation in open ground. Fruits ripen for 100-118 days after emergence of full shoots. One plant produces an average of 1 kg of vegetables. With good care – up to a maximum of 3 kg.
Characteristics of Vera eggplant are positive due to the following qualities:
- early ripening;
- resistance to low temperatures and their differences;
- resistance to rot;
- presentable appearance;
- yield of marketable products more than 90%.
Description of the tree
Bush of small dimensions. Height 60-80 cm.The oblivion is average. The leaves are small, dark green with a subtle purple hue, on the edge with a notch. The plant has almost no thorns. Those that are found are very rare. The stems are strong. The flowers are blue.
Description of the fruit
The vegetables are cylindrical in shape, small. The color at the stage of technical ripeness is bright purple, with time it becomes dark purple. There is a light streak under the cup. The surface is glossy. Weight 125-180 g, in some instances – 300 g. Length 15-20 cm. The pulp is dense, greenish-white. There are no voids. The skin is thin. The taste is good, without bitterness. Keeping quality is excellent. They are used to prepare different dishes, make preservation.
Vera eggplants are cultivated both in seedlings and seedlings, depending on the conditions of the region. If the summer is long in the area, then the seeds can be planted directly in the soil in May. And then cover them with foil. This method of sowing is also chosen in the presence of a greenhouse. But if the hot period is only 1.5-2 months, you should start growing seedlings.
High seed germination will be ensured by its preparation. First, quality seeds are selected. To do this, they are soaked for half an hour in water. Hollow ones will emerge, and full-bodied ones will sink to the bottom.Those that drowned are removed and dried.
Then they are heat-treated: they are placed for several days in an environment with a temperature of 50-55 ° C. For this purpose, a heater can be used. Then the seeds are pickled, soaking them in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate, which will prevent the development of fungal diseases in the future.
Some gardeners treat the seed with growth stimulants. Saturate grains with nutrients, such as aloe juice. To do this, take plants that have reached the age of three. Seeds are placed on a plate so that they do not touch, and poured with juice. Leave for a day. Do not wash and slightly dry.
For sowing, prepare soil based on vermicompost or soil mixture, which should have the following composition:
- 1 part of peat;
- 1 part of humus;
- 1 part of sand.
The ground is poured into prepared containers: cassettes, drawers, plastic cups, peat pots. The best option is separate vessels. They will allow you to avoid the picking process, as the eggplants are very sensitive to it and often do not take root after the procedure. Spend abundant watering. Seeds are planted in February – early March. They are closed up to a depth of 1.5-2 cm. They are covered with peat from above and covered with plastic wrap.
Care for the sprouts
First, the vessels with planted seeds are left warm (24-26 ° C) until sprouts appear (from 5 to 21 days, depending from the degree of preparation of the seeds). Then the indicators are lowered to 16 ° C during the day and 13-14 ° C at night. This temperature is maintained for 5 days so that the seedlings do not stretch. Further containers with seedlings are placed in conditions similar to the microclimate of open ground. Daytime indicators should be 26-28 ° C, night – 15-17 ° C. 2 weeks before planting, plants begin to harden. For this purpose, vessels with sprouts are taken out into the street. First, for 1-2 hours, then the time is gradually increased.
In March, the daylight is not long enough for the full development of the sprouts, so they are illuminated with various devices: daylight lamps, LED lamps, phytolamps.
Eggplant seedlings require constant soil moisture. To do this, use warm, settled water. It must be applied under the root very carefully so that the liquid does not wash the ground and does not harm the delicate leaves.
Seedlings are fed with substances that contain nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Therefore, solutions prepared on the basis of superphosphate, potassium sulfate and urea will be useful. Fertilizers are applied in 2 stages:
- in the phase of 2 real leaves;
- two weeks after the previous one.
If the seeds are sown in general box, then in phase 1-2 of these leaves the plants dive.To do this, a day before the procedure they are abundantly watered. Take containers with a volume of 200-250 ml, fall asleep with a soil mixture for seedlings. Make a hole. Seedlings with a spatula are removed from the vessels along with a lump of earth. If the central root is long, you need to pinch it. The plant is laid in a hole, watered, covered with soil and compacted.
Plants are planted in open ground when the threat of repeated frosts passes, and the air and soil warm up well. The optimum temperature for the proper development of eggplant is 22-24 ° C, with indicators below 13-14 ° C they suspend growth. The landing is carried out in mid-May – early June. Seedlings should have 5-6 true leaves and be 9-10 cm tall.
The soil is prepared in the fall. Eggplant Vera prefers light soils whose pH should be neutral. If the acidity is too high, it is neutralized by introducing lime or dolomite flour into the ground. You also need to saturate the soil with nutrients. For this purpose, organic fertilizers are embedded in it. For 1 square. m. 1.5-2 buckets of rotted manure or compost, 20 g of potassium sulfate, 20 g of superphosphate are added.
In spring, nitrogen-containing products are also added (potassium nitrate – 20 g per 1 sq. m). Landing is done on a cloudy day according to the scheme 40 * 60 cm. A few days before this, the soil is loosened.Then they prepare the holes. Their depth should be 10 cm. 300-400 ml of warm, settled water are introduced into each. Plants are placed in them with an earthen lump or peat cups. Fall asleep with soil, slightly compacted. Lay a layer of mulch, which is taken as peat. Landings do not bother about 10 days. If the weather is sunny, eggplants obscure.
To increase the quantity and quality of the crop, you need to feed the crop. It is necessary to strictly adhere to the recommendations on the dosage of drugs, since an excess of minerals can lead to the opposite result: the plants will grow green mass to the detriment of the formation of fruits. Fertilizer should be applied according to a certain scheme 3-4 times per season.
The first time top dressing is performed 2-3 weeks after planting in a permanent place. To do this, eggplant is poured with a solution of substances that contain nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. 10 g of each product is added to 10 l of water. The following fertilizers are applied at intervals of 2-2.5 weeks, doubling the rate. The culture responds positively to complex preparations that are used according to the attached instructions.
Water should be applied in moderation, as plants cannot tolerate its deficiency or excess. Water the crop as the topsoil dries up. To do this, use a warm, settled liquid, which is applied only under the root.
After each moistening, the soil is loosened.In the row-spacing, the soil is planted to a depth of 10-12 cm, near the bushes – by 4-5 cm. At the same time, weeds should be removed so that they do not consume moisture and nutrients.
Diseases and pests
According to the description, Vera eggplants undergo fungal diseases, as well as the invasion of the Colorado potato beetle. Other pests are very rarely affected.
- Black leg – it is possible to cure if the disease is in the initial stages of development. Affected plants are removed, the soil is treated with fungicides: in the form of a powder – Glyokladin, in the form of a solution – Fitosporin, Alirin, Gamair, Planriz, KhOM, Previkur. If it is not possible to use such preparations, you need to sprinkle the soil with a mixture of ash, coal and river sand.
- Blight – use Bordeaux liquid or a 0.2% solution of copper sulfate to fight. Such drugs are effective: Quadris, Antracol, Consento. They also dust with wood ash.
The larvae and adults of the Colorado potato beetle are hand-picked. To scare insects on the garden, marigolds or basil are planted.
Diseases and pests will not affect the eggplant, if you follow these recommendations:
- to disinfect the soil before planting seeds, because they live in it pathogens;
- do not allow abundant moistening of the earth;
- do not plant crops on acidic soils;
- avoid thickened plantings;
- provide eggplant good lighting;
- do not oversaturate the plants with nitrogen fertilizers;
- remove the leaves of nightshade crops after harvesting.
To prevent the development of diseases, Sprayed with garlic tincture. To do this, take 200 g of chopped garlic, pour 3 liters of water, insist for several days. Before use, dilute with water in equal amounts. You can also treat plants with a solution of whey (ratio with water 1: 1). For preventive purposes, they are also sprayed with fungicides.
Vera’s eggplant variety is gaining more and more popularity due to its high palatability. Dishes prepared from these vegetables are very useful, so they should be included in the menu of each family.