Salmonellosis of calves affects mainly young animals aged 10 days to 2 months. Salmonella is an infectious disease caused by Salmonella bacteria. Such an ailment can attack young animals at any time of the year, but salmonellosis in calves is most often found in winter. Mostly the calves that live in unsanitary conditions are infected. If the farm has small rooms and there is no elementary care for animals, the immunity of the cubs weakens, so the animals become infected with the virus.
- Symptoms of the disease
- Symptoms of acute salmonellosis in calves
- Treatment of Salmonella in Calves
- Cattle Disease Prevention
- Compliance with full livestock conditions
- Animal nutrition
If the disease is not treated, then salmonellosis causes damage to agriculture, which is why farmers try to protect their herd. The disease is dangerous in that it can be transmitted from a sick animal to humans. When working with sick animals, care must be taken to always wear protective clothing. The most effective measure is the salmonellosis vaccine, which is given to calves almost from birth. The calf salmonellosis vaccine must be from a licensed provider.
Symptoms of the disease
Calves can be infected from other diseased animals. Even if some individuals have already been ill with this disease, they are a source of infection.The virus may still be present in the urine, feces and milk of the animal. Calves are infected through the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms of the disease can occur at any time from 1 to 10 days. It all depends on the predisposition of young animals to viral diseases, the age of the calf, body weight, as well as the stage of the disease. Salmonellosis can occur in mild, chronic or acute form, the symptoms are approximately the same everywhere.
Symptoms in the acute form of salmonellosis in calves
- Calves become passive, all the time lie and want to sleep.
- Liquid can be released from the nose.
- The calf’s body temperature can be 39-42 ° С.
- There is no appetite or the calves eat, but quite a bit.
- Diarrhea begins in young animals on the 2nd – 3rd day of infection.
- On the 5th day and later, feces can flow out involuntarily.
If acute calf salmonellosis , The symptoms may be different, and to the standard manifestations of the disease has on the first day can be added to cough, conjunctivitis and rhinitis. For the chronic form of salmonellosis, the same symptoms are characteristic, only arthritis is added. The chronic form of the disease can occur if the acute treatment is not carried out properly and the course of the disease is prolonged.
In chronic salmonellosis, young animals can be sick for 2-3 months, so it is very important to start treatment in a timely manner. In cows, the disease can be almost asymptomatic, as their body is already more stable.Cows are characterized by mood swings, lethargy, decreased appetite or decreased milk yield against the general background of the disease.
Treatment of salmonellosis in calves
Treatment should be carried out only in a comprehensive manner. In order to prescribe medications, you need to make sure that it is salmonellosis. For this, a veterinarian is invited to have a full-time examination and take tests from a calf. If a virus is found by blood results, then drugs are prescribed to eliminate the intoxication of the animal’s body and to restore the functioning of the organs. Basically, the following antibiotics are prescribed: chloramphenicol 3 times a day, the course of treatment for 2-3 days, the dosage is calculated based on the weight of the calf, tetramycin 3 times 0.02 g per 1 kg of body weight for 4-6 days.
Polyvalent antitoxic serum is also suitable for treatment. Serum helps with malfunctions in the immune system. Also, serum is used to prevent disease and to treat calves and cows. Serum is injected intramuscularly, the dose is calculated based on weight. Most often, the daily dose is not immediately administered, but divided several times, applied every 3-4 hours. In the acute form of the disease or if the condition of the calf remains the same, sometimes the serum is administered again. If the treatment does not give results after the second serum, it means that the cows or calves do not have salmonellosis and, possibly, an analysis error occurred.
Only individual syringes should be used for vaccination or any other injections.Each animal must have its own syringe. The place before the injection is wiped with alcohol, after setting the vaccine or serum, the syringe is discarded. In order for the drug to have a result, the storage and use conditions of the drug must be observed. If the serum is of poor quality, for example, there is no label on the bottle, the expiration date has expired or the bottle is open, but not used, such a drug is considered unsuitable. With treatment, he will not give the desired results. Serum, like the calf salmonellosis vaccine, can only be used immediately after opening. Storage is not allowed even for several hours.
Prevention of disease in cattle
The most effective prevention is to prevent the spread of the disease, because such animals can no longer be kept in one corral, as infection of other individuals is possible. The calf salmonellosis vaccine is a fairly effective way to fight the Salmonella virus. Also, many farmers speak highly of such a drug as the vaccine formolquast against calf salmonellosis. Vaccination is the most reliable method against infection. The vaccine cannot cure the disease, but the animal’s immunity supports and strengthens. Vaccination formolquast or any other does not give stable immunity immediately, but only for 10-12 days.
The vaccine against calf salmonellosis lasts only about 6 months, then the effect of the vaccination needs to be updated.Before the vaccination, the veterinarian examines the animals.
If the young are unwell, then they are not vaccinated. Also, in the presence of the Salmonella virus, they are not vaccinated. In cows, vaccination is carried out 2 times with an interval of 10 days. They are vaccinated 35-45 days before the expected calving. If calves are born from a cow that has protection against this disease, then young animals are vaccinated once at the age of 17-20 days. If the calf was born from a cow that does not have vaccination, then it must also be vaccinated once, but at the age of 10-15 days.
Compliance with full conditions of cattle keeping
So that the animals do not get sick and have strong immunity, it is necessary to maintain normal conditions for keeping cattle. Every week it is necessary to carry out a general cleaning of the barn with the use of disinfectants. After each bowel movement, the floor in the room where the cows are kept needs to be washed. To prevent animals from crowding in a small space, it is necessary to expand the room with an increase in the number of herds, since in small places animals are sick more often. Be sure to conduct a daily inspection of the entire herd.
If you identify any symptoms in a cow or calf, you should immediately invite a veterinarian, do not self-medicate the animals. Without a professionally established cause of the disease, you can make a mistake with the diagnosis and harm.So that the infection does not start in the room, you need to constantly take the cows for a walk in the fresh air, and also establish normal air ventilation in the barn. If a calf or a cow is ill in the pen, then it is better to transfer them to separate content, this measure is designed to help prevent the spread of infection.
In order to maintain proper immunity level, you should fully and efficiently feed your herd. Most infections occur in animals, whose diet is rather poor, there is a lack of vitamins. It is necessary to ensure that the cattle has enough fresh grass in the summer. Do not give your pets chilled and rotten hay. They should also be taken out with caution for a walk in cold weather, when the grass has already managed to freeze.
To prevent rodents from the room who carry many infections, the food should be removed after each feeding and not stored in bags in the pen. Water should always be at room temperature, clean and suitable for consumption. Dirty water is also a source of infection and can weaken the immunity of animals. Vitamin supplements should be given periodically to maintain strong immunity of individuals.
Если вы будете следовать основным правилам содержания и употребления в пищу животных, никакие симптомы болезней для домашних кормильцев не будут страшными.