Potatoes, Calories, benefits and harms, Useful properties

An amazingly versatile product, and this is manifested not only in cooking. Among the
results of potato processing are ethyl alcohol, antimicrobial
agents and even fiberboard building boards, which, thanks to potato
starch, are classified as environmentally friendly materials.

In the field of medicine, substances from potato tubers are used
to develop drugs that slow the onset of Alzheimer’s disease,
destroy cancer cells in the gastrointestinal tract, and relieve inflammation.
The beneficial properties of potatoes,
previously demanded only in traditional medicine, are of special scientific interest .

Useful properties of potatoes

Composition and calorie content

The crude white potatoes comprises (100 g) .

Calories 69 Kcal

The most useful potatoes are
in their skins, which are also often called “jacket” potatoes. The
use of boiled tubers is also beneficial, but fried potatoes
should not be abused, since such heat treatment
dramatically increases the content of fat and harmful substances, which
digestive enzymes do not cope well with .

Medicinal properties

The beneficial effect of potatoes on various processes in the
human body is explained by the presence of a large number of
useful elements in its composition . Firstly, potatoes are a rich source of ascorbic
acid or vitamin C. Although in smaller quantities, they
also contain vitamins of
group B. Secondly, due to their high starch content,
potatoes supply a significant amount of carbohydrates to the body
and give a person energy and vitality. Thirdly, potato proteins
provide the human body with 14 out of 20 essential amino acids.

In addition, in any form and with any heat treatment, potatoes are
very rich in potassium. This mineral contributes
to the fight against hypertension, as it promotes vasodilation.
Potassium is also a diuretic and is essential for people with
acidosis, cystitis
and prostatitis.
By promoting the elimination of excess fluids from the body, potassium
thereby helps it maintain a normal metabolism .

Potato field

The iron, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and zinc in potatoes
help the growth and strength of bones. At the same time, it is important that the body
maintains a balance of phosphorus and calcium, since an excess of phosphorus
and a lack of calcium can lead to increased fragility of bones
and, as a result, to osteoporosis .

Vitamin C, which is so rich in potatoes, is a powerful antioxidant that
takes part in neutralizing free radicals in the
human body and thereby helps prevent the destruction of cells
and connective tissues. It promotes collagen production and
aids in the absorption of iron . Together with vitamin
B, as well as magnesium, potassium, phosphorus and zinc, vitamin C has a
positive effect on skin condition and relieves pain with minor
burns .

Vitamin B6, combining with various enzymes, plays an important
role in the processing of proteins and carbohydrates, and also takes part
in the process of fat metabolism. In addition, B6 promotes the synthesis of
hemoglobin and, in general, improves blood formation . Vitamin B9
(folic acid), in turn, is of great importance for
DNA synthesis and red blood cell regeneration. Its presence in the body is
especially important for women during pregnancy, since B9 is involved
in regulating the formation of the structures of the fetal nervous system .

The presence of coarse dietary fiber in potatoes, particularly fiber, has a
positive effect on cholesterol levels and helps prevent
clogged arteries. Also, fiber helps to normalize stool
with constipation. True, it must be borne in mind that the bulk of dietary
fiber, however, like other useful elements, is
in the skin of a potato or directly under it.

In traditional medicine

In traditional medicine, the potato tubers themselves are
not used directly , but the products obtained in the process of
their processing, as well as the leaves, flowers and fruits of the potato bush, are used.
For example, potato starch is
usually found in powders and ointments, which are prescribed
for various skin diseases. It is also used as a
binder in the manufacture of tablets. In addition,
high quality ethyl alcohol is obtained from potato starch.

The entire upper part (stems, leaves, flowers, fruits) of a potato
bush contains glycoalkaloid solanine, toxic to humans and animals.
However, scientific studies have shown that
solanine can be beneficial in small doses and when combined with other ingredients.
For example, it is used as a raw material for the synthesis of hormones
in the pharmaceutical industry.

Potato starch

In folk medicine

Unlike traditional medicine, in folk recipes, the range of
use of potatoes is much wider. With the help of potatoes, they treat colds,
ulcers, cardiovascular diseases, get rid of allergic
reactions, and some even claim the effectiveness of potatoes
in the fight against cancer. However, before starting
treatment with potatoes, it is worth consulting a doctor, since
improper or untimely use of potatoes can only
aggravate the situation.


Potato juice is believed to be effective against stomach
ulcers and gastritis.
It also normalizes the digestive process and relieves heartburn.
The positive effect is mainly due to the presence
of starch in the tubers – a good enveloping agent.
In addition, the juice is indicated for diabetics (
mild to moderate diabetes ), as it normalizes carbohydrate
metabolism. Potato juice also helps to cleanse the body of
toxic elements and toxins. For this purpose, it is often mixed
with celery or carrot juice.

Before starting juice therapy, it is advised to exclude
meat, fish, spices and herbs from the diet for several days , replacing them with products of
plant origin. This will help prepare your body
for raw potato juice.

Usually, in case of disturbances in the work of the gastrointestinal tract, it is recommended to
drink one glass of juice after waking up
on an empty stomach, then go to bed for another half hour, and after another half hour you can have breakfast.
The ten-day course of juice treatment should be followed by a ten-day
break. Then the course can be repeated again. For heart problems, it is
advised to drink 100 ml of juice three times a day before meals. The course lasts
three weeks, after which a one week break is required.

To prepare potato juice, you need to choose
healthy tubers that have not sprouted . It is important that the peel does not have a greenish tint,
which indicates the presence of a toxic substance in the tuber.
It is also not recommended to squeeze juice from February until the next
harvest of potatoes, since solanine accumulates in it, and the
amount of useful elements decreases .

The selected potatoes must be washed, wiped and passed through a
juicer. An alternative way is to grate the potatoes
or pass through a meat grinder, and then strain through cheesecloth.
It is best to drink the prepared juice right away, because during storage
it darkens, becomes reddish, and its vitamin activity
decreases significantly.

Potato juice


Potato compresses are used for a variety of purposes. First, they are
believed to help get rid of coughs. The effect is achieved
by reducing the swelling of the respiratory tract and increasing the expectoration of
mucus by warming the chest. To prepare the compress,
you need to wash and boil 3-5 tubers in the peel. Then knead the potatoes,
put them in cheesecloth and apply to the patient’s back and chest, wrapping
him with a towel for 45-60 minutes. The procedure cannot be performed on children
under 4-5 years old. Also, the compress is contraindicated if the patient has a fever.

Secondly, potato compresses are recommended for
joint pain. 200-300 g of raw potatoes must be
grated and mixed with the same amount of grated horseradish roots.
The resulting mass should be applied to the legs, covered with cellophane
film and warmed with woolen cloth. Usually such a compress is done
for the night.

Thirdly, potato compresses can be useful if
you get dark circles and bags
under your eyes from fatigue and lack of sleep . To prepare the compress, you need to wash and
finely grate one potato. Then divide the resulting mass
in half, wrap both parts in gauze and apply to the eyes for 10


In case of acute respiratory diseases, which are accompanied by a
cough, it is recommended to do inhalation over potatoes. Potatoes are
cooked without salt in a little water. A
towel is put on top of the head and breathed over the steam for 5-10 minutes.


Potato broth contains many vitamins and minerals that
tubers are rich in. Traditional healers claim that it
can help relieve
swelling and improve heart function. It is recommended to cook potatoes
in their skins and without salt. You need to drink a warm broth three times a week.
It is also believed that potato infusion baths are beneficial
for the skin of the hands, as they make it soft and promote the healing of
small wounds.


In folk medicine, in addition to the tubers themselves,
potato flowers are also used , from which tinctures are prepared. They are considered to be effective
against fungi. According to the recipe, a small amount of flowers
(about 1 tablespoon) is poured with 250 ml of boiling water and insisted for
3-4 hours in a thermos. Such a tincture is stored in the refrigerator for no
more than two days. For longer storage (within two weeks)
, the resulting tincture must be mixed with 30 ml of alcohol or vodka.

Some traditional healers use flower tinctures to
treat cancerous tumors. According to the recipe, 1 tablespoon of flowers
must be poured with two glasses of boiling water, and then infused for about
30 minutes. After that, leave for about 3 more hours in a sealed
container in the oven. The resulting liquid must be drunk three times
a day, 100 ml. The course of treatment is 3 weeks. However,
this treatment must be applied very carefully, since the concentration of alkaloids
in the flowers of the plant is much higher than in the tubers.

Potato harvest

In oriental medicine

In the classical oriental treatises on medicine, there was no mention
of potatoes, because at the time of their writing, they
did not yet know about potatoes in those parts. However, for example, in modern Tibetan
medicine it is believed that this vegetable benefits the nervous system
(the Rlung system in terms of Tibetan medicine), which regulates
all processes in the body.

The gradual depletion of the Rlung system leads to aging of the body,
and the consumption of potatoes helps to maintain and strengthen
this system, slowing down aging. Also, potatoes have
antidepressant properties and help the body recover from stress.
In addition, it is considered a preventive measure for insomnia.
Moreover, potatoes have a positive effect on the work of the cardiovascular
and digestive systems.

Often, potatoes are excluded from the number of healthy vegetables, since
oriental medicine classifies them as “cooling” foods, that is
, those that slow down the metabolism. In fact, it is easy to compensate
by adding “warming” salt, black and red
pepper, garlic, dill or ghee to the potatoes .

In Tibetan medicine, it is believed that “disease enters and
leaves the body through the skin.” The “exit” of the disease is usually accompanied by
skin inflammations, which can be dealt with by thinly sliced
potato pieces. It is also advised to apply raw potatoes in case of
first and second degree burns.

In scientific research

Potatoes have long been and never ceases to be the object of scientific
research in various directions. This interest is explained by the fact
that potatoes are a product that can provide millions of people
with food and a complex set of useful elements at a minimal price.
Researchers are studying ways to improve the methods of planting,
growing, harvesting and storing potatoes, developing methods for
breeding potatoes for certain modes of its cultivation, and selecting
environmentally friendly technologies to protect against harmful organisms
and pathogens.

In addition, potatoes are actively studied in medicine. Experiments
on pigs have
shown that potatoes , raw or cooked and eaten cold, have a beneficial effect on the
intestines and strengthen the immune system . Also, American
scientists have developed a variety of “golden” potatoes, which contains more
vitamins and minerals. Thus, it provides almost 42%
of the daily value of vitamin A and 34% of vitamin E for a child .
This variety is planned to be brought to developing countries where people
suffer from a lack of wholesome and healthy food.

The researchers also found that the virus that most commonly
affects the potato plant, very similar to one of the proteins that cause
of Alzheimer’s. They are now using this similarity to create
antibodies that would at least help slow the onset of
disease . Americans also believe that purple
potatoes help kill cancer stem cells in the colon
. Experiments on mice have shown that the pulp of baked purple
potatoes reduces inflammation and suppresses tumor growth .

Ethyl alcohol is obtained from the waste generated during the processing of potatoes, but Russian scientists talk about the possibility of
obtaining other high-quality antimicrobial agents .
Finally, in Britain, potato starch is being used
to produce biodegradable medium
density fibreboard (MDF), which is highly sustainable .

Baked potatoes

In dietetics

Despite the fact that potatoes occupy a leading place among the
most high -calorie vegetables, they are unfairly considered a taboo product
for people who are watching their figures. Scientists from the US National
Nutrition Center conducted a study and found that due to the
large amount of potassium in its composition, potatoes help to
remove excess fluids from the body and thus can even
lead to a loss of extra pounds.

Overweight problems arise only if potatoes are
eaten fried or seasoned with fatty sauces. In a boiled,
stewed or baked form, potatoes can even become the basis of a
fasting diet if, instead of fish and meat, they are used with other
vegetables and spices.

Due to the fact that potatoes have good taste
and high nutritional value, are rich in vitamins and minerals, are easily
digested, they are widely used in baby and diet
food. Potatoes are usually recommended for patients with chronic renal
failure, cardiovascular diseases, arterial
hypertension, atherosclerosis,
gastrointestinal diseases. However, potatoes are not advised for people
suffering from severe forms of diabetes mellitus and obesity .

In cooking

Potatoes are a versatile vegetable that is used in
recipes around the world. Potatoes are an essential ingredient in soups
and a good side dish. In addition, it is put in salads, pies, meat
dishes, and potato pancakes are made on its basis. Cooking potatoes is easy.
Both by itself and as part of various dishes, it is most often boiled,
stewed or baked in the oven.

In order for the dish to turn out as tasty as possible, you should
choose the right potatoes. According to the density of the pulp, it is customary to divide it
into 4 types: A, B, C and D. Type A potatoes contain a minimum of starch
and do not boil well. It is most commonly used for salads.
Type B potatoes are good for making chips and Type C potatoes are good for
deep-frying. Type D is the most mealy variety and is best
for casseroles and purées.

However, only imported potatoes are usually labeled.
In its absence, you can navigate by color. Red
potato varieties (“red-tamb”, “roseval”, “sheri”) are characterized by a
high content of antioxidants and do not crumble during cooking.
Usually these potatoes keep well in winter. White varieties (“Erow”,
“Tiras”, “Tsiganka”) contain a lot of vitamin C and, as a rule,
such potatoes boil well. Yellow varieties (symphony,
rosalinda, adretta) are rich in carotene and retain their shape when

Useful and dangerous combinations of potatoes with other foods

Combination with other products

According to adherents of a healthy diet, traditional combinations of
potatoes with meat, fish or eggs are unacceptable. It is believed that
starchy foods do not mix well with animal proteins. So,
for the digestion of potatoes, the body secretes alkaline enzymes,
which are dissolved by hydrochloric acid produced by the stomach
for processing meat. Thus, not completely digested foods
enter the intestines, where the fermentation process can begin with the active
release of toxins.

A combination of potatoes with vegetable
oil, sour cream, cheese, green vegetables, as well as legumes is considered healthy and useful .


Potato drinks have a specific taste, but are considered
very beneficial for the body. Raw potato juice and potato
broth are recommended to be drunk as a cure for various diseases.
Often beets, celery or carrots are added to potato juice.
In addition, a traditional drink is prepared from the tubers – natural
live kvass. With the addition of oatmeal potatoes, you can
even make jelly,
which is considered a soothing detoxifying agent.

Dangerous properties of potatoes and contraindications

Despite the exceptional usefulness and importance of potatoes in the
diet, you can use it only with some reservations:

  • only potato tubers should be eaten, since the
    upper part of the bush (stems, leaves, flowers and fruits) contains the
    alkaloid solanine, which can cause poisoning of the body;
  • green and sprouted potatoes should also not be ingested
    due to their toxicity;
  • juice from raw potatoes can be cooked up to a maximum of February,
    since after that solanine begins to accumulate in the tubers themselves and in their skins;
  • during cooking potatoes at a temperature of 120 degrees and
    above, the amino acid asparagine contained in its composition is
    transformed into the carcinogenic substance acrylamide, therefore
    , any other method of heat treatment is preferable, except for frying;
  • potatoes are not recommended for obese people;
  • potatoes should be used with caution by patients with severe diabetes mellitus.

We have collected the most important points about the benefits and possible dangers of potatoes
in this illustration and we will be very grateful if you share
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Interesting Facts

After entering Europe, potatoes did not immediately gain popularity
among peasants. For a long time they were suspicious of this
plant, because they considered it poisonous. According to legend, in order to convince
his subjects, the king of Prussia, Frederick the Great, ordered the planting of
potatoes near his castle and put up a day guard next to it.
Thinking that the soldiers were guarding something of value, the peasants made their way
to the castle at night and robbed the plantations. This “publicity” stunt contributed to the
distribution of potatoes among local residents.

Beautiful potato flowers

In France, potatoes played the role of an ornamental plant for a long time
and grew exclusively in botanical gardens. High society ladies weaved
potato flowers into their hair, and men wore them in boutonnieres. An attempt by
royalty to introduce the plant into agricultural life
turned out to be a failure. Only in the 18th century, the agronomist and pharmacist Antoine
Parmentier managed to gradually overcome the resistance of the people. He
was engaged in the popularization of potatoes, arranging dinner parties at which he
treated guests with potato dishes. Thus, it was he who managed to
lay the foundation for the cultivation of potatoes as a vegetable crop.

the people also greeted the emergence of a
new culture with apprehension and distrust . The potato was called “the devil’s apple” and “the fruit of
harlots”, and the preachers of the Old Believers simply forbade the cultivation of
this plant. However, the authorities resorted to violent measures and forced the
peasants to plant the “suspicious” vegetable. As a result, in the middle of the
19th century, mass popular uprisings,
called “potato riots” , swept across the country .

Interestingly, just 50 years after the Russian “potato
riots”, in the era of the gold rush, in Alaska,
gold miners valued potatoes worth their weight in gold. And all because potato tubers
have a high nutritional value and are rich in vitamin C, which
helped gold prospectors fight scurvy
and other diseases.

They knew a lot about potatoes in Ireland, where this root crop became the
staple food of peasants in the 18th century. Moreover, the
country’s population was so dependent on this cheap vegetable that a crop failure
caused by a disease imported from America led to a real disaster.
Ireland was gripped by the Great Potato Famine, which resulted in the death of
one million people. About one million more people left the
country to escape the lack of food .

This is probably why the saying “potatoes
and marriage are two things too serious to be joked with” appeared in Ireland
. They also love potatoes in Germany, where there is an analogue of the Russian
proverb “fools are lucky”. Germans usually say “the stupidest
peasants have the biggest potatoes”. And in Russian there is a
saying “a table without potatoes is like a party without an accordion.”

They sang and immortalized potatoes not only in folk art.
For example, many painters depicted in their paintings blooming
potato fields, the process of planting and harvesting potatoes, and even the process of
eating them. Even Vincent Van Gogh, who
had a whole series of paintings: “The Potato Eaters”, “The Woman Digging the
Potatoes” and “The Basket of Potatoes”, did not ignore this topic .

Van Gogh Paintings: Potato Eaters, Woman Digging Potatoes, Basket of Potatoes

In addition, poems and songs were written about potatoes. For example,
in the film “Breakfast on the Grass” the song “Potato” sounds (music by V. Shainsky,
lyrics by M. Lvovsky), and Vladimir Vysotsky sang his own song
“Comrades Scientists”. In turn, the poet Ivan Demyanov wrote a
children’s poem about potatoes:

That my palms are black,
No one scolds me.
Together with grandmother
We planted potatoes by the wattle fence!
Soon here, on the soft slopes,
Where the barn warmed its sides,
Many bows of green
May will tie on the ridge.
After yellow, white, blue
will light up – They will be so beautiful,
Our beds by the river!
Let my palms be dirty,
I’m already used to work …
And there is no tastier potatoes,
That you will plant yourself in the ridge!

Numerous museums and festivals dedicated to it are the best evidence of the importance of potatoes in our life . And on May 30,
World Potato Day is celebrated . Also around the world, people demonstrate their
love for this vegetable by erecting monuments to it:

Moreover, in 1995, potatoes became the first vegetable crop
grown in zero gravity – on the Columbia spacecraft.
But on the ground, breeders do not sit idle. They managed to develop a
soft and very tender potato variety called “La Bonnotte”.
Although, according to legend, this potato was bred by the supreme god of the Incas.
“La Bonnotte” is planted and harvested exclusively by hand and no more than
100 tons per year. And the price for one kilogram of such a delicacy reaches
500 euro.

Botanical description

Botanically, potatoes are a perennial tuberous
plant of the nightshade family. But in everyday life, potatoes
are often called the “second bread” because, along with wheat,
rice, corn
and sugar cane, it is one of the five most important
crops in the world [1,2] .


The history of the potato goes back more than one millennium, and scientists believe
that for the first time wild species of this plant began to be eaten back
in the 5th century BC. ancient Indians who lived in South
America. It is not known for certain when and how the potato left its homeland,
but it is believed that it got to Europe through the Iberian Peninsula
and the British Isles in the middle of the 16th century .

In Spain, and especially in Ireland, potatoes quickly became a solid
staple of the local diet, however, in the rest of Europe they were not
very popular and for a long time were considered the work of the devil.
Nevertheless, information about the true value of potatoes nevertheless
spread over time throughout the Old World and, despite the initial
mistrust, they began to grow and use it in Germany, the Netherlands,
Belgium, France and other European countries.

The first who, at the end of the 16th century, described the potato and gave it the
modern scientific name Solanum tuberosum
(Latin tuberous nightshade), was the Swiss botanist Kaspar
Baugin . As for the common name for potatoes,
it varies from country to country. For example, the Russian
name “potato” comes from the German word “kartoffel”,
which in turn was borrowed from the Italian language.
In Italy, the potato was called “tartufoli” by analogy with the truffle (Italian
tartufo), because its tubers, like the truffle tubers,
are located underground.

The English name “potato” comes from the Spanish word “patata”.
The Spaniards, in turn, adopted the name from the Indians, combining
their words “papa” (potato) and “batata” (sweet
potato). In France, potatoes are still called “pomme de terre”
(French for an earthy apple) .


Considering that potatoes are an unpretentious plant, they can be grown
on soils of a wide variety in their composition, regardless of the peculiarities of
climatic conditions and temperature fluctuations . That is why
this culture is cultivated in more than a hundred countries of the world
with a temperate, subtropical and tropical climate. However, in order to obtain a
high-quality harvest, it is necessary to know which variety is suitable
for the soil and weather conditions of a particular area.

There are a huge variety of potato varieties (about 4,000), ranging
from various wild species in South America to
species carefully bred by breeders. Usually, the division of
varieties into categories is carried out depending on the ripening period:
70-80 days (early ripening), 90-120 days (mid-ripening), 140-150 days
(late-ripening) .

In addition to such famous varieties as Adretta, Riviera, American
or Granada, which correspond to the traditional ideas about the
appearance of potatoes (brownish peel and light yellowish
flesh), there are also very unusual varieties with colored flesh
or variegated outer color. For example, the Vitelotte potato has a
rich purple flesh color, while the All Blue potato has both a blue
skin and flesh. The Bikini variety has an unusual
red-yellow rind, the Christina tubers have a
dark red rind , and the Shetland potatoes are black on the outside.

Peculiarities of growing

The potato is considered a perennial plant and at home in South
America, it is often found in the wild. However, in Europe it is grown
as an annual plant. Depending on the variety, a potato bush
can grow from 30 to 150 cm in height and have 4 to 8 stems.
The color of the leaves ranges from light green to dark green with a
brown tint . Small
inflorescences of white, pink or lilac color usually appear at the tips of the stems , depending on the

Closer to autumn, fruits are formed on the bush – small fleshy berries of
green-white color. The tops and berries contain the poisonous substance solanine,
which protects the plant from harmful bacteria and insects. The tubers
used for food are located underground. On the outside of the
potato there are so-called eyes (from 3 to 15 buds per
tuber), which subsequently develop into young shoots. Potatoes
can be grown in any open field, in greenhouses and even in pots.

The planting time of this plant depends on the maturation of the tubers.
Early varieties are usually planted when the soil warms up to 10 ° C,
although some gardeners choose
lunar days for planting potatoes . However, planting material begins
to be prepared 30-40 days before disembarkation. Tubers the size of a chicken egg, selected
in the fall, are scattered on the floor or laid out in one layer in boxes
and stored at a temperature of 12-15 ° C, always in the light and at high

The planting of potatoes itself can be carried out in different ways,
depending on the density of the soil. In hot climates and light
loose soil, holes are made for potatoes, while in humid
climates, ridges are cut for potatoes in moist soil, raising the planting
above ground level. Sometimes seed propagation is used.
To do this, take seeds from ripe potato fruits and plant them
in boxes, leaving them in a lighted place. Seedlings 13-15 cm high are
transplanted in early May.

Growing potatoes is always accompanied by pest control.
The Colorado potato beetle and wireworm is a real scourge for potato plantations.
The larvae and adults of the Colorado potato beetle eat both the leaves of the potato
bush and the tubers themselves. As for the wireworm, the danger
is only the larva of this insect, which gnaws at the
roots and tubers, which leads to wilting and decay of the plant. To
get rid of these pests, you have to use chemicals.

Selection and storage

You should not take greened or already sprouted potatoes, they
contain alkaloids that can provoke poisoning. Small
holes, deep grooves and brown spots indicate
that the potatoes have been exposed to pests. Good quality potatoes
should be firm and elastic without external damage or defects.
If the potato succumbs to the pressure of the nail and
liquid begins to ooze out of it , most likely nitrates were used in the cultivation.
And when you pierce the skin of a good potato without pesticides with
your fingernail, you will hear a ringing crisp sound.

If you need to choose potatoes for storage for the winter, then
medium and late ripening varieties are suitable . It is also worth paying
attention to the size of the root crop. Medium to small tubers contain
more nutrients. In addition, the
maturity of the potato depends on the thickness of the peel – the thicker it is, the more mature the potato is
and the better it should be stored. Peeled and dried
tubers are best kept at 2-7 ° C. Also, potatoes
need to be sorted from time to time, getting rid of rotten root crops in
order to avoid the spread of infections.

See also the properties of other vegetables:

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Anna Evans

Author ✓ Farmer

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