Siberia is a region of risky farming. But this does not prevent many growers from successfully planting and growing such a thermophilic crop as pepper. The key to successful cultivation in Siberia is the right time for sowing seeds and the proper planting of pepper. To correctly determine the timing of sowing and planting, it is best to focus on the climatic conditions of the region and on the duration of the growing season and fruiting of peppers.
Rules for planting pepper in Siberia
When and how to sow seeds
Warm weather in Siberia is set no earlier than mid-May. Relatively warm weather lasts no more than three months, and during this period often the temperature can drop below 20 ° C during the day and below 15 ° C at night. And pepper actively grows at temperatures above 22 ° C, with fluctuations and drops, growth stops, and the fruiting time is postponed.
For this region, pepper can only be grown in seedlings. You need to plant seeds long before planting in the garden.With the seedling method, the vegetation of peppers can be divided into such conditional periods:
from sowing seeds to planting seedlings 60-70 days;
from planting on a bed to the first ovary 30 days;
from the beginning of the mass ovary to harvest 30-40 days.
It is important to focus on these features when sowing seeds. Do not rush with sowing pepper seeds, because until the soil warms up to 16-18 ° C, seedlings can not be planted in the ground. This can significantly weaken and sometimes destroy plants. And overgrown seedlings at home are very difficult to take root in a new place and are painfully transplanting.
The best time to plant pepper for seedlings in Siberia will be early to mid-March, if it is supposed to be planted in unheated greenhouses. But if you plan to grow bell pepper in the open field, then the seeds are sown in the 20th of March. It is advisable to plant pepper in February only if it grows in a heated greenhouse.
Sowing according to the lunar calendar
When growing pepper, you can focus on the dates indicated in sowing calendar. Such a calendar is based on the phases of the moon. Plants that form fruits in the aerial parts should be sown during the growing moon. Favorable days for sowing pepper:
March 1,18,19,20,21,22,23,25-30 numbers;
For planting seedlings in the soil, favorable dates are also highlighted on the calendar: May 18,19,27,28.
Choose varieties for Siberia
Having determined the optimal sowing time pepper for seedlings in Siberia and choosing the right varieties, it is important to carefully approach the process of sowing seeds, care and growing seedlings.
In order for seedlings to grow well, you need to choose the right soil mixture, process it and prepare the seeds for sowing. For young plants, the soil mixture should be nutritious and well-drained. It is good to let water through, not allowing it to stagnate, but partially retain it and not immediately dry out. You can purchase a special soil mixture for vegetables or prepare the soil yourself. For this you need:
These components are mixed in proportions 3: 2: 1. Ready soil must be disinfected. This can be done using a solution of potassium permanganate (1 g per 1 liter of water) or peroxide (1 tbsp. L per 1 liter of water), any of the proposed solutions spill the soil and allow to dry well.
Preparing seed material
Pepper seeds must be sanitized before sowing. This procedure is done using a solution of potassium permanganate or phytosporin. Prepare a 1% solution of potassium permanganate and in it for 20-25 minutes.soaked seeds. Then it is washed with clean water and dried. You can use the biofungicide phytosporin, add a few drops of the drug to 1 liter of water and soak the seeds for 30 minutes. Sow the treated seeds no later than 24 hours after the procedure. Often purchased seeds in the store are already processed, this is indicated on the packaging, and they have a color coating, they do not need to be disinfected. Sow the treated seeds immediately into the prepared soil without any additional treatments.
To speed up the process of germination, planting material is practiced to soak. To do this, spread the seeds on moistened cotton wool or gauze, and cover. Put in a place with a temperature of 25-28 C. Leave for 3-4 days to swell or until the shoots appear, make sure that they do not dry out, spray with warm water from the spray gun.
Sow the prepared seeds in containers filled with soil. They are neatly laid out on pre-moistened soil at a distance of 2-2.5 cm from each other. After that, sprinkle with earth at 1-1.5 cm and cover with a film. Crops put in the most lit warm place. It is important to remember that the optimum temperature for the emergence of seedlings of pepper is 24-28 C. At this temperature, the first seedlings germinate after 7-10 days.
Care of seedlings
When friendly shoots the film is gradually removed.To ensure the full growth of seedlings, it is important to monitor such factors:
Mandatory watering and lighting
Peppers at the seedling stage need sufficient watering. The frequency and amount of water required will depend on the temperature in the room and the volume of soil in which the seedlings grow. At temperatures above 24 ° C, watering is carried out every morning. At the initial stage, this is done with a syringe, a teaspoon. Water should penetrate 3-4 cm deep into the soil. The lower the temperature, the less frequent the watering.
After emergence, if possible, it is recommended to lower the temperature to 16-18 C for 4-5 days, this will prevent stretching seedlings. Subsequently, the optimum temperature should be maintained at 22-28 C, with a possible decrease in the night time by several degrees.
It is very important for the development of pepper to maintain 12 hour light day, this ensures the correct development, prevents the stretching of the stems and their thinning. Young plants are highlighted with fluorescent lamps or phytolamps. On cloudy days, lamps are used throughout the day, on sunny days they are turned on for several hours in the sutra and in the evening.
When two or three true leaves grow in seedlings, it is better to plant them in separate containers. To do this, plastic glasses and peat pots with a volume of 250-330 ml or any other pots are suitable, from which when transplanting to a permanent place it will be easy to get plants without injuring the root system. Tanks are filled with soil, in the middle they make a depression and spill with water. Seedlings are carefully removed together with an earthen lump using a spoon or a garden spatula and gently transplanted without deepening. Peppers are not inclined to form lateral roots on stems, so deepening during transplantation can lead to decay.
After a dive, plants shade for 3-4 days from direct sunlight, and watering resumes after 4 days.
Rules for planting seedlings
Planting seedlings in a permanent place is necessary after 60-70 days from the moment of its emergence. This coincides with the appearance of the first peduncles on a young bush. But in order for the transplant to be safe, the plants must have warm weather and warm the soil to 16-18 C. In Siberia, this time rarely comes before the 20th of May. At the end of May, the weather stabilizes, the possibility of night frosts is already minimized, and the differences in daytime temperatures are not so sharp. Seedlings are planted in the greenhouse a week or two earlier than in open ground, but also only when the ground is warm enough.
Two weeks before planting, the young bushes harden, for this they are taken out to the street or balcony. Staying longer every day. This will help the seedlings to better cope with temperature changes after planting in the garden.
Heating the beds
Agronomists and gardeners in Siberia recommend heating the beds when growing peppers. To do this, horse manure, plastic or glass bottles filled with water or natural stones are used.
Manure has the ability to warm the soil for a long time during cold weather. For the purpose of heating, between the aisles, a ditch is made with a depth of 25-30 cm, manure is laid in it with a calculation of 3 kg / sq. m. Pour boiling water to start the heat release process and cover it with removed earth.
The bottles are filled with water and evenly laid out on the surface of the garden bed. In the daytime, they will heat up under the sun’s rays, and at night, when the temperature of the air and soil drops, they will give off their heat and warm the soil.
Natural stones use the same principle as bottles. They will be heated during the day and at night to give the necessary heat to the beds.
Prepare landing holes for planting, at a distance optimal for each individual variety. On average per square meter m plant 3-4 bushes. In the holes lay a handful of onion peels and 1 tbsp. l wood ash, this will protect the seedlings from pests and will serve as top dressing.The hole is shed with water a couple of hours before transplanting.
The plants are carefully removed from the pots without destroying the earthen lump and planted. During planting, make sure that the root does not bend, but lies flat or in a circle. Seedlings are not buried, the root neck should be at the surface level. Sprinkle with loose soil in half and watered when water is absorbed, fill the rest of the earth and gently press the soil near the stem.
After landing near the stem circle, mulch with compost, peat or straw. If the temperature still fluctuates and can drop below 15 C, then it is advised to cover freshly planted peppers in open beds with white non-woven material, it will protect the seedlings from the cold, but will let in sunlight.
Sowing pepper for seedlings. Dates for planting sweet pepper.
Siberia and peppers in the greenhouse.
Pepper seedlings. Rules and dates for planting.
In such an agronomically difficult area for growing heat-loving vegetables as Siberia, it is possible to achieve good results if the timing of sowing and planting is observed. that our recommendations can help you get a generous and healthy harvest.
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