Most lovers of spicy seasonings like hot pepper. Red sharp fruits have become so popular that many gardeners have adapted to receive them at home. Growing chili peppers at home may seem like a daunting task for a gardener.
- Characteristic of the variety
- Description of the bushes
- Description of the fruits
- Planting seeds
- Growing conditions
- Care recommendations
- Diseases and pests
But, there’s nothing special about growing this pepper. The main thing is to change the agrotechnical approach to the culture and do everything care requirements
Characteristics of the variety
Chile is not a variety, but a whole genus of peppers (hybrids, often annuals). Varieties such as “Aladdin”, “Tabasco” , “Salute” and others, are popular representatives of Chile, belonging to the nightshade family, which gardeners have adapted to grow at home. The classic ancestor is a perennial crop grown in the open expanses of North America.
Chilli is a low-growing shrub that often performs a decorative function. The size of the bush, as well as the description of the fruit, depends on the variety selected for planting. But, one thing is constant – this is the benefit of the product. The fruits of chili peppers are different in their content of capsaicin, which emphasizes the peculiarity of the taste of the culture.They also have beta carotene, thiamine, pyridoxine, and other trace elements. The useful properties of this product are unique.
Description of the bushes
Most often, home-grown peppers grow up to 50 cm in height. The leaves are small, ellipsoid, dark green in color. The shrub plant has a bright appearance, and during the fruiting period it also has an aroma.
Most often, gardeners try to grow annual undersized hybrids. Such plants contained on the windowsill take no more than 40 cm of space. Their attractive appearance allows you to make pepper an additional decoration of the home. The dense leafy part and a large number of ovaries, constantly changing their color, will not leave indifferent any gardener. Chili pepper can be grown by the window or on a well-equipped loggia.
Description of the fruit
Depending on the variety, the fruits can be arranged in different ways. For some, they are directed upwards, for others – randomly. Their number also depends on the variety. So, in the popular Habanero, the fruits are small, weighing 10-15 g. But, their number can exceed 800 pcs. And such a variety as Medusa produces fruits of 20-25 g, and their number is often limited to 50-60 pieces.
The color and shape can also be different. Some are pike-shaped, while others are curved. The variety Little Miracle is distinguished by an abundance of shades.Its peppers, throughout the ripening period, constantly change their colors from green to:
There is also a Black Pearl variety, which has an exotic appearance. The pepper of such a plant is similar to large black peas. Its taste is moderately piquant, with a hint of sweetness. But, to look after him is very difficult, due to his capriciousness in choosing the soil and temperature of cultivation. Therefore, at home you can plant proven, less capricious varieties, such as: Salute, Phoenix, Troll, etc.
Having decided to grow hot chili peppers on your windowsill, it is important to buy high-quality planting material – seeds.
You will also need plastic cups or pots from pressed peat. The substrate for planting will have to be done independently. The mixture is best suited:
- turf land (2 parts);
- peat (2 parts);
- vermiculite (1 part).
You can also add 1 part of fine sand to this mixture. But, before using it, an oven calcination procedure will be required.
It is not difficult to germinate seeds. You need to moisten two paper towels and place a handful of seeds between them. They can be planted only when sprouts from the seeds hatch.This procedure also has its own characteristics. You can plant them in a pot like this:
- In the pot, drainage is made of broken bricks.
- The prepared soil is filled in.
- 2-3 recesses are made in the ground, 2 cm deep.
- Put seeds in prepared wells and sprinkle them with a thin layer of soil.
- Planted seeds are watered and covered with plastic wrap.
The first shoots in the pot appear in 7-10 days. It is best to store the container in a warm, well-lit place. When the first leaves appear, the film is removed, and seedlings are prepared for picking.
Indoor pepper (Chile), transplanted into a large container into which the new soil is previously filled. A large depression is made in the new pot, which will allow transplanting pepper along with an earthen lump. After transplanting, it is necessary to take care of favorable conditions for growing seedlings.
Peppers planted in a pot can be placed on the windowsill. Such a culture loves sunlight, therefore, the window of the southeast or southwest side will be the best place for it. Best of all, do not store containers with seedlings close to the radiator, as they dry the air.
Other conditions for active growth are also important:
- the air temperature will be in the range of 24-27 ° С;
- the daylight hours of the pepper located on the window will be 14-18 hours;
- the soil will be loose and moist.
The large daylight hours are regulated by additional illumination. To do this, install a phytolamp next to the plant. Its goal is to build green mass. Without illumination, plants grown from seeds will stretch in height, but will remain weak.
The safest distance to plants is 25-30 cm. To precisely limit the daylight hours, it is necessary to provide a lamp with a timer.
Caring for such a plant comes down to simple rules:
- Watering. Culture loves moisture, but it’s dangerous to overfill the culture. Watering should be moderate, 1 time per week. In hot summer, you can water the plant once every 3 days, additionally spraying its leaves with warm water.
- Top dressing. Fertilizer must be balanced. Once every 30 days, use complex formulations. Before the onset of flowering, it is best to use an infusion of humus or to add wood ash.
- Pruning. Used for perennial Chile.In early spring, anti-aging pruning should be done by removing dried and weakened branches.
- Pollination. This culture is self-pollinated. But, due to the fact that pepper is grown at home, it needs to be helped. For pollination, it is necessary to gently shake the buds or to collect pollen with a soft brush and walk it through all the flowers of the plant.
With proper care, Chile blooms in late spring, often in mid-May. Flowering is long, and often continues until mid-summer, when the first peppercorns begin to appear.
The main advantage of chili peppers is that this crop can be propagated by both seeds and cuttings. The easiest way is to get seeds from a home crop. For cuttings, however, several lignified shoots will be required. But, do not forget that most varieties of Chile are hybrids. That is, they may not inherit the qualities of the mother bush.
Diseases and pests
This exotic culture is rarely attacked by pests and does not suffer from diseases. The secret of cultural immunity lies in its fruits. They have bactericidal properties, which is why many diseases are not dangerous to the culture. The crop may suffer due to improper care:
- Over watering may show signs of a fungal infection known as the Black Leg. This problem is solved by spraying with fungicides.
- From excessive air dryness, as well as due to rare airing, seedlings can be threatened by aphids and spider mites. Ovaries often fall from these pests, therefore, it is important to find the most effective remedy against them. A popular remedy for pests is a solution of tar or laundry soap.
- Pups. You can fight them as well as with other pests. The most effective remedy is a solution of laundry soap.
Some gardeners also use burning fruits of the plant against diseases and pests. They must be ground and filled with a small amount of water. Insisting such a tool for 2-3 days, filtering it and diluting it with a tablespoon of liquid soap, you can get an excellent bactericidal agent. Spraying is carried out once a day, for 4-7 days.
When growing chili peppers, it is important to carefully . Carry out all the features of the care culture loves heat and moisture, and sunlight If problems with temperature and watering easy to solve, the lighting -. Harder required supplementary lighting fitolamp
It is best to grow perennial plant varieties… Their average lifespan is 4-5 years. With proper care of an indoor plant, it will produce a large number of red piquant fruits.