In the Netherlands there are very few arable lands that are not fertile. Despite this, today, Dutch technology for growing potatoes is used throughout Europe. This technology involves the use of high-quality seed material, as well as tight control at all stages of growth.The technique can be used both for obtaining large volumes of nightshade on industrial land, and in the country.
- The essence of the method
- Planting material
- Seed preparation
- Working with the soil
- Autumn preparation
- Spring preparation
- Optimum landing time
- Planting schedule
The essence of the method
The cultivation of potatoes according to the Dutch technology is different comb method of planting. Such a move allows you to clearly control the oxygen supply and soil moisture level. Recommended planting depth is a maximum of 10 cm.
The scheme of cultivation involves planting in shallow trenches. As the surface part develops, the earthen roller increases, which allows to enrich the soil with oxygen, to avoid moisture stagnation and the spread of fungal diseases. The cultivation of potatoes according to Dutch technology requires the strict implementation of agrotechnical rules at every stage of the development of culture.The method involves the following activities:
- selection of high-quality seed material;
- preparatory work with the soil;
- planting plants according to a certain pattern;
- proper care;
- harvesting potatoes.
The scheme for growing potatoes according to Dutch technology was developed by specialists for use on an industrial scale. However, many farmers use the method at home. The implementation of agricultural regulations throughout the growing season can significantly improve the quality of the soil and get a good harvest. The growing technology allows you to get 2-3 kg of potatoes from 1 bush.
Which potatoes are suitable for growing by the Dutch method? First of all, you need to choose a good variety of potatoes. Even varieties that are not prone to degeneration are recommended to be completely renewed after 4-5 years. The root crop, beloved by many, very often undergoes various fungal diseases, therefore, over the years, yield in any case begins to decline. In recent years, Dutch varieties have been especially popular. However, some farmers prefer domestic varieties of potatoes, citing the mediocre taste of Dutch crops. In addition, imported plants do not take root in every region.
The most commonly used Dutch varieties are:
- Frisia ;
- Prior and others.
Popular domestic varieties: Luck, Nevsky, Sonny, Lugovsky.
Potatoes of the first reproduction should not be taken as seed material, it is better to give preference to 2-3 reproductions. 3-5 cm potatoes are suitable for cultivation by the Dutch method, as well as possible. Smaller root crops should not be used. Each potato should have at least 5 peepholes.
Dutch technology should first be sprouted. To do this, use any of the standard methods used in a normal landing. The difference is that the Dutch plant potatoes when the sprouts reach 0.5 cm. These sizes of sprouts are optimal for mechanical planting. In our regions, seedlings with such sprouts can die from a sharp temperature drop, so do not rush to plant. Potato sprouts should reach at least 2.5 cm, especially if planting will be done manually in the conditions of a summer residence.
Working with the ground
Planting potatoes according to Dutch technology involves additional preparatory work with soil. An important condition is the choice of site.It is not recommended to plant potatoes on the slopes. In this case, the water will drain down, and the earth will sprinkle.
The method involves the use of a fertile layer to sprinkle potatoes. It must contain humus, otherwise you need to generously fertilize the soil with organic matter. It is strictly forbidden to land in the same place. The culture can be returned to the old site only for 3 years. In small plots, the culture is grown in the same place, with the condition of applying a large amount of organic matter and soil treatment with herbicides.
Potatoes should not be planted in place of tomatoes or other nightshade crops. This can lead to late blight infection. It is recommended to select the area on which they grew:
Process Soil cultivation begins in the fall, after harvesting. The site is dug up to a depth of 25-30 cm, removing all roots and weeds. After that, organic fertilizer is applied, at the rate of 5 kg per 10 m2.
Of mineral fertilizers, they use potassium compounds and superphosphates in the amount of 0.2 kg and 0.5 kg. If the site is slightly inclined, it is better not to carry out autumn dressing, otherwise it will wash the nutrients in the spring with water. Before planting potatoes, you need to choose a way to control weeds and pests.The Dutch use large amounts of mineral fertilizers and herbicides for this. In a small farm, it is advisable to use only minerals.
In spring, the site should again be loosened to a depth of about 15 cm. This method allows you to maintain the optimal amount of oxygen in the deep layers soil. With this method of cultivation, air chambers are formed through which moisture circulates.
If in the Netherlands planting is carried out without waiting for the soil to warm up, then in our conditions it is necessary to wait until the soil is ready for planting. Tamping or covering the ground is not recommended. So the upper layers dry out faster and heat up. In the spring, most often, nitrogen-potassium compounds are added, for example, ash or urea.
Optimum landing time
The main requirement for the planting date is the preparedness of the soil. When the earth is well behind the shovel, you can begin to plant tubers. They begin to plant potatoes around mid-March. The term will vary depending on the climatic conditions of the region. It is not recommended to land in unheated soil, otherwise the tubers may freeze.
With an early planting, the root system develops much faster, and the ground part grows evenly.It is important to remember that land preparation begins immediately before planting. If you prepare for a month, the aeration and drainage process are disrupted, which reduces yield indicators.
In large farms and small private lands, planting is carried out from the north South. Thanks to this method, plants are evenly illuminated from all sides, the risk of infection with a fungal disease is reduced. The optimal distance between the trenches is 75 cm. The recesses for planting should be 4-8 cm, maximum 10 cm.
Potatoes in the beds are arranged in increments of 30 cm. With this arrangement, each bush has the ability to develop normally, and the rhizome receives the necessary amount of heat and minerals. In order to protect plantings from wireworm and other pests, the bottom of the beds is sprinkled with onion husks, then fertilized with compost. The tubers themselves are dusted with ash.
To close the trenches, make embankments 10 cm high and not more than 35 cm wide. Throughout the entire growth period, it will be necessary to periodically pour soil. After 28-30 days after the first shoots are biting, the embankment is increased to 25 cm in height and 75 cm in width.
The culture needs regular loosening of the soil and pouring soil on crumbling ridges. In addition, the method of growing according to Dutch technology involves the use of fungicides and herbicides, in order to prevent the invasion of pests and the spread of fungal diseases.The implementation of simple plant care measures allows you to get a good harvest in any region.
- after 14 days from the moment of planting, you need to remove weeds, loosen the soil between the rows;
- to prevent the growth of weeds between rows, it is necessary to treat with a herbicide;
- watering is carried out 3 times for the whole season: during budding, after falling flowers and a month before harvesting.
Regular cultivation of the soil contributes to the uniform development of the terrestrial part and rhizome, as well as remove excess moisture. When using herbicides, it is important to consider that the effect of the drugs lasts 14 days, so 6 treatments are carried out for the entire period. Prevention with chemicals is carried out strictly before the start of budding. It is strictly forbidden to use chemicals during flowering.
When potatoes are grown by the Dutch method, direct watering is not used, otherwise the embankments can be destroyed. The best option is a drip system. It provides uniform penetration of moisture into all layers of the soil. This watering option saves water and directs it directly to the rhizome.
The harvesting time depends entirely on the type of potato and the purpose of growing. Seed potatoes of late varieties are harvested in early August. During this period, the bulk of root crops reaches the required size and degree of maturity.The rest of the time ranges from early July to late August.
Before harvesting it is recommended to process the tops with means for drying or mow it. As a result of this treatment, the tubers fully ripen, and the skin becomes dense. This reduces the risk of mechanical damage, as well as increase safety. Processing with desiccants (drying preparations) allows you to save the tubers from infection with late blight.
All these preparations have a fungicidal effect, which is aimed at destroying living tissue on which the spores of the fungus are located. As a result, the disease is destroyed along with the ground part and does not pass to root crops. Today, Dutch technology potatoes are often grown at home. This allows you to get a good harvest in any region.