Growing potatoes in open ground requires the right approach. Many will say that all this is a waste of time. But, with proper care, regular fertilizer application, the right choice of planting method and timing, the yield doubles.
- Soil preparation
- Seed selection and preparation
- Growing methods
- Planting <
- Proper care
- Humidification <
- Loosening the soil
- Cultivation <
- Preventive measures
- Final part
For many varieties of potatoes, the composition of the soil is not important, but better the whole crop grows on loamy and sandy loamy soils. Any soil must be specially treated before planting potatoes. Soil preparation begins in the fall, after harvesting.
It is not recommended to plant potatoes in the same place for several years in a row. If it is not possible to change the territory for planting, you should plant siderata plants on it. These include:
- legumes ;
- annual and perennial grass.
In the autumn deep cultivation is carried out. The soil is plowed to a depth of 30 cm. Organic fertilizers are added to the same period. Instead of organics, saltpeter or superphosphates can be used.In areas with a close occurrence of groundwater, a drainage system should be organized.
Seed selection and preparation
Potatoes can be propagated by seeds and tubers. The first method is quite difficult to perform, requires thorough knowledge and is used, most often, in breeding experiments. More commonly used is the method of propagation by tubers or parts thereof, in the case when the potatoes are too large. Ideally, the size of the seed should not exceed the size of the chicken egg.
Potatoes should be selected for seeds during the harvest season. Already at this moment, they begin to carry out preliminary training. Tubers for seeds are laid separately and kept for several days in a lighted place so that they turn green. This makes it possible to save potatoes from rodents. Green potatoes are also better stored.
Already in the middle of winter, the first sprouts may appear. In such cases, they are carefully removed. Sprouts do not have to be thrown away. From them you can get great seedlings. To do this, they are planted in wooden boxes, watered and covered with a film. Sprouts are buried in the ground by 2/3.
It is customary to plant potatoes from mid-April to mid-May. Landing dates will depend on the weather conditions in the region. A month before planting, potatoes should be removed from the cellar and sorted, discarded spoiled tubers. Most often, potatoes are sprouted before planting. Plant potatoes in a well-heated soil.
The temperature of the soil should be between 4 and 10 ℃. 21 days before planting, the potatoes are placed in a warm place. Over this period, sprouts form. After 3 weeks, the tubers are rejected for which the sprouts are absent or have a filamentary structure. All seed should undergo a disinfection procedure. To do this, use a solution of manganese or insecticides.
There are several types of potato cultivation in open ground:
- smooth – under the shovel, the standard universal method used on all types of soil;
- ridge – used on heavy soils, the essence is the formation of the embankment in rows of 15 cm tall;
- trench – relevant for light sandy soils;
- nestanda Mercury types of planting are used in small areas or in regions with poor climatic conditions.
One criterion is relevant for all methods – planting is carried out from south to north. Do not neglect this rule. Potato loves lighted areas, and with this method of planting, the plant is evenly lit from all sides. In the shade, productivity is significantly reduced, the risk of infection with late blight and other fungal diseases is increased.
Before planting, the soil is cultivated again and organic fertilizers are again applied. It should be noted that the depth of planting on different soils will be different. On loose light soils, the landing depth is 10-12 cm, on hard 5cm. The standard method of planting under a shovel is relevant for all types of soil and is the easiest to implement.
The distance between the holes depends on the purpose of growing potatoes. To get small tubers for seeds, the distance between the holes is reduced to 20-30 cm. To get larger potatoes, it is increased to 40-50 cm. Between the rows leave a space of 70 cm.
The soil must be moist, well loosened. In each well, it is recommended to put a spoonful of wood ash or potassium fertilizers. It is potassium that plays the main role in the development of the plant in the early stages of growth. Potatoes should be slightly pressed into the soil, laying so as not to damage the sprouts when falling asleep in the soil.
Wells are covered with soil and cover the surface. watering after planting is optional, there is still enough spring moisture in the soil. Next, wait for the first shoots to appear.
Care is an important step in achieving the desired results when harvesting.The cultivation of potatoes in the open field includes several care measures:
- loosening the soil;
- treatment with insecticides for preventive purposes.
Almost all varieties of potato are drought tolerant plants. The soil should not be too wet, otherwise the risk of infection with late blight increases. Standard watering is carried out three times during the whole season, but in a too dry climate it is carried out more often. Then watering is carried out during the budding period and during flowering. In the central regions, when mulching the soil with grass, many varieties do not require watering at all. They have enough rainfall for optimal growth and development.
Loosening the soil
For the first time, the soil between the rows is loosened at the time the first sprouts appear. The optimal cultivation depth is 10 cm. On too moist soils, the depth is increased.
Regular cultivation makes it possible to enrich the soil with oxygen and get rid of weeds. Cultivation is carried out after each watering and precipitation, in order to avoid the appearance of a hard crust on the surface of the earth, which prevents air from entering the root system.
Many farmers, especially beginners, argue that this procedure is completely meaningless, but it is not. It is not carried out only in a too dry climate because of the risk of overdrying the root system. As a rule, hilling is carried out three times since the appearance of sprouts 12 cm high.
For the first time, an embankment of 8 cm is made, the second time – 20 cm. The procedure is carried out simultaneously with loosening. On light soils, hilling is a must. The first hilling is carried out to protect the shoots from possible frosts.
In order to get a good crop, you need to fertilize in a timely manner. Initially, fertilizers are applied at the time of planting. Then the root system is fed during budding and after flowering.
Fertilizers are applied at the time of irrigation or after rain. As a fertilizer, you can use:
- liquid mullein;
- phosphoric compounds.
With increased soil acidity, it is not recommended to use potassium compounds, as well as solutions of chicken droppings. Many farmers use as a fertilizer a solution prepared on an egg shell, onion husk and various herbal decoctions. This helps to accelerate plant growth, enrich the soil with vitamins and minerals.
The cultivation of early-ripening varieties in open ground does not require additional treatment with insecticides. In order to provide the crop with proper care, it is enough to disinfect the seed before planting. Harvesting early varieties is carried out before the period of “epidemic” of fungal diseases begins.
Mid-ripening and late varieties must be treated with insecticides in late June. The period of rains begins in mid-July. Pathogenic microorganisms begin to develop very quickly in moist, warm soil, and the risk of late blight infection increases. To increase soil moisture, in order to prevent stem decay, it is recommended to pinch the lower leaves. Rot and fungus begin to infect the lower part of plants, and then go to tubers.
In order to prevent diseases and attack pests, often use the following remedies: Fitosporin , Fitoverm, Aktara, Busido, Karbofos et al.
The final part
Growing potatoes in the open field is actually not an easy process that requires many nuances to be observed. Proper planting and the choice of cultivation method is the key to obtaining a good harvest. When choosing cultivation methods and fertilizers, the qualitative composition of the soil should be taken into account.Optimal plant care makes it possible to correct the situation with an excess or lack of moisture, minerals, vitamins.
Potatoes grow better on sandy soil. In addition, it is important to consider the climatic conditions of your region. In the northern and central regions, it is recommended to grow early varieties of potatoes, in the southern you can plant any variety.