Tomato, Calories, benefits and harms, Useful properties

The garden tomato we are used to has a rich red color.
This means, among other things, that the tomato contains lycopene – a powerful
antioxidant with antitumor and anticarcinogenic
properties, reducing the risk of developing several types of cancer, contributing
the formation of bone tissue. But there are many others in a tomato.
useful components responsible for their “work front”. Capabilities
of these substances will allow us to look at the tomato we are used to in a new way.

Useful properties of tomato

Composition and calorie content

Raw red tomato contains (in 100 g): .

Calories 18 Kcal

Vitamin C 13,7 Potassium, K 237 Vitamin
B4 6,7 Calcium, Ca 10 Vitamin
B3 0,594 Phosphorus,
P 24 Vitamin E 0,54 Magnesium, Mg 11 Vitamin B5 0,089 Sodium,
Na 5

Full composition

Medicinal properties

The tomato contains a set of elements that are beneficial
affect the cardiovascular system and help cleanse the body.
Tomato is an important source of lycopene (a powerful antioxidant,
which has immunostimulating and antitumor effects,
slows down the aging of the body) and glutathione (a substance that
protects cells from toxic free radicals)[16,17].
Thanks to these properties, the tomato is an irreplaceable product.
in any balanced diet, as well as in a diet low in content
fat, anti-cancer diet, etc.

Lycopene – the component due to which the tomato
becomes red. Accordingly, the “redder” the tomato,
the more of this substance in it. This trace element has similar
with beta-carotene properties (found in carrots),
namely, anticarcinogenic action. Research shows
that this flavonoid stimulates the formation of bone tissue.
It is recommended for people diagnosed with osteoporosis,
menopause or brittle bones. Lycopene reduces the risk of developing
certain types of cancer, such as cancer of the prostate, stomach, urinary
bladder and uterus. It is found in fresh tomatoes, but especially
there is a lot of it in tomatoes that have undergone heat treatment, since
the cooking process helps to release lycopene and improve its absorption
in organism[18,19].

Glutathione
– has the properties of a powerful antioxidant, helps to get rid of
free radicals that provoke many diseases. Big
the amount of glutathione is found in the skins of many vegetables, therefore
Tomatoes are also useful in raw form, in salads. This is very
an important element that removes toxins, especially heavy
metals (which, accumulating, lead to a deterioration in the
organism).

Scientific studies have shown that tomato and tomato sauce helps
reduce the risk of prostate cancer. This effect is observed
due to the antioxidant properties of tomato. It is assumed that
lycopene and glutathione are attached to the tissues of the prostate and thus
reduce the risk of damage to her DNA.

Tomatoes are rich
for potassium. This trace element takes part in the exchange of fluids
in the body, and is also responsible for the health of the nervous system, heart
and muscles. There is a lot of potassium, like calcium, in tomatoes. Thanks to
the presence of water and many minerals, tomato is recommended as a remedy
to restore the normal amount of fluids in the body
with dehydration.

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Vitamin
And a vitamin
C are considered essential ingredients to aid in cleansing
organism – and it is them that the tomato is rich in. Vitamin A, first discovered
in 1913, helps in the process of cell growth, strengthens the immune
system and is indispensable for the eyes. Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant,
as it participates in the process of freeing yourself from free radicals,
and not only those who come from outside, but also those who
the body produces on its own. It has been proven that this vitamin
cleanses the body. In addition, it has a positive effect on
disease treatment
Alzheimer’s and other dementias, as well as with such diseases,
like fibromyalgia and multiple sclerosis..

Tomatoes provide significant reductions in blood pressure.
During research after 8 weeks of daily tomato intake
(as an extract – lycopene complex) systolic pressure
patients fell by 10 units, and diastolic – by 4 units.

Lycopene has been observed to work as a natural sunscreen
agent and protects from ultraviolet rays.

Tomato is a rich source of riboflavin, which helps
relieve migraine attacks.
It is also beneficial for the nervous system as a whole.

Eating Tomatoes Helps Increase Protection Against Flu
and colds, especially when drinking tomato juice.

Due to their high vitamin C content, tomatoes are beneficial
influence at
diabetes by helping to metabolize insulin and glucose..

Tomato juice

In traditional medicine

The main component contained in tomatoes, which draws
attention to modern traditional medicine – lycopene.
As mentioned, it is a powerful ingredient that reduces the risk of developing
some types of cancer (prostate, breast), has
beneficial effect in the treatment of cancer of the lungs, stomach, esophagus,
pancreas, bladder and cervix. Moreover,
studies have shown that lycopene reduces cholesterol oxidation
and reduces the risk of heart disease. There are even some
evidence that lycopene may reduce the risk of cataracts
and sunburn.

But, despite all these extraordinary properties, there is one
problem. To isolate it from tomato, a reduction
model. New drugs containing lycopene appear on the market
at an exorbitant price. At the same time, there is evidence that
these lipid supplements do not have the same effect as the product,
contained directly in the fetus. Lycopene is extraordinary
product in combination and interaction with other substances,
which we can get by eating directly tomato and
tomato products..

In folk medicine

Leaf decoction

Alternative medicine often uses dried or fresh
tops of tomatoes. It contains vitamins, minerals,
cellulose,
essential oil, phytoncides and organic acids. It’s believed that
infusions from it help in the treatment of rheumatism,
fungal diseases, ulcers,
radiculitis.
However, the tops also contain toxic substances with which
need to be careful..

Leaves can be harvested at any time, suitable as young,
and mature. It is necessary to thoroughly wash the tops, finely chop
and dry. You need to store the leaves in cloth or paper bags.
within 12 months. The finished infusion can be stored no more than
two days. You can use it both from the outside – rubbing into painful
parts of the body or in the form of compresses, and internally (only after
prior consultation with a doctor). In addition, the infusion of foliage
tomatoes can be added to a hot bath. The tops are used as
independently and in combination with other herbs – celandine,
burdock,
calendula,
oak bark, verbena, sage,
sweet clover, drupe, birch buds, chamomile
..

Fruit use

Outwardly, the tomato is used as a bactericidal agent for purulent
wounds, in the form of gruel. With varicose veins
dilated veins, tomato slices are applied to problem
areas, fixed with a bandage and held until
a tingling sensation will appear. Then the feet are washed with cold water.
It is believed that such procedures should be carried out daily for
of the month..

For sluggish and dry skin of the face, tomato is used as a cosmetic
means. In addition, tomato gruel can be used as a stimulant
for hair growth. The tomato can be used in creams and masks. Nutritious
tomato cream, with the addition of lanolin and oat flour, suitable for
any skin type. As one of the components of face masks, tomato
can be applied to dry, normal, oily, mixed and fading
skin. Also, tomato is used in body masks and peels...

Juice

Freshly squeezed tomato juice can be used for liver diseases
(along with honey),
loss of energy (adding chopped parsley,
dill and
salt), atherosclerosis, obesity, anemia, constipation. Tomato
juice enhances the secretion of gastric juice and intestinal motility,
suppress the effect of unfavorable intestinal microflora.

Ripening stages of tomato

In oriental medicine

In traditional oriental medicine, tomato has a special meaning.
because it can be used both as a fruit and as a vegetable. One
from ancient Chinese books on nutrition, the tomato is described as
«sweet and sour in taste, cold in nature».
The book also mentions that tomato is good for health, so
how it cools the body and reduces “liver heat”, thereby maintaining
balancing it and removing toxins. Therefore, the tomato is indispensable in the following
cases:

  • for people with high blood pressure, which is believed to be
    in Chinese medicine, often caused by “liver heat“;
  • for those who suffer from decreased appetite or indigestion,
    a feeling of full stomach, abdominal discomfort
    or constipation.
    Cooked tomato is especially good for children with poor appetite;
  • for people who drink alcohol. Tomato juice drunk before, during
    time or after drinking alcohol helps the liver to metabolize it
    and quickly eliminate toxins from the liver and the body as a whole;
  • the tomato is “cold” by nature, so it has never been
    useful on hot days and in summer. Chinese medicine has an idea
    about the body and nature as one indissoluble whole, therefore
    in heat, the body will especially suffer from external heat. Heat
    causes changes in the body and can lead to these symptoms
    like dry skin, thirst, dark urine, sweat, overheating of the body, fickleness
    emotions and insomnia. The cooling qualities of tomatoes help to loosen
    these symptoms and avoid heatstroke. Tomato – summer fruit
    and is especially suitable for consumption during the hot season..
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In scientific research

Despite the abundance of modern plant species and already studied
data on the beneficial properties of tomatoes, scientists continue to research
many aspects regarding tomato. So, for example, a lot of attention
is given to artificial cultivation and genetic engineering to improve
taste properties of the plant, its resistance, the presence of useful
substances, growth rate, aroma.

An important place in research is also occupied by the study of the origin
tomato and, in particular, some of its types. For example, they study
genes responsible for the production of stem cells – research,
which as a result can optimize the size of the fetus of any
form.… It also explores the difference between tomatoes,
organically grown and large-scale agricultural
by means of..

In 2017, scientists in work on the assessment of biofilm-forming properties
bacteria Listeria monocytogenes (causative agent of severe
infectious disease), the tomato is one of the vegetables
which were investigated in three categories of interaction (slowing down
or accelerated growth, no impact). As a result of this research
it turned out that the strain that is present on the surface of the tomato
(as well as daikon, apple and lettuce) stimulates the growth of the studied
bacteria..

In addition, it should be noted that the tomato, as one of the most common
products in the domestic diet, often becomes the object of research
in economics, dietetics, innovative science, agricultural sciences.
For example, when analyzing the diversification of rural production, the cultivation of
tomatoes are considered as one of the promising branches of agricultural
farms. It is expected that the development of this industry has the potential
can bring high income, tax benefits, lack of
competition in the domestic market and a good harvest for
years when growing tomatoes in a greenhouse..

Tomatoes are also mentioned in interdisciplinary research – for example,
in the work on the images of plants in the paintings of artists as a resource of information
on the history of agronomy. This study provides an example of paintings
L. E. Melendez (1772) and P. Lacroix (1864), which show how
the tomato has changed its shape as a result of selection towards more
smooth and less ribbed (for easier transport and cleaning).

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Tomato in painting

Thus, the tomato as a subject of comprehensive scientific research
does not lose its relevance and importance..

In dietetics

Nutritionists value tomatoes primarily for their useful and medicinal
properties. They contain sugars (mainly fructose and glucose),
mineral salts (iodine, potassium, phosphorus, boron, magnesium, sodium, manganese,
calcium, iron, copper, zinc). Tomatoes are also rich in vitamins –
A, B, B2, B6, C, E, K, P, beta carotene. Tomatoes contain organic
acids and a powerful antioxidant lycopene that can protect against cancer
prostate, cervix, stop tumor cell division
and DNA mutations, reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
Thermally processed tomatoes contain even more lycopene than raw ones,
therefore, cooked tomatoes are often recommended by nutritionists.

Tomatoes regulate the functioning of the nervous system, have anti-inflammatory
and antibacterial effect, improve metabolism and digestion, help
with asthenia and atherosclerosis, and are also a good diuretic
a remedy for diseases of the kidneys and bladder..

Many organic acids are present in tomatoes, especially
malic
and lemon.
Salts of organic acids in the process of assimilation are left in the body
a significant supply of alkaline mineral components and thus
contribute to the alkalization of the body and the prevention of acid
shifts. Thus, tomatoes support the necessary
acid-base balance. Low purine content in tomatoes
is an important link in the structure of purine-free nutrition for prevention
atherosclerosis. Tomatoes contain folic acid, which
plays an important role in hematopoiesis, and also contributes to the formation
in the body, choline – a substance that normalizes cholesterol
exchange. Thus, tomatoes can be widely used in nutrition.
people of mature and old age, as well as patients with impaired
uric acid metabolism (gout)..

Tomatoes in cooking

In cooking

Tomatoes are widely used in cooking. They are applied as
ingredient in appetizers, first and second courses, salads – as in
raw or cooked. We have become completely accustomed to salads
with fresh tomatoes, tomato soups, sauces, pizza and pasta with tomato
dressing. Tomatoes are successfully used for the preparation of various
types of canned food. The fruits contain a significant amount of acid,
which makes it possible to limit the production of canned food to sterilization
them in boiling water. Depending on what taste you want
achieve the hostess, tomatoes can be pickled,
salt, cook sweet sauce, juice or compote. As a rule, in any
the form of canning uses sugar, salt, vinegar, lemon
acid and all kinds of spices.… With the right preparation,
the product can be stored in a cool dark place for several
years. Preservation data are always an excellent addition to
side dishes, meat, fish, salads and a separate snack. Famous
the tomato product is ketchup – a saggy tomato sauce
with the addition of seasonings.

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What tomatoes are combined with

Combination with other products

According to the rules of healthy eating, it is not advisable to combine tomato
with starchy and cereal products. Recommended to consume
tomatoes with herbs and vegetables that do not contain starch.
It is advised to take tomatoes with proteins and fats, thus it improves
their assimilation. Tomato and avocado are considered a healthy combination,
as well as broccoli
..

The familiar combination of tomatoes and cucumbers
not as useful as it seems – the components of these vegetables, according to
the latest research, mutually interfere with the assimilation of medicinal components
each other..

Tomatoes and liver are also considered healthy combinations,
olive oil
..

Beverages

The most famous tomato drink, as you would expect,
tomato juice… It is consumed as in natural
form, and with the addition of salt, pepper, celery, Worcester
sauce, lemon juice
and lime. In addition, tomato juice is used as a component of several
alcoholic cocktails. Tomatoes can be added to vegetable smoothies
based on yogurt or kefir, as well as prepare compote from them
with spices..

Dangerous properties of tomatoes and contraindications

Despite all the beneficial properties of tomatoes, there are several
contraindications to their use:

  • You need to be as careful as possible with the leaves of the plant bush,
    since they are poisonous.
  • You need to be wary of tomato fruits for people prone to
    to heartburn and acidity.
  • Also, tomatoes can cause severe allergies.
  • Some studies suggest caution when consuming
    tomatoes for people with chronic kidney disease, due to
    high potassium content in them.
  • Tomatoes can worsen irritable bowel syndrome and
    diarrhea,
    and are also contraindicated for cholelithiasis..
  • It is not recommended to use store-bought tomato paste, as
    how it contains preservatives that are harmful to the body.
  • In case of hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, it is not recommended
    eat pickled and salted tomatoes, as they can
    provoke the appearance of stones in the bladder. Moreover,
    kidney stones can appear with regular consumption of canned
    tomato juice, as it contains starch.
  • With pancreatitis
    and the ulcer is shown
    moderate consumption of tomatoes, as they can provoke
    aggravation.

We have collected the most important points about the benefits and possible dangers of tomatoes.
in this illustration and we will be very grateful if you share
a picture on social networks, with a link to our page:

Useful properties of tomato

Interesting Facts

In 1959, in the American magazine Ellery Queen’s Mystery Magazine
there was a story about how a chef, a political supporter of Britain,
tried to poison American President George Washington with a dish of
tomatoes. In those days, in the 18th century, the tomato was considered poisonous. Cook,
taking advantage of Mr. Washington’s cold and violation of his gustatory
perception, added tomato pulp to the stew. After serving the dish, the chef is done
with myself. In his last letter, he wrote: “As a cook, I do not believe in suicide
from poison; I’m too fat to hang; but, by vocation, I am masterful
I use a knife. ” As it turned out later, the story was fiction, but
could very well be true, because the tomato was really considered for a long time
poisonous..

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Tomatoes in the eyes

The tomato is often found in folk art, for example in proverbs.
In German, they say that someone who does not see the real situation
– “tomatoes in the eyes».… In Arabic “be
like a tomato
“Means”be a sociable and pleasant person»..
Well, in Russian, we remember tomatoes when we talk about the very
the main thing is about love. After all, alas, “love passed – tomatoes wilted».

And in our article, record-breaking products
you can look at giant tomatoes and other vegetables that
managed to grow diligent gardeners.

A huge nationwide love for tomatoes around the world is proved by numerous
festivals, museums and monuments dedicated to this wonderful product.
Here are just a few of them:

Monuments to tomatoes in the cities of Syzran, Kamenka-Dneprovskaya, Minusinsk, Kumludzha, the Netherlands

Origin of the name

In France, the tomato was called “the apple of love” (“pomme d’amour“)
as it was believed to have aphrodisiac properties.

Latin name for tomato, Lycopersicum esculent, It was
introduced by the French botanist Joseph Pitton de Tournefort at 17
century and meant “wolf peach“. Round and juicy, fruit
tomato was mistakenly equated with belladonna berries and was considered poisonous
– hence the name.

Tomato, in turn, comes from Spanish tomato
– derived from the ancient Aztec word tomatl
..

The name of the tomato came to us from the Italian language, “gold
apple
“- pomo d’oro, as probably originally in Europe
used yellow varieties of the fruit..

History

It is a vegetable of the nightshade family originating from South America and occupying
leading place in the world among vegetable crops..

In 1519, the conquistador Fernando Cortez first saw bright red
fruit in the gardens of Montezuma. Impressed, he brought tomato seeds
to Europe, where it began to be grown as an ornamental plant.

The first country to start cultivating tomatoes was Italy...
From a botanical point of view, tomato fruits are considered berries, but in
everyday life and by the way they are used, have long taken their position
among vegetables..

Sorts

There are hundreds of types of tomatoes – small cherry tomatoes
the size of a grape, huge tomatoes “Bull’s Heart»
weighing 600-800 grams, juicy for salads and meaty for pasta,
campari and “cream“, These are only the most famous
from many varieties. Fruit color other than red may vary
from white, orange, yellow, green to purple and chocolate[6,10].

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Cherry tomatoes, Bovine heart, cream, yellow, black

Peculiarities of growing

The plant can be annual or perennial.

Annual bush reaches a height of 60-90 centimeters,
on the tips of the branches instead of leaves there are buds. Fruits ripen, as a rule,
all at once, and after ripening the plant dies.

Perennial tomato Is a climbing plant that
requires support with stakes or a cage. Such a tomato will be
bear fruit until it freezes. The fruit usually ripens
later than an annual plant, but generally yields higher.
The flower is usually found on the main branches. Height reaches
1,5-3 meters, provided that the plant is constantly maintained
and curls..

The tomato is a rather whimsical plant. Loves space, warmth (temperature
about 25 degrees) and a lot of light. Seeds should be positioned
at a sufficient distance from each other so that the branches can break through,
without interfering with each other[7,11]… Free air circulation
necessary for the full growth of tomato, as well as warm soil.
Adequate moisture is also very important. The best time for
planting – late spring and earlier summer, but seed preparation begins
already at the end of January by heating and processing. In the first half
seeds are planted in February, and seedlings appear in March..
You can grow a tomato in the ground, in a greenhouse or in pots, in an inverted
form. The latter method is convenient where there is little space or infertile
the soil..

How to determine nitrates in tomato

Selection and storage

Ripe tomatoes have a fairly rich aroma. If the smell
no, the tomatoes were most likely harvested unripe. The peduncle must
be small. When choosing tomatoes, you need to pay attention to
smoothness of the skin, no cracks, spots or bumps..

Fully ripe tomato is soft and springy, but stop on it
your choice is possible only if it is immediately used.
An overripe tomato is always good for sauces and soups. Healthy
the fruit is thin, and the flesh is uniform.

If white thin streaks are visible in the pulp, white
spots in the core, and he himself is “plastic” to the touch – which means that
tomato has nitrates..

The storage conditions of a tomato directly depend on how much
ripe. Room temperature will speed up the ripening process. Therefore,
if you want the tomato to ripen, feel free to leave it warm.
Ripe tomatoes are best stored at around 12 degrees
Celsius. At this temperature, the tomato will stop ripening, but
and will not lose its taste and useful properties..

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Anna Evans

Author ✓ Farmer

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